Tu Long (1541-1605) Ming Dynasty dramatist and writer. The name is Changqing and Weizhen, and the name is Chishui. The nickname is from Quanshanren, Yiku Taoist, Penglai Cyclamen, and Hongbao Jushi in his later years. A native of Yin County (now in Zhejiang). "There are strange talents", he made his debut earlier than Tang Xianzu, and he was so talented. "Taste the drama and order the two people to deal with two questions about the case, each with a hundred rhymes, two chapters between duo, and others, reciting poems orally, and ordering people to read books, but the books can't be read." ("Ming History (明史)")

Jinshi in the fifth year of Wanli (1577), once served as the county magistrate of Yingshang, was transferred to Qingpu Order, and later moved to the head of the Ministry of Rites and a doctor. Being an official and upright, caring about the crippled people. Wrote "A Research on Famine Policy", which wrote about the sufferings of the people in disasters and sufferings, "to tell the world and hinder the future". In the twelfth year of Wanli (1584), he was framed by a villain because of his "prostitution" and was dismissed from office. Tu Long is unrestrained and hospitable, indulges in poetry and wine, and has many friends from domestic celebrities. In his later years, he traveled between Wu and Yue, searched for mountains and visited Taoism, talked about mystery, and lived by selling essays, and died haggardly.

Poetry and essays include 20 volumes of "Baiyu Ji (白榆集)", 23 volumes of "Youquan Ji (由拳集)", and "Hongbao (鸿苞)", "Remains of the Examination Pan (考盘余事)", "You Gu Ya Bian (游具雅编)", "Xianxiang Pairs (缥湘对类)" , "Selected Notes of Hanmo (翰墨选注)", "Juwen (鉅文)", etc., "The Four Treasures (四库总目)" is also a Gongqu, authored "Even Flower Ji (昙花记)", "Xiuwen Ji (修文记)", "Caihao Ji (彩毫记)" each, "Qulu (曲录)" and biography.

Talented scholars were born in the Ming Dynasty, and all talented scholars are romantic, and Tu is the most typical one. His romantic style is quite extraordinary, beyond the reach of ordinary literati. There is a story widely circulated in the market. In the thirty-third year of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty (1605), Tang Xianzu wrote a set of seven poems, ten poems in total, and sent them to his friend—Tu Long who was in illness when he was sick. Tu Long debuted earlier than Tang Xianzu, talented, but romantic. Tang Xianzu’s poem is titled "Changqing Suffering from Suffering, Broken Muscles and Bone Segments, and the Pain Is Unbearable." The teaching order to recite Avalokitesvara will be fixed a little bit, and the ten must be sent to the play." The so-called "sentimental ulcer" was the elegant name for "syphilis" at that time. Tang Xianzu's "Ten Dramas", from the poem's slightly ridiculous meaning, venereal disease was a common disease in society at that time. Tu Long suffered from syphilis, but like the cold and flu, Tang was neither surprised nor surprised. Tu Changqing was out of style, and his sex life was too erosive, so that he died in the end. He opened the record of the death of a Chinese literati from sexually transmitted diseases.


Seven-character cursive poetry

Reference materials:

Tu Long: China's only romantic talent who died of Qingji's sore


First :


In the thirty-third year of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty (1605), before Yisi, Tang Xianzu wrote a set of Qijue, a total of ten poems, and sent it to his friend, Tu Long, who was ill at the time. Talented scholars were born in the Ming Dynasty, and all talented scholars are romantic, and Tu is the most typical one. His romantic style is quite extraordinary, beyond the reach of ordinary literati.

Tu Long (1543-1605), the word Weizhen, the word Changqing, was born in Yin County, Zhejiang. "There are strange talents", Jinshi in the fifth year of Wanli, director of the official to the Ministry of Rites. He made his debut earlier than Tang Xianzu, and he was very talented. It is said that he "written thousands of words and settled down", "the poems were casual, and he counted papers. Taste the drama and order the two of them to make two questions about the case, each with a hundred rhymes, between the two. The two chapters were combined, and they played against others, reciting poems orally, and ordering people to read books, but the books can’t be read.” ("Ming History")

In the history of Chinese literature, Tang Xianzu and Tu Long appeared as playwrights.

However, today, there are still people who know the soup, but there are very few who know the butcher. There is no alternative. Literature must stand the test of a long time before it can be called truly immortal. But during the Wanli period, Tu Changqing's reputation was probably stronger than that of Tang Xianzu; Tu Changqing's dramas were also more popular than Tang Xianzu.

Because Tu Changqing not only writes dramas, but also acts. There are drama troupes at home, he spends money on hiring famous actors, and from time to time he appears on the stage, making guest appearances and accumulating rich stage experience. He wrote dramas advocating "needle and thread connection, blood circulation", "no secret knowledge, difficult words", and even composed the whole drama without a single song, using guest speakers to perform, similar to modern drama scripts, everyone can understand it. very popular. It seems that he writes plays, is well versed in screenwriting skills, understands the tastes of the audience, and several legends, such as "Emperor Flower", "Xiu Wen Ji", "Cai Hao Ji", have "traveled in the world" and are famous in the capital. As a result, "famous" came up. (See "History of Ming Dynasty")

Tang's play, focusing on the essence of writing and pursuing perfection, is very different from Tu's play in style and interest. Although it is a literati drama, no matter it is elegant or classic, concise or rich, although the song is high, it is not easy to understand, it is elegant and popular, and it also has good box office value. His "The Peony Pavilion" and "The Story of Handan" are mostly embellished with Tang poetry, and they are in line with their own handwriting, which makes readers and audiences fascinated by them. Not only at that time, the "Jinghua Mancheng said "Surprised Dreams"" has been performing vigorously for hundreds of years. I really don't know how many tears I have made in the world of idiotic men and women.

In the Ming Dynasty, Shen Defu said in "Wanli Yehuo": "When Tang Yi still "The Dream of Peony Pavilion" came out, it was recited by his family, and the price of "West Chamber" was reduced a few times." This is not an exaggeration; Affirming his talents, he also pointed out the minor flaws in the play itself: "Nai is not familiar with music scores, and uses many rhymes, but his talent is self-sufficient and immortal." This is a flaw in the beauty of the poet's play, and I am afraid it is also Tang vs. Tu's. This is because of a connoisseur of screenwriters and a respectful attitude. There is a difference between writing dramas that can act, and writing dramas that can’t act. Shakespeare, who was once a third-rate actor in a theater company, ran through the troupe, and Hugh looked down on this. It is this practical experience of the stage that makes the plays he writes always hold the audience's hearts tightly.

Tu was slightly better than Tang at the time, based on this professional advantage that was almost a professional background. However, what Shen Defu said of Tang's "talent and self-sufficiency and immortality" is Tang's charm that can be far better than Tu after hundreds of years. Literature, a thing of a moment, cannot be determined for a lifetime. Only after a long period of elimination can we know whether it has long-lasting vitality. Short-term writers who have made a big fuss, the works of an instant bubble, like a second kick, like a monkey in the sky, the effect of an instant, the shit soon disappeared, and the smoke disappeared. It’s too late for the rest of my life. In the past few decades, the so-called new era of literature, how much scream, let us open our eyes? But now, those shit makers seem to have evaporated from the world, and they can't be found with a lantern.

However, the scene returned four hundred years ago, at the time of Wanli, but Tu Changqing was a real hot figure.

First, he has a lot of friends, second, he has many gossips, and third, there are often disputes that follow his ass. Therefore, he is a romantic talent who constantly makes headlines in officialdom, in the literary world, in the entertainment circle, and in pornographic occasions. And the most diverse and sensational big joke was the "Uncovered Conference" that he single-handedly planned during the Mid-Autumn Festival of the 30th year of Wanli.

Three years after the trouble, he died. Therefore, this meeting is also his last performance before the end of his life.

The whim of Tu Long, the fanfare, the shocking, and the ridiculously sudden steps are indeed unprecedented. The fold invitation invited the famous corners of the Chrysanthemum altar, and the scholars of Wenlin were kindly invited to meet the old and new loves on a special trip. The soft sedan chair brought the fragrant female stream to gather at the adjacent Xiaotai of Wushi Mountain for three days and three nights. Oh, my goodness, everyone thinks Mr. Tu is crazy. He can be regarded as a master of trouble, and he is methodical and methodical to carry out the meeting to the end. This year, when he was fifty-nine years old, he would soon become a big one. The Chinese are accustomed to doing nine but not ten. Naturally, it is his birthday celebration. As a result, boats, boats and horses are in an endless stream. The scale of the scene, the number of programs, the thoughtful hospitality, and the richness of the banquet made me admire Tu Changqing's great skill.

The term "uncovered meeting" originally came out of Buddhist scriptures and has the meaning of a free forum. But this meeting, in the final analysis, was a super meeting for Mr. Tu to spend money to make yells and make himself happy. Therefore, there is only one theme, watching Tu's dramas, talking about Tu's essays, holding the butcher's field, and cheering on the Tu's favor. Except for the more than seventy people who hold the invitations, the rest are uninvited, come here in admiration, join in the fun, and Tibet has something to hope to come, as well as those who have to come to show their own existence. All are big rafter masters, celebrities, high-ranking celebrities, sorrows, inexperienced people, and handsome talents. Together, there are always hundreds of people. Chinese people know the rules of acting on the scene best. Everyone is Amitabha, vomiting lotus flowers, holding the slaughter to the birth of one Buddha, two Buddhas, dancing with hands and feet, and the soul is scattered. What is called great happiness, great indulgence, great joy, Datongtai, and reaching death. The state of no regrets.

Politicians are afraid of being confused, and even more afraid of being confused. Literary scholars are afraid of being unconscious, especially afraid of becoming unconscious as they get older. Some old seniors, old comrades, old writers, and old friends suddenly made a very unconscious fame.

The news reached Tang Xianzu, who was "coops in the hog ring, visiting the house, chanting songs by Xiao Xian, and admiring contentment." Mr. Yizhen, the "poor old man, was also stunned and shook his head." Although you are ashamed, you can't help but sigh, sir, you can really make trouble! Although Tu and Tang were both born in jinshi, they were also appointed as prefects of other provinces and counties, and were also expelled from the state apparatus. However, no matter what they are, no matter how they act, they are self-respectful and upright and self-preserving Tang Xianzu, and he is indulgence. Compared with the mad and willful Tu Changqing, he has a different way of life, and has a very different attitude and philosophy of life.

In those few days, at the foot of Wushi Mountain, on the stage next to the sky, the literati and bachelors who sang harmony, the ladies and the ladies who were good friends, the monks and the heroes who helped the fun, the handsome prostitutes and the handsome boys who helped, surrounded this like stars holding the moon. The eldest brother talked loudly, chanted poems and painted, listened to music and drinks, watched opera essays, cried and screamed, went out and sang, rode and shook, sang in a low voice, all the tossing, turned out to be an alternative carnival event in the literary world. Neighbors were disturbed, up and down were alarmed, the government was wary, and the state and counties were on guard. Even Tang Xianzu, who was far away in Linchuan, Jiangxi, could not figure out why his friend had come.

But if you want to get into Tu Long's inner world, maybe you can't bear harshness.

Of course he cannot know himself. There will be a thousand days, and three years later, he will be sorrowful, but he cannot fail to understand that what he was suffering from was absolutely incurable in the Ming Dynasty, and it was motivating him day by day. Closer to death. Therefore, Tu Changqing, who loves to grab the camera, show the limelight, love to make a lot of noise, needs this kind of spiritual opium to give him a strong excitement. Generally speaking, all the warm applause, the words of support, the flattering smile, the sweet flattery, to the needy, will play the excitement of Viagra or Ecstasy.

Therefore, when he held this "uncovered conference", he must have a premonition that there are not many hardships, and he will use his own strength and capital to make a farewell ceremony in the limited days. Hold a memorial service by yourself, so as to avoid a dress rehearsal that is regrettable after you die.

This good intention is that Tang Xianzu, a pure literati, does not fully understand Tu Changqing, who is not only a literati, but also a literary activist. Tang should understand that a poor man who has been tossing about it all his life will be more sad than death once he is dead and there is no sound around him.

The word "Xi" in "Xi Zhi Shi Jue" shows that Tang didn't take Tu's condition too seriously. "A half-sheet of scholarly favors" is to a large extent an elegant act of literati's reward. However, Tubing was really serious, and its level of danger was unexpected.

Some days later in the year, bad news came, and his friend who died of illness finally died in suffering and dirty sickness.

Second :

I also count Tu Long as a Chinese literati who died abnormally, because he was looking for death on his own.

Tang Xianzu’s poem is titled "Changqing Suffering from Suffering, Broken Muscles and Bone Segments, and the Pain Is Unbearable." The teaching order to recite Avalokitesvara will be fixed a little bit, and the ten must be sent to the play." The so-called "sentimental ulcer" was the elegant name for "syphilis" at that time. You pin your feelings to the bitch, and the bitch transfers Treponema pallidum to you. This talented man who died of venereal disease has an extraordinary level of romance, you say, can it be impressive?

Throughout the ages, there have been countless literati in China, but he was the only one who died of syphilis.

In modern medicine, the scientific name of syphilis is "system disease caused by treponema pallidum", that is, "syphilis". Tu’s syphilis has reached the third stage of attack. Under today’s medical conditions, there may be salvation, but in the Ming Dynasty, he had no choice but to suffer severe pain and co-administration disorders. From the necrosis and erosion of facial organs to exhaustion. Up to the lamp oil.

There is nothing more terrifying than this.

According to the history of Western medicine, the case of syphilis was only recorded in the literature after Columbus returned from the New World. However, some people believe that before 150 AD, many cases of leprosy in Europe were actually syphilis in view of the effective nature of contact, transmission, genetics, and mercury preparations. The Chinese used to call this type of venereal disease "Yangmei Bore", "Yang", or "Yang", which may be an error of the word "foreign", and it is probably also an external infectious disease.

The middle and late Ming dynasty was an era of lustful winds. According to Ming Xie Zhaomao's "Five Miscellaneous People": "Today's prostitutes are all over the world, and the metropolitan area has thousands of people. At this point, you can also take pity. In the two capitals, the officials charge their taxes, which is called the powder money. Those who are under the jurisdiction of the county are the happy households. At the beginning of Xuande there was a ban, and the gentry and gentry did not care about the house. Therefore, although they are extinct in the public court, they often fill in the house. There are also those who are not affiliated with the official, but sell the traitor. There are too many."

As long as there are prostitutes who make a living in prostitution, as long as there are industries and occasions for sex transactions, the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases will definitely become a social hazard. In the novel "Yama Street" by the Russian writer Kuplin, we see that the Russian authorities conduct regular sanitation inspections on prostitutes and brothels. Although, to a large extent it is pretentious. But at least in the West after the 18th century, even if it went through the scene, it still wanted to control the spread of STDs. But in China, even in the Qing Dynasty, and in the Republic of China, no similar measures to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases were seen in the obscene novels of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly and Xia Xie.

Therefore, in Tang Xianzu's "Ten Dramas", from the poem's slightly ridiculous meaning, venereal diseases were common diseases in society at that time. Tu Long suffered from syphilis, but like the cold and flu, Tang was neither surprised nor thought it was strange. It was a very common and common disease. It is estimated that in the Ming Dynasty in the 15th century, the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases was an inevitable phenomenon in that fornicating society. Bao Zhitu Changqing was out of style, and his sex life was too corrosive, so he was eventually dead. He first opened the record of the death of Chinese scholars from venereal diseases.

Ling Chu, who wrote "The Surprise", once described the psychological state of the Chinese in the 15th and 16th centuries: "In modern times, the people have lost their lusts." In fact, the obscenity of folk customs was driven by emperors, officials, and bureaucrats in the entire state apparatus, coupled with the flourishing of merchant consumption, and the prominence of literati. Formed this kind of end-century obscene trend of universal participation.

If you can go through the time tunnel and return to the Wanli period, then Beijing, Nanjing, or even big and small cities, brothels and prostitutes, flooded the city, goddess and prostitutes, seducing sex, love potions, secret recipes, popular, obscene objects Maker, publicly traded. And in the market towns, teahouses and restaurants, the way of the imperial girl, the tricks in the room, the obscene text, and the erotic pictures are even more grandiose. Therefore, in fact, the whole society has reached the ground of no shame about licentiousness.

There is no need to make a fuss about talents like Tu Long, who attract prostitutes, sleep in flowers and willows, pingkang, provoke bees and provoke butterflies, and get sick. However, it is unbelievable to have a venereal disease. Speaking of today, a certain writer contracted gonorrhea white turbidity from an escort lady, and at most he posted a small advertisement on a telephone pole. He asked a quasi-hero to treat it in private, and he was never willing to make a big deal. In any case, this is not a matter of reputation. But in the Ming Dynasty, it was regarded as romantic, not only did not feel embarrassed, did not think it was such a difficult topic, but also wrote it in poems grandiosely.

Tang Xianzu, the playwright who died the same year as Shakespeare, thinks this is romantic, not ugly.

The ethos, once formed, will influence society and people's consciousness, and writers are no exception. I can't remember which one of the three Yuans of the Public Security Bureau thought it was necessary for prostitutes to provide spiritual and physical satisfaction to those who left their homes, and it was plausible and justified to argue for it. This is what a generation says, and a generation of writers writes a generation of works. Now look back at the last century we have personally experienced, the attempts in the 1920s, the expansion in the 1930s, the ups and downs in the 1940s, the panic in the 1950s, the hypocrisy in the 1960s, and the hypocrisy in the 1970s. In the words of the writer, the general pulse and basic appearance of that era can be roughly figured out.

Therefore, in the middle and late periods of the Ming Dynasty, the literati's carelessness is not flattering. The opera artist Ho Yuen Long can take off the embroidered shoes of the prostitute queen Sai Yu on the spot and use them as cup holders for drinking. During the banquet, he smells his feet first, then tastes the aroma of the wine, and strikes his fists. This perverted fetish is almost down. do. The great literati Wang Shizhen also wrote long poems to remember his prosperity. Regarding fornication as romantic, absurdity as seriousness, shamelessness as chic, and low-level taste as noble action, this is the style of that era.

Therefore, in the 11th and February of Jiashen in the 12th year of Wanli (1584), Tang Xianzu’s long poem, "Mr. Dai Siming and Asking Tu Changqing", directly wrote about his friend’s private life and confessed his male and female sexual partners. No scruples: Tu Changqing, the pearl of Chishui, returned to the hometown after the storm. Is there any demon girl's interpretation posture? Are there any cunning children's interpretation of poems? Folding teeth on the side of the machine would rather be filthy, but it is absolutely idiotic to be picky in the painting. In ancient times, talents were spoiled and chanted directly from songs. Although it is not praise or praise to Tu this kind of sensuality with the same sex and the opposite sex, there is no accusation or disapproval. I am afraid that the atmosphere of the times makes it sound.

In the following year, in March Yiyou, in the poem "Send Zang Jinshu Uncle to the Lake, Tang Renqing used to talk about Taoism, and passed on the same day, and sent to Tu Changqing outside the river", Tang Xianzu wrote: The monarch is like water and city, straight for Wind and smoke can fill paper. Changqing once mistaken Song Donglin, Jin Shu pity Zhou Xiaoshi. Since ancient times, flying hairpins have said that they are good friends. Late night rain is suitable for the endgame, Asakusa spring breeze smashes the ball. This poem simply beautifies the two talents who were lost because of Longyang's habit of breaking their sleeves. Uncle Zang Jin, a dramatist, his compilation of "Selected Songs of the Yuan Dynasty" is still a classic for the study of Zaju of the Yuan Dynasty. According to Mr. Xu Shuofang’s "Complete Works of Tang Xianzu", "Zang Maoxun is a native of Jin Shu, a native of Changxing, and a doctor of the Imperial College of Nanjing. Every game must be played with a chess game, tied to the back of the car, and with his favorite Xiao Shi in a red dress, and the horse goes out of the Fengtai. The door, the Chinese and Belarusian Jane is dismissed from office." This "history" is his sexual "comrade".

And "Changqing mistaken Song Dongnei" is a romantic lawsuit that Tu Longda is famous for. When this talented person was the head of the Ministry of Rites, he was probably a "comrade" with Xining Hou Song Shien. At the same time, Tu Long had an affair with Song's concubine Ji, presumptuous, unruly, filthy and messy, causing trouble in the city, and was impeached, indulged in licentiousness, and deprived of his status. This was last year. This year, Uncle Zang Jin was demoted for eroticism and returned to his hometown. Therefore, in the poem to see off, Tang Xianzu revisited the old things and talked about them together. Judging from the poem "Does an official reduce romance", Tang's scandal of these two friends is definitely regarded as a kind of noble romance, and he believes that even if he loses his official position, he must be romantic. That is worthy of recognition.

Therefore, before Tu Long's death, Tang Xianzu wrote ten poems of condolences. The title of the poem mentioned that he was suffering from "the ulcer of sentiment", without any concealment or avoidance. In that age when there was no shame in fornication, the ugliness and the good were all reversed. Even if the syphilis he was suffering from was revealed, he would not mean to slander a friend. A gifted man at that time had a red bayberry sore and a rotten nose. Not only was it harmless to his character and morals, but on the contrary, he was regarded as a decent and glorious love affair, as a good talk!

In this extreme decadence at the end of the century, can the world be saved? "History of Ming Dynasty" said: "The death of the Ming, the actual death of Wanli", it seems that this is really accurate.

At this point, I can't help thinking of "Jin Ping Mei", which should be a novel that appeared during the Jiajing period and prevailed during the Wanli period. It is also a product of this ethos, which fully demonstrates the prostitious characteristics of that era. The incognito literary master still doesn’t know who it is. There are at least forty kinds of inferred Lanling Xiaoxiaosheng. In the works, he depicts thirty-six capitals, thirty-six small depictions, and three in a stroke. Thirteen locations. I guess that this master's state of excitement, impulsiveness, harazes, and a lot of blood congestion in certain parts is quite "post-Ming Dynasty". Similarly, he didn't feel anything wrong at all, nor did he feel any guilty guiltyness of fornication. He talked about it happily, and its infinite spiritual level was definitely "post-Ming Dynasty". There is no post-Ming Dynasty, there is no "Jin Ping Mei"; there is no "Jin Ping Mei", and there is no endless obscene works. Lanling Xiaoxiaosheng has his own blaming points for his fanatical writing, but the ethos of that era, the disorder and inverted thoughts of that era, cannot be blamed.

"Jin Ping Mei" at least has its immortal value, as Lu Xun said in "A Brief History of Chinese Novels": "Although the author of "Jin Ping Mei" is capable of writing, although there are mixed words, other good things are at ease. As for the last, it is written deliberately. , Specializing in sexual intercourse, the more common it is, if there is madness.” Therefore, this kind of literary turbidity that started from "Jin Ping Mei" until the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, and the end of the Ming Dynasty flooded all corners of the society. Yinfeng is inseparable.

What kind of literature is produced in any era, this is not bad at all.

Now, with the exception of Chinese literary historians and Chinese opera historians, most readers have paid little attention to Tu Long, the playwright of the Ming Dynasty. who is he? What did he write? What influence and value does his legendary drama have? It's all trivial things. But he was a Chinese literati who died of syphilis, and the relationship between him and the fierce lust of that era, and the turbidity of literature that followed, is worthy of future generations to ponder.

Writers, works, times, and ethos are, in the final analysis, an inseparable whole.

Therefore, you don’t see the current situation of the crotch literature of the past ten years, is it not worth thinking about this kind of literary phenomenon? (Li Guowen)

This article is an excerpt from the book "The Living Methods of Chinese Literati", published by People's Literature Publishing House.

The history of the Ming Dynasty contains Tu Long with the name Changqing and Weiqi with the name Chishui, a native of Yinxian. Years of birth and death are unknown, and about the Ming Shenzong Wanli lived 20 years ago. Cite the five years of Wanli (AD 1577) Jinshi. In addition to Yingshang Prefecture. Tune in Qingpu, invite celebrities to drink and compose poems while watching, and travel around Jiufeng Sanjiao without abandoning affairs. The head of the relocation department, and Xining Hou Laishi grace very well. Yu Xianqing, the principal of the Criminal Department, used private regrets to slander Long Shien. Longgui, Daoqingpu, the elders are gathering thousands of acres of land, please live in solitude. Long should not drink, and left for three days. Guiyi puts love to poetry and wine, the family is poor, and sells essays for living. Long has talents, and he can write a thousand words. Taste the drama ordered the two to answer two questions on the case, each with a hundred rhymes, and between the two chapters. In contrast to Yi, reciting poems orally, and ordering people to write, the book is not enough to recite. Poetry and essays include 20 volumes of "Baiyu Ji", 23 volumes of "Youquan Ji", and "Hongbao", "Remains of the Examination Pan", "You Gu Ya Bian", "Xianxiang Pairs" , "Selected Notes of Hanmo", "Juwen", etc., "The Four Treasures" is also a Gongqu, authored "Even Flower Ji", "Xiuwen Ji", "Caihao Ji" each, "Qulu" and biography Yu Shi.

No one sees the end of the song-Tu Long and his "Ephemera"

Author: Fei Zhenzhong "Book House" 2000 Issue Seven

His people and his affairs were 12 years old in Wanli, and he was in Jiashen at the age of 12 years. -Dao Lun Shu, sent to the young Wanli Emperor. It was Yu Xianqing, the principal of the Ministry of Criminal Affairs, whose purpose was to discuss Tu Long, the principal of the Ministry of Rites. Shuzhong alleged that Tu Long was obscene, saying that he was "the Cuiguan waiting gate, the brothel and the mans office". Not only did his words be disrespectful, but also the lingering language involved Xunqi's boudoir. Wanli was extremely annoyed after seeing it, and he not only confided Tu Long. Reprimanded, together with Yu Xianqing, who was in Shangshu, was also cut. At this time, Tu Long was transferred from the county magistrate to the capital for more than a year, while Yu Xianqing was only a few months after being appointed as an official.

This controversy incident will not have any impact in the capital. Neither Tu Long nor Yu Xianqing are little six-rank civilian officials, and their dismissal has absolutely no relation to the political situation. As far as the two parties concerned, they seem to be out of luck. Two years after Zhang Juzheng's death and Emperor Wanli still had political affairs, if a few years later, Emperor Wanli would hate government affairs. They would not bother to take care of such trivial matters. It will not hurt both sides. The public opinion at that time seemed to be a bit inclined to Tu Long, because Yu Xianqing's controversy was entirely private revenge.

Before Yu Xianqing was awarded a scholarship, he was a member of Songjiang Juren. At that time, Tu Long was also a county magistrate in Qingpu, Songjiang. Yu had something to do with Tu Long. Perhaps Tu Long’s reputation was too morale, and he didn’t put Yu in his eyes. Quite lightly insulting. Therefore, Yu Xianqing held a grudge against Tu Long. It was not long before that the two of them were officials in the same court. This gave Yu Xianqing an opportunity. The feeling of a villain was originally a must-reported person. Therefore, Yu Yi was the first to think of the Ministry of Criminal Affairs. It is to fight Tu Long. Originally, the correction officer was to monitor the censorship or the affairs within the scope of their duties, but Yu Gu was embarrassed and immediately wanted to use the emperor's authority to put Tu Long in ruin.

If this is just "exhibition of talents fighting for leisure," there will be not much insight, and it will not have an important impact on Tu Long's future life. But in the Ming Dynasty, the situation was quite special. It was an era of moral politics. Moral standards were often used to replace political standards. Contradictions in the civil service system were usually manifested as moral conflicts. This was a characteristic of Ming Dynasty politics. Although Yu Xianqing has been an official of the Criminal Ministry for several months, as a law enforcement officer, he is well aware of the legal power of this kind of moral politics. His attack on Tu Long is that his personal behavior violates the moral ethics that scholar-officials must abide by. This is tantamount to announcing that Tu Long is politically illegal.

It is a pity that while exaggerating Tu Long's moral faults, Yu Xianqing lacked strategy and went too far. She accidentally violated moral and ethical taboos, so she was even unclear and ridiculed. It is true that Yu Xianqing lifted a stone and hit him in the foot, but Tu Long really could not withstand this kind of moral blow. Not only did he lose his political future, he could no longer cheer up all his life, but also because of the mental burden left to him by this blow. Very heavy, Tu Long has been in the shadow of a kind of morality. Perhaps, when he later recalled the past, he could not entirely blame the villain Yu Xianqing's revenge, but to actively review and reflect on his past behavior.

Like the easiest literati at that time, Tu Long lived an extremely relaxed life as a celebrity in Qingpu. In fact, all the records about him being an official and being loved by the people show that Tu Long conforms to the principle of sincerity and righteousness of scholar-officials, benevolence and love for things. However, Tu Long is a very talented literati and not just a good official, even though Qingpu The people of Xiaomin agreed that they had been blessed by him for several years, but they did not understand the real life attitude and thoughts of this "Ming Mansion". Just as Tu Long wrote in "Chronicles of Qingxi" that he left his post and went to Beijing that year, hundreds of Qingpu scholars followed and sent off to Taicang. When he was moved, he said to the sender: "I have no status in the town, so how can I get this?" Tu Long is telling the truth. Of course, "no status" refers to his personal behavior outside of official duties, or his pursuit A kind of personal life that has nothing to do with being an official.

According to the narratives of some unofficial historical materials, although Tu Long's life in Qingpu was not necessarily indiscriminate, it was not just singing with the local literati, poetry and wine. He has a high reputation, but he likes to interact with voice actors and actresses, conquer singing and dancing, and even hesitate to be among them, to enjoy the sensual pleasures of life in the world. This kind of behavior beyond the general rules of etiquette and law has become a common practice in the literati class, but for Tu Long it still means the sinking of personal temperament and secular desires.

After moving from Ying to Qingpu, Jiangnan, until he left in the early winter of the tenth year of Wanli, in just five or six years, Tu Long's most proud and liveliest thing in this gentle village may really be counted in the opera. At that time, the graceful and charming Kunqu opera had already occupied the workshops and courtyards of Jinshen. Qingpu and Kunshan were connected by the same water. It should be the most prosperous place for Kunqu opera performances. Listening to music is an important part of Tulong’s daily life; not only listening, but also To compile a legend, Tu Long’s talent is also a matter of responsibility. "The Story of Purple Hao" is the work of that time. According to the same generation, the protagonist in this legend, Li Taibai, Qinglian, is the author’s own situation; not only editing, He also has to play a role, "every theater is not in the middle of the crowd", probably Tu Long too likes to show off his artistic talents in Chinese opera, so he often takes off official clothes and pretends to be an actress. Such a hobby, if only in the south of the Yangtze River, would be a romantic magistrate at best, but Tu Long brought his hobby to the capital a few years later, it would have to arouse Shilin's attention.

Tu Long, the head of the Ministry of Rites, has not been in the capital for a long time, and he has repeatedly appeared in the private halls of high-ranking officials. He was originally a talented person. Who knows that his impromptu performance has attracted the attention and interest of a marquise. She is the wife of the tenth generation of Xining Hou Song Shi'en. The young wife is talented and talented, and she is good at opera music. Whenever Tu Long plays a play, Mrs. Song always sits behind the curtain and enjoys it. Sometimes she takes a break to give Tu Long a cup of fragrant tea to express her concern and admiration for him. Due to the special status of the marquise, this relationship between them was somewhat warm and ambiguous in the atmosphere of the time.

It cannot be said that there is no love between them—a gifted person and a talented girl, but this kind of mutual understanding based on art may not necessarily be expressed as a private relationship between men and women. They may be innocent. However, the situation in the world is fierce. People like Tu Long were originally the romantic figures in the circle of scholar-officials. What's more, the other party is a distinguished and beautiful woman in the deep house of Hou Men. All kinds of guesses and conjectures appeared in the mouth of people like Yu Xianqing. It is to be expected.

Tu Long has not publicly explained or argued for this. Perhaps with his character and attitude towards life, even in the most praised and criticized place like Beijing, he would not take it to heart. His model Li Bai was once beautiful. The woman Yang Guifei wrote the lyrics, and Yang Fei personally rubbed the ink in front of the emperor. Has there ever been any taboo? Isn’t he the current Li Bai? But this is the Ming Dynasty, and rituals are still the code of conduct that society must abide by. Tu Long may not care about other people's eyes, but Mrs. Hou Song of Xining was slandered and hurt because of this unusual exchange. Some plots have been exaggerated. The scandals about them have been quietly circulated in the upper class and the gentry class. The marquise has gained a reputation for licentiousness, even in the palace.

I don’t know whether Tu Long can still maintain a close relationship with this woman who sacrificed her reputation for art hobbies in this uproar. However, after Yu Xianqing’s argument was made public, Tu Long might not be able to think so. . The twelve years of Wanli's rebuke made it impossible for Tu Long to stay in the capital anymore. He also couldn't have the opportunity to communicate with Mrs. Song on the stage, and enjoy a tea ceremony under the stage. A love affair, a rare fate of art, because the villain was obstructed by it, and because of the majesty of morality and politics, it had to be interrupted. From now on, it is difficult for a confidante to regain it. Tu Long's heart can't tell how much life has been frustrated. Melancholy. How did Tu Long spend the next ten years?

Around the end of the 30th year of Wanli, the scent of Guizi from West Lake in Hangzhou was filled with fragrance. Tu Long, 60, set up a table to entertain a group of friends one night, and during the banquet he asked the vocalists raised in his family to perform the new play he had just written. The title of the new play "Ephemera" is a popular fairy story in form, but the moral of it is even Quyin, and it is difficult to decipher if it is not for someone who knows Tu Long well. At that time, there was a junior in the literary world, Shen Defu, who was an insider of the scandals of Tu Long in Wanli Jiashen Nian and Madam Hou Xining, but he also didn't understand "The Story of Epiphany".

Xiao Shen asked Tu Long’s old friend Feng Kaizhi: Who is Mu Taiqing, the protagonist in Tu Nianbo’s "Ephemeris" song? Feng said, it was Song Xining, and Lao Tu thought that he was tired of Mrs. Song, so he wrote "Emperor of the Flowers". Qu is a confession by Lao Tu. Shen Defu suddenly realized that, in the "Wanli Yehuo Compilation", he wrote a narrative for the beginning and end of "Tan Hua Ji". But did Tu Long repent? If "Ephemera" is really confession for Mrs. Xining Hou, then this can only show that the most memorable and cherished part of Tu Long's life is precisely the artistic emotion between him and an artistic woman, so it is not so much that Tu Long is In confession, it is better to say that he is infatuated, and no one is seen at the end of the song, but the distant capital city has a pair of still young and beautiful eyes watching him, which makes Tu Long in his old age even more addicted.