"Ritual stele" trial guide
"Stele of Ritual Devices" is a representative work in the mature period of the official script of the Eastern Han Dynasty. It is relatively standardized in the Han script and is one of the best models for learning the official script.
The full name of "Stele of Ritual Vessels" is "The Monument of Confucian Vessels made by Han Luxiang Han Emperor", and the "Stele of Han Emperor" and "The Monument of Confucianism Built by Han Ming Mansion" were carved in the second year of Yongshou (AD 156) of Emperor Heng of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Originally located in Lu County (now Qufu, Jining, Shandong) Confucian Temple Dacheng Hall Yueyu. According to the records of King Chang of the Qing Dynasty, "The stele is seven feet one inch high and three feet two inches wide, with 16 lines in the main body of the stele and 36 characters in full lines; 3 columns in the stele and 17 rows in the right side of the stele; 4 columns and 4 rows in the right side. ; 3 columns on the left, 4 rows in column. The inscription describes the decoration of the Confucian temple and the making of ritual vessels by Lu Sang and Han Emperor. The inscription and both sides of the monument are engraved with the name of the person who funded the monument and the amount of money. The inscription is complete. It is important for the study of Han Li art material.
1. Artistic style
The calligraphy of "Stele of Ceremonial Vessels" is thin and generous, and the strokes are vigorous, and the end of the pen is pointed with the force of the pen. It is as sharp as a general. Its structure is placed on the side of Pingzhengzhong, and it is enclosed within the two tightly-contained Shuxiu. It has always been regarded as the extreme rule of the official script.
Wang Shu of Qing Dynasty commented on this stele in "Xu Zhou Ti Postscript", saying: "The official law is based on the Han Dynasty. Each stele has a uniqueness, and there is no the same thing. This stele is the most amazing, thin as iron, and changes like dragons. It’s a strange word, no clues.” And said: “Han Chi is not beautiful and unprepared. It thinks it is super but it is strong, and it thinks it is strong, but it is suffocating. It has its own division, and there is no such a superb monument. By."
The line texture of "The Stele of Ceremonial Vessels" is different from other official scripts of the Eastern Han Dynasty, such as "Zhang Qianshi" and "Cao Quan Stele". It belongs to the road that is fair and dignified, handsome and broad. Some of the inscriptions in the inscription are as thin as hair and painted with silver hooks, which are strong and strong; some are as thick as a brush, but with agile rhyme and not stiff. Despite the ups and downs of the lines, the whole article seems to be harmonious and very successful in expressing the sense of power. Therefore, you can choose a more flexible Jianhao pen for the temporary study of "Ritual Devices Stele", focusing on practicing pen power.
The strokes should be thin and not slender, while the bobbin has a thicker tip than other strokes, and there is a slight pause before the end of the stroke. With the slightest elasticity of the stroke, it is quickly stirred up to make the strokes fly, fresh and vigorous. The "Swallowtail" paintings are mostly square in shape and have a relatively large proportion, making them look majestic and majestic.
in addition. This stele is divided into four sides, which are divided into stele yang and stele yin. The part of the stele is dignified, and the arrangement of the chapters is relatively regular. It is a representative of the style of "Stele of Rites", so the hand should start from the stele. But from an artistic point of view, the Yin of the stele also has its unique value. The pen is unrestrained and elegant, it is naturally interesting, the size of the characters is not uniform, the law of the row is also broken, and the lyricism is extremely strong. In the whole calligraphy, more subjective spirit and temperament of the calligrapher are poured, so the Yin of the tablet is also a temporary study. Can not be ignored.
Two, chapter law and ink color
In the steleyang part of "The Stele of Ceremonial Vessels", the chapters are arranged vertically and horizontally, with wide kerning and dense line spacing. This constitution fully demonstrates the overall characteristics of harmony, dignity and beauty. The Yin part of the stele is often ordered vertically and horizontally without columns, with a certain spacing between rows, uneven kerning, and a sense of fluidity. The whole story is naturally agile and full of life.
During the trial of "Ritual Vessel Stele", you can pay attention to a little change in the treatment of ink. Generally, when writing a square pen, the ink color should be moisturized and not dull. Pay attention to the interrelationship of the lines: thick lines occupy a more important position, as the main pen of the entire character, with more concentrated power, and the use of ink is heavier; while thin lines are in a secondary position, and ink is used lightly. If we want to write a line that is inserted into the paper with a square pen, and there is not enough ink at the end of the pen at this time, then we might as well use a round pen into the paper to copy this line. Although as a copy of this line, the original appearance is lost due to the change of the pen, from the inscription to the ink calligraphy, the loss of the shape of the whole character has been supplemented in strength, which does not contradict the so-called "lost" in calligraphy. The principle of "Shaping takes on God". In the temporary study of "Ritual Vessel Stele", we should first focus on the organic whole composed of thick and thin lines, and keep the strength of the words.
3. Precautions for temporary study
1. Read the post carefully. Before studying the "Ritual Tablets", you should read it through to understand its charm, style and characteristics. This is called "reading posts". Special attention should be paid to the difference in style characteristics between stele yang and stele yin. Pay attention to the length, thickness, weight, back, turning, and structure of each character and dot painting. In this way, it is easy to obtain the method during the temporary study, and write the charm of the "ceremonial stele".
2. The lines are quite healthy. The slender lines but the strong sense of strength is a major feature of "The Monument of Ceremonial Vessels". Pay attention to the line arrangement and thickness changes of Yu during the temporary study, find out the commonality, personality and inheritance relationship between characters, and use pen techniques such as lifting, pressing, pausing, and frustration, as well as strokes that are smooth or astringent Time control makes the lines flexible and strengthens the strength.
3. Pay attention to writing skills. From the point of view of brushwork, "Ritual Vessel Stele" is rich in brushwork and uses both squares and rounds. Even with the same square or round pen, there are factors such as differences in virtuality and reality, and different points of contact. Therefore, firstly, choose a brush with a good tip and secondly hold the upper part of the brush so that the brush can be lifted and pressed down, so that the lines form a contrast of lightness and heaviness. Studying this monument can better exercise the ability to use the house. In addition, the lines and the body are important, but it is more important to understand the spirit of the stele, feel its spirit, and strive to write the characters upright but not rigidly, with a beautiful posture, sparse and elegant, and full of ancient meaning.
4. The characteristics and writing method of stippling in "Stele of Ceremonial Vessels"
The pen used in "The Monument of Ceremonial Vessels" is based on square pens, which is composed and composed. It requires every point of the painting to be delivered to the end, emphasizing the strength of the arm to write, so that the pen can be opened and used with all the strength.
Below, analyze the writing of stippling with an example of a tablet character:
1. Flat painting
For example (Figure 1) the two horizontal paintings on the upper part of "Yuan", "Tian", "Wang" and "Zao" are all flat paintings. When writing a flat painting, the pen is moved backwards, and then the front of the pen is turned to the right, the center of the pen runs in the middle of the stroke, and the front is lifted when the pen is closed. Note that in the "Stele of Ceremonial Vessels", the flat paintings are generally very thin and straight, and the pen is used purely with the tip of the pen and the pen is very clean. When you lift the pen to the right, you should move slowly. It is necessary to hold down the pen to make the line round and strong.
2. Vertical drawing
The writing method of vertical painting is the same as that of horizontal painting, but the direction is changed from horizontal to vertical. For example (Picture 2) Vertical paintings in "Zhong", "Ling", "Jing" and "Hua", when the brush is started, the front is inverted, and there must be no pause at the point of the stroke. The stroke in the middle of the stroke cannot be broken. Mention recycling. Pay attention to the vertical strokes, like a cone drawing sand, very vigorous.
3. Folding method
The writing method of the zigzag painting is to make a flat painting first, then pick up the pen at the turning point to change the front and then press the line pen. In "Ritual Monument", the folding methods are as follows:
(1) Like the word "恩" in (Picture 3), the folding painting is based on the actual force. When the horizontal painting reaches the folding painting, slightly lift the pen and change the direction before writing the vertical painting. Note that the turning pen must be lifted up and down after adjusting the front. Do not turn the pen directly and twist down.
(2) As shown in Figure 3, the word "see", the upper half of the fold-up painting is after the horizontal painting, using the inner hook of the wrist to change the direction of the gesture, which is in harmony with the convexity of the flat painting, and the vertical painting that folds down and down The lower part of the word echoes with each other, making the whole word care about the center and full of change.
(3) For example, the folds of the "mouth" at the bottom of the "stone" in (Picture 3), the folding method is to lift the pen and write the vertical drawing, but there is still the drawing wire of the pen.
(4) As in (Figure 3), the fold painting of "口" at the lower part of the word "言" has been divided into two paintings when writing, but they are broken and connected, which is very charming.
4. Wave painting
In "Stele of Ceremonial Vessels", the wave painting of the characters rises and falls very obviously. Such as (Figure 4) in the words "二", "百", "乐", "世". The wave painting in these characters, enter the pen against the front, fall diagonally to the lower left, and then move the pen to the right, that is, "out of the human". After the middle section, the front of the pen is gradually pressed down, and it moves to the upper right at the end of the wave. Raise the front and close the pen, forming a horizontal wave of "silkworm head and dovetail", with strong and calm pen gestures.
There are more changes in the sketches in "The Ceremonial Monument" than in the wave paintings. There are lengths and weaknesses in the shape and form of human figures, some of them are sharp, and some are not sharp, but the basic method of using the brush is not complicated. The Tibetan front is still going against the trend, but slightly sideways, and the center is against the trend. Those who do not come forward should pause slightly when closing the pen and then lift the pen upwards to recover; for those who come out, turn the pen outwards and pick out after the pen is drawn.
In (picture 5), the stroke of the "big" character turns to retrograde when the vertical drawing reaches a bend, and the end of the stroke is the real return. When the brush is closed, the brush moves clockwise outwards in the air, so that the tip end does not show sharpness, and echoes where the brush is drawn. The writing method of the word "Wen" is that the front of the pen gradually turns against the trend during the process, and stops at the end of the pen and lifts the pen upward. With the word "person", the center forward takes advantage of the trend and picks it out to the lower left when the pen is closed. The stroke of the word "fang" is flattened, and the ending point is similar to that of the word "大".
6. Control method
The writing style of "Nu" is generally heavier in the "Stele of Ceremonial Vessels", which is the main stroke of the character. For example (Figure 6) the words "no", "yi", "heart", and "dao" are all strong and heavy. When you write, let the tip of the pen soak the ink and press the tip of the pen, from light to heavy. When the tip of the pen is in place, pick up the pen and take it out. In "Stele of Ceremonial Vessels", because of the prominent arrangement of this painting, the whole character is peculiar, strange and stable.
The pen method of the hook is basically the same as the writing method of skimming. It should be written in one stroke, such as (Picture 7) "dirty", "kong", "jing", and "shu". Go down the vertical drawing and gradually press down close to the corner, then turn the pen to pick it out and keep the center forward. If you are unable to make a strike, pick up the pen and recycle it to keep the body of the hook in a round shape.
8. Turn pen
The writing method of Zhuanbi is similar to that of Zhuangbi. For example, "Kong", "Yuan", "Zhai", and "Ji" are written in vertical strokes until the strokes of the corners are reversed. The strokes must be kept full and natural.
When studying the "Stele of Ceremonial Vessels", we should pay attention to the changes in the points. Although the points do not account for a large proportion of the whole character, it must not be taken lightly. When writing the pen, Mao Feng must go in backwards, and when the pen is lifted up, the forward direction will vary according to the posture of various stipples.
V. Characteristics of the Ending Characters of "The Stele of Rites
The ceremonial stele is rigorous in style and standardized in writing. Although the strokes are mainly square, they are not all square, sometimes slightly rounded. It can perfectly unite the thickness, squareness, movement and movement of the strokes, and the back and forth. It is pure and powerful, solemn and elegant, ancient and full of fun. It can be said to be a collection of all the old people in Han and Li.
To grasp the characteristics of the formation of the "Ritual Tablet", we must first understand the general laws of the official script. Like most other Han Li stele inscriptions, the "Stele of Ceremonial Vessels" is compact up and down, opening left and right, like a big Peng spreading its wings, fluttering with the momentum of the clouds. Almost every word in the stele has an exaggerated re-pressing stroke, which was commonly called "Boyen" by the ancients. Bo Zeng's writing style is inverted in and flat out, in the shape of "silkworm head and swallowtail". In each word, Bo Zeng only appears once and must not be repeated. The so-called "silkworm has no two sets" and "yan does not fly" are also.
Since the volleyball in the official script is separated to the left and right, most of the characters are oblate, such as "立", "之", "君", "Chi" and so on (Figure 8). However, in the official script, some characters are drawn horizontally, and the fonts are often written in vertical rectangles, such as "painting", "zhen", "education", "tai" in (Figure 9). This requires us to set up the shape of the characters and handle them flexibly.
The words full of strangeness and unique characteristics in the "Stele of Ceremonial Vessels" must be carefully considered one by one. For example, in (Figure 10), the character "Shi" seems to stand alone; the character "Zhong" is like embracing a pillar; the character "Yang" stretches a distance from left to right and pulls each other. The lower part of "Yi" is almost in a horizontal position. Keep balance in danger; the word "food", left and right like a pair of dancers in motion, responds carefully. In Figure 4, the character "Jun" again, the first horizontal stroke and the last horizontal stroke are composed of arcs, and the horizontal or retracted or unfolded strokes are in harmony with the upper and lower strokes. Especially in the Yin part of the stele, the gesture changes are even more violent, and students should be more careful to distinguish and compare.
In addition, the same words like "jun," and "yue" in (picture 11), "bai", "kong" in (picture 12), and "sheng" in (picture 13) are repeated in the same stele When it appears, there is no repetition of the structure of each character, and the stippling of the characters have their own changes, which can not help but admire the writer's skill. No wonder the Qing Dynasty calligrapher Wang Shu said when commenting on this stele: "The book is familiar. Come, naturally change. This monument has no words unchanged. "
In short, in the structural treatment of "Ritual Vessel Stele", whether it is the upper and lower structure, the left and right structure, or the enclosing structure, it can take advantage of the situation, the posture is graceful, and it forms a vital organic whole, without any pretentiousness. At the same time, the thickness of the lines and the space divided form a strong contrast between black and white, light and heavy, giving people a clear sense of rhythm.