Chen Li (1810--1882) has the character Lanfu, and the character Lanpu. He is named Jiangnan tired guest. Since he studied at Dongxiang Shushu when he was young, and in his later years he self-inscribed the book "Dongshu Reading Notes (《东塾读书记》)", so scholars honored him as "Mr. Dongshu". A native of Panyu (now Guangzhou).
He studied and started his career at a young age and was admitted as a county student at the age of seventeen. In the next few years, I was quite proud of it. First, I got the appreciation of the scholars and government officials and recommended them to the Yuexiu Academy. After three years of studying, I wrote the title of "Gifts", which is the province jointly recommended to the court by the scholars, the governor, and the governor. Outstanding student; the following year (1832), he won the Juren again. After entering the capital for the test, the provincial and city public opinion is optimistic, thinking that he will have the hope of getting a top-ranking one in this trip. Who knows that he was bad luck as soon as he left the province. He took the exam five times in 13 years, and all of them lost his name. I had no choice but to participate in the six-year round of the "big challenge", thinking that he could be selected as a county magistrate. Unexpectedly, he got a second-class exam and could only be an instructor. Chen Li said: "Thinking that you can't rule the people, you can still be priests. There are no people who can control the chaos in the world." But in 1849, he helped Heyuan County, Guangdong to learn and teach. Upon his appointment, he found that the "chaos" were not scholars. But Min, "thieves everywhere", took time off and went home in only two months. Fortunately, he ran fast, otherwise, like Heyuan county magistrate, "catch the thief". In the year that Emperor Xianfeng succeeded to the throne, Chen Tan took the exam for the sixth time and still fell behind. In 1856, Chen Li was elected as a county magistrate, but the world became more chaotic. The Taiping Army was prospering and the Second Opium War was about to begin. He had to abandon the "Bai Lihou" who had been pursuing for 20 years, and applied for a false title of Beijing official. , Can be awarded the Guozijian School Record. Since then, Chen Li has no longer cared about fame and fame, but devoted himself to academics. He has mastered the studies of Han and Song Dynasties. He has written extensively on classics, history, phonology, philology, phonology, music, geography, mathematics, calligraphy, and He has made outstanding achievements in many fields such as poetry and poetry, and he has become the most influential outstanding figure in Lingnan academics in the late Qing Dynasty.
In the 14th year of Daoguang (1834), Chen Li enrolled in Xuehaitang and became the first full-time graduate of Xuehaitang. Supplemented in 1840 as the head of Xuehaitang, and has been in office since then. In 1867, Chen Li was hired as the mountain leader of Jupo Jingshe, so Jupo Jingshe was most influenced by Xuehaitang. According to Chen Li's "Ji Po Jing She Ji (《菊坡精舍记》)": "When it was first discussed as a college, the academy used multiple class hours and texts, but this should be a separate class. If Li is applying for a job, please use the classics and historical writings for the class. Xuehaitang 1 There are four classes for one year old and thirty classes for one year old in the academy. I don’t want to enact laws by myself. Every semester every student comes to listen to the lectures, and then he teaches the method of reading, according to Gu Tinglin’s words, the big book "I am ashamed to do oneself and learn from literature." The second language is revealed in Qianxuan, and I don't say it on my own." It is known that Jupo Jingshe has inherited the practical learning purpose of Xuehaitang in the purpose of running the school. However, Chen Li suffered from the imperial examination for 20 years, and finally turned to admire Gu Yanwu, thinking that in the history of the classics, he could seek to obtain the slightest meaning, and then he could apply the classics. Therefore, the Jupo Jingshe vigorously promoted practical learning and advocated abandoning the teaching method dominated by the imperial examination at the time. Among the four subjects, one subject is selected for research with a similar temperament, which is similar to the situation where the undergraduate students of Xuehaitang specialize in one subject. Therefore, both in terms of teaching purpose and teaching content, Jupo Jingshe is following the example of Xuehaitang.
Different from Xuehaitang, Chen Li not only gave out questions about ancient Chinese scriptures and history in Jupo Jingshe for examinations, but also promoted to lectures. Each time dozens of people listened to the lectures. They included the content of the propositions, and the combination and reading. Law. Because Jupo Jingshe is a dean system, which is different from the seniority system of Xuehaitang. In this way, Jupo Jingshe has become a special lecture place for Chen Tan alone, and Chen Li can study himself in detail and systematically through lectures. Teaching methods, academic approaches, and lessons learned to students will have a deeper impact on students. Therefore, the teacher-student relationship between Chen Li and the students and apprentices of the class is clearer and closer than that of Xuehaitang. These students have the same pedigree, high academic level, extensive influence, and close ties with each other, forming a unique "East Shu School". The formation of this school shows that Guangdong is already a self-contained academic system with unique characteristics. It can compete with other schools and occupies an important place in the national academic community.
During his ten years at Jupo Abode, Chen Li devoted himself wholeheartedly to the lectures and examinations of the Abode, and continued to study academia. He compiled his masterpiece "Dongshu Reading Notes (《东塾读书记》)" and published it successively, but He was only inscribed in nine volumes during his lifetime, and there were still a large number of manuscripts that could not be printed, and most of them were later hidden in Sun Yat-sen University; and his articles on the teaching of the Jingshe, such as "The Study of the Men of the Jingshe with Jupo (《与菊坡精舍门人论学》)", etc., are in Behind him was collected by his descendants in "East School Collection (《东塾集》)" and "East School Sequel (《东塾续集》)". In his later years, Chen Li was already weak and sick due to overwork, but he still insisted on giving lectures and personally read and revised the course papers. In 1897, the 20 volumes of "Jupo Jingshe Collection (《菊坡精舍集)" compiled and engraved by Liao Yanxiang were all selected by Chen Li himself. Excellent course papers from Po Jingshe. There are a total of 171 selected essays and 186 poems in the complete collection. There are 102 authors, all of whom are outstanding talents of Jupo Jingshe. It is not difficult to imagine that there are many talents in Jupo Jingshe. Chen Li's contribution to Jupo Abode was so great that in turn it was also his contribution to the academic development of Guangdong.
In 1881, Zhang Shusheng, governor of Guangdong and Guangxi, and Yukuan, governor of Guangdong, used Chen Li as a young man to praise him and gave him the title of Wu Pinqing. In 1882, Chen Li died of illness at the age of seventy-three. The "Manuscript of Qing History (《清史稿》)" was his biography to declare his merits. His disciple reported to the government to set up a shrine to the west of the Jupo Abode, and his disciple Liang Dingfen raised a million yuan to buy a sacrifice field for future generations to commemorate forever.
Seal Scripts, Private Collection of Xie Hongxuan, Taiwan