Zhang Cao is a new style that appeared in the development of official script. It is a simple cursive method of official script. Therefore, Zhang Cao not only has the characteristics of official script, but also contains elements of cursive script. In terms of form, there are not only cursive scripts, but also official scripts. Of the wave. Some of the main characteristics of Zhangcao, such as discontinuity of characters and distinct strokes, retain some of the characteristics of Lishu strokes.

"Jijiu Zhang (急就章)" is a typical representative of Zhang Cao. "Jijiu Zhang (急就章)" is passed on as the emperor's book. The emperor, the font is clear, the people of Guangling Jiangdu. Official to Qingzhou governor. Famous calligrapher of the Three Kingdoms Wu. Shan eight points, Xiao Zhuan, You Shan Zhang Cao. His cursive script, Cao Buxing's paintings, and Yan Wu's Weiqi are also called "Bajue." "Jijiuzhang" is an ancient literacy textbook, the earliest written by the emperor. Predecessors spoke highly of the calligraphy of the emperor. Tang Zhang Huaijin said: "The official script of the Youjun is in the form of one form, and all characters are different; Xiu Ming Zhang Cao, the same form is one, all characters are the same, and each creates its own extreme." It can be seen that he created a style of calligraphy that "consists of others and forms one", which is of great significance in the history of calligraphy.

In order to better study "Anxiety Chapter", we must first master the artistic characteristics and artistic style of "Quietness Chapter":

1, the middle is in the middle, and it is strange in the middle.

The font structure of "Jijiuzhang (急就章)" is dignified and agile, stable and solemn, with strange posture in the middle, dotted and painted interspersed to avoid each other, and the mood is ready to increase. The glyphs are mainly square and flat, and the pen is short and long, and according to the rectangle or square between the glyphs, pay attention to coordinated changes and echoes and coherence.

2, use the pen calmly and without excitement.

"Jijiuzhang (急就章)" uses a steady brush, combining squares and circles, with straight and angular lines, giving people a rather unyielding strength. The structure is flat and square, and there are few pens for vertical and easy relaxation. The radius of the pen mainly refers to the shape where the pen is drawn and the way the pen runs. The square pen of "Jijiuzhang" has the square strokes of regular script and official script; the round pen has the rounded strokes of seal script and cursive script. For example, round pens should be used for turning points, and square pens should be used for starting pens. The square brush is sharp and sharp, and the expression is overflowing. The combination of square pen and round pen in "Jijiuzhang" is both strong and beautiful. The circle is based on the square, the rounder is more rounded, the square is based on the circle, and the square is more squared.

3, implied clerical meaning, full of ancient interest.

Regarding Zhang Cao, Song Dynasty calligrapher Huang Bosi said: "Every grass is divided into waves, and the name is Zhang Cao. It is not this, but it is called the grass." ("Eastern View of the Remains") The composition and strokes of "Jijiu Zhang" have their own rules. Followable. Generally speaking, although it breaks the frame structure of seal and rigor to a certain extent, it still maintains the posture of a Yi and is very quaint and simple. Particularly, its movement of pen retains some important features of the official script, and the method of using pen in the official script is also retained for the beginning and end of each character. What is more obvious is that there are many horizontal pens whose tails are written in the shape of a foot, and are picked up to the upper right, which is very similar to the twists and turns of the official script.

4, the strokes face back, and the glyphs open and close.

"Jijiuzhang (急就章)" because the characters are mostly neat and tidy, and the strokes parallel to the strokes tend to be monotonous and dull. To avoid monotony and dullness, make the strokes have a backward relationship.

"Toward the back" includes two relations: "toward" and "toward". Especially when writing the same strokes, such as two verticals, two horizontals, two strokes, two strokes, etc., if the strokes have no opposite or opposite relationship, it is easy to write parallel. "Jijiuzhang" especially emphasizes the contrast of strokes, so it is lively and endlessly changing. Like the word "open", the outer door frame is opposite, and the two vertical and two horizontal sides are opposite.

If there is opening or not, the words are loose and without spirit, if there is closing or not, the words are not smooth. The Chinese calligraphy structure method pays attention to the change of cloth and white, and the change of opening and closing is actually a kind of change of cloth and white. There is less white in the joint, and more white in the open. In "Jijiuzhang", the upper part of the strokes is introverted, and the lower part of the strokes is placed outside, forming a shape of upper and lower strokes.  There are also characters where the upper strokes sag outwards, and the lower strokes tighten inwards, becoming the shape of opening up and closing down.

Regarding temporary practice, Tang Sun Guoting famously said: "The one who observes is fine, and the one who imitates it is expensive." The so-called "observation" means seeing and reading; "simulation" means writing. Reading is to prepare for writing. Exact or inaccurate reading has a great influence on the effect of writing. What is considered "precise", I think it is necessary to at least have "three understandings": understand the content of the post you are facing; understand the shape and structure of each character and posture; understand the ins and outs of each character's strokes, priority, and frustration, etc. , So as to find out the law of line movement. This is the prerequisite for copying to achieve good results.

The basic goal to be achieved by copying a copybook is not only similar in appearance, but also similar to gods. Forms and spirits complement each other and complement each other. The form is obvious, and it is easier to grasp when written; the god is internal, including bone, energy, rhyme, and meaning, which belong to the spiritual level. The ultimate goal of the form-by-form of Lin Tie Suo painting is to explore the artistic rules of using brushes through the study of "painting" and "shape". Therefore, in the essays, we must pay great attention to practicing his pen and understanding his heart, so that the ancients have the knack of blending both heart and hand with pen and ink.