"Ji Jiu Zhang", formerly known as "Ji Jiu Pian", is a literacy textbook compiled by Huangmenling Shi You under the order of Emperor Yuan of the Western Han Dynasty for children. It is named after the word "jiji" at the beginning of the chapter. "Jijiupian" uses different characters to form three-, four- or seven-character rhymes. The content involves names, organizations, biology, rituals and music, official positions and other aspects, like a small encyclopedia. This text has been the main literacy textbook circulated in society from the Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty. At the same time, the standard and elegant copy also serves as a model for writing. After the Tang Dynasty, the position of "Jijiupian" as the leading elementary school textbook was replaced by "Thousand-Character Classic", "Hundred Family Surnames" and "Three-Character Classic".

Huang Xiang, with Ming style, was from Jiangdu, Guangling. He became the governor of Qingzhou. Famous calligrapher of Wu Dynasty in the Three Kingdoms. Good at Bafen, Xiaozhuan, especially Zhangcao. The chapters and chapters are so wonderful that they are of divine quality. His cursive script, together with Cao Buxing's paintings and Yan Wu's Go games, are known as the "Eight Wonders." "Ji Jiu Zhang" is an ancient literacy textbook, with Huang Xiang's manuscript being the earliest. The ancients spoke highly of Huangxiang's calligraphy. Zhang Huaijin of the Tang Dynasty said:"Youjun's official script has one shape but many shapes, and all the characters are different; Xiu Mingzhangcao has many shapes but one shape, all the characters are the same, and each one has its own unique style."It can be seen that he created the calligraphy style of "the same among others", which is of great significance in the history of calligraphy.

The earliest written version of "Ji Jiu Zhang" that has been handed down to this day is said to be the Huang Xiang Shu, and a printed version is circulating today. Among them, the most famous one was engraved by Ye Meng of the Song Dynasty in the fourth year of Zhengtong (1439) of Yang Zheng in Jishui (now part of Jiangxi Province) in the Ming Dynasty. According to the Yingchang version, it was carved in Songjiang, so it was named "Songjiang version". The original stone is now in Songjiang. County Museum. This chapter has one line each in cursive and regular script. The fonts are standardized and the writing is vigorous. It integrates changes in unity. The structure of the characters is slightly flat, and the characters are not connected with each other. Some strokes have a thin tip, which can be lifted up after heavy pressing, forming an irregular triangle, which has become an important feature of the calligraphy. The stippling in this book is simple, dignified, and subtle, and the brushstrokes are mostly official. Although the strokes are filamentous, they are measured, and each word is independent and restrained. The horizontal strokes, strokes, and stipples are mostly made of ripples, and the whole piece has a simple, gentle, calm, and natural atmosphere. The recent scholar Shen Zengzhi said in "Hai Ri Lou Zha Cong": "Reading this book carefully, the writing style is all about Bo Fa, and Bo Fa is purely an eight-point style, but it is eight-point for Tang people and eight-point for non-Han people." This post had a great influence on later generations. , is still the representative work of Gu Zhangcao and is also one of the recognized Zhangcao models.

"Jijiupian" was written by Shi You, a native of the Western Han Dynasty, and consists of 63 words in one chapter. The first part lists 132 surnames. Two characters are added to a single surname, and one character is added to a compound surname to form a three-character sentence. The added characters are abstract nouns, verbs, and adjectives to facilitate school children's literacy learning; the second part, "Words", is described in sequence. It covers brocade, food, clothing, subjects, utensils, insects and fish, clothing, music, body shape, weapons, carriages and horses, palaces, plants, animals, diseases, medicines, funerals, etc., with seven words and one sentence, rhymed, and easy to read; The third part is written about official positions. The book ends with a four-character sentence praising the prosperity of the Han Dynasty. The main features of "Jijiupian" are:

(1) The density of new characters is high;

(2) Neatly rhyme, easy to remember;

(3) Rich knowledge.

Many words in "Jijiupian" are still used today, which shows that Chinese has a long history and also provides valuable information for Chinese vocabulary research.

"Jijiupian" was compiled by Shi You of the Western Han Dynasty and was written around 40 BC. It is the earliest existing literacy and common sense textbook in my country. Regarding the meaning of the word "jijiu", Chao Gongwu of the Song Dynasty explained it this way: "Remember names, objects, facial features and other words to teach children. "Jijiu" means that the word is difficult to understand, so you can find it in a hurry. Yan." Now it seems that the word "jijiu" does not mean "the word is difficult to understand", but "quickly".

"Jijiupian" is composed of chapters and sentences. Its three-, four-, and seven-character essays all have rhymes, with a total of 2,144 characters. According to previous research, the last 128 characters were added by the Eastern Han Dynasty. Teach children as much common sense as possible during the literacy process. The book is divided into three parts: the first is "surnames and names", with more than 400 words, including more than 100 surnames; the second is "Utensils, Clothing and Hundreds of Things", with more than 1,100 words, including more than 400 kinds of utensils, more than 100 kinds of animals and plants, and more than 60 kinds of animals and plants. There are various parts and organs of the human body, and the names of more than 70 diseases and medicines; the third is "Literature and Legal Principles" with more than 440 words, including the names of official positions and legal knowledge. According to the statistics of contemporary scholar Shen Yuan: there are 100 nouns about tools and daily utensils in the whole article, 70 nouns about weapons, vehicles, and horse gear, 125 nouns about clothing, shoes, and accessories, and 125 nouns about buildings. There are 52 nouns about indoor furnishings, 40 nouns about the human body, 36 nouns about crops, and 77 nouns about insects, fish, birds, and animals. It can be seen that the natural and social knowledge embodied in the teaching materials is very rich. Through learning, children can acquire basic knowledge and basic skills necessary for comprehensive production and life under the historical conditions at that time.


First, the Qigu (Yin Gu, a wooden slip used for writing in ancient times) is unique and lists the names of various things. Separate tribes live in separate toilets (when they talk), and use the day to make an appointment with Shaocheng. If you try your best, you must be happy (with joy). Please tell me the chapters: Song Yannian, Zheng Zifang, Wei Yishou, Shi Buchang, Zhou Qianqiu, Zhao Ruqing, Yuan Zhanshi, Gao Pibing.

Second, Deng Wansui, Qin Xiaofang, Hao Liqin, Feng Hanjiang, Dai Hujun, Jing Junming, Dong Fengde, Huan Xianliang, Ren Fengshi, Hou Zhonglang, Tian Guangguo, Rong Huichang, Du Chenglu, Linghuheng, Zhu Jiaobian, Kong He Shang, Shi Mengdang, Shi Gandang, Invincible, Long Weiyang, Yi Yingqi.

Third, Zhai Huiqing, Bi Zhiji, Zhao Xiaoxiong, Liu Yaoshun, Yao Yutang, Chun Yudeng, Fei Tongguang, Zhe Enshu, Lu Zhengyang, Huo Shenggong, Yan Wenwen, Wan Caili, Pei Lu Zhang, Lu Hexi, Guan Yiwang, Cheng Zhongxin, Wu Zhonghuang, Xu Zhonggu, Jia Youcang, Chen Yuanshi, Han, Wei and Tang Dynasties.

Fourth, Ye Rongdiao, Bai Duyang, Cao Fugui, Li Yinsang, Xiao Pengzu, Qu Zongtan, Fan Aijun, Cui Xiaoxiang, Yao Deci, Yan Chuyan, Xue Shengke, Nie Hanjiang, I beg your male brother, Guo Suo Chang, I wish you respectfully, Shen Wuhu, Pang Shanglai, Shengshi Liang, Cheng Bohao, Fan Jianqiang, Yan Huanxi.

Fifth, Ningke Forget, Gou Zhenfu, Mao Shezang, Tian Xier, Xie Neihuang, Chai Guilin, Wen Zhiheng, Xi Jiaoshu, Bing Shengxi, Yong Hongchang, Liu Ruofang, Mao Yiyu, Ma Niuyang, Shang Ciqian, Qiu And Gang, Yin Binshang, Cui Yuanyang, Shuba Sui, Wanduanxiang, Leng Yougong, Wu Chuchang.

Sixth, Chu Huichi, Lan Weifang, Jian Feijun, Qiao Douyang, Yuan Fufu, Xuan Qinu, Yin Manxi, Chong Shentu, Xia Xiuxia, Gongsun Du, Ci Renta, Guo Pohu, Yu Zunyan , Xianyi Qu, Cai Youwei, Zuo Diyu, Tan Pingding, Meng Boxu, Ge Xianke, Dun Qisu, Geng Panhu.

Seventh, Jiao Miehu, Yan Qineng, Xing Lishe, Shao Shoushi, Zai Anqi, Xia Quene, Dai Yanyu, Sima Chu, Shang Ziyu, Tao Xiongzhen, Jie Moru, Le Xinxie, Tong Fushu, Tongwu Ji, Xiang Yi, Wu, Hong, and Zhu admonished the dynasty, continued to increase the records, and lost the rest. Now that the name is complete, please tell me something.

Eighth, the splendid mantle is away from Yun Jue, and the wind hangs Zhong Hua's music (there is a cave). The leopard's head falls, the wild rabbit and the two cranes fall, the spring grass rooster rises and the ducks and wengs wash their hands. The turmeric is half-seen with frost and white fur (Yin Yue, oats), and the green and purple soap (Yin Xian, the color is particularly lustrous when rolled with stone). The steamed chestnut silk cyan silk is red and burning, and the green silk silk silk silk is moist and fresh. Silk cicadas are trained on silk strings. {royal safari, 纺ambizi}

Ninth, Jiangti embroidery is made of cotton silk, (kerchief, dagger, yinbi, leftover silk) and the money is not straight out of the bag. The service lock (纺俞, Yinxu) (this lower scarf) is connected with the silk thread, which is used to make money, buy, sell, and shop. The capital market is full of gains, and the odds are stacked against each other. The 縌shou is composed of Lun and moved to high places, and the measurements are measured by weights and weights. Taking, receiving and giving are related to causes and conditions. {transaction, next to word}

Tenth, rice, millet, millet, millet, majing, cake, bait, wheat rice, sweet bean soup. Sunflower, leek, polygonum, sujiang, turnip, salt, drum and fermented fermented sauce. Ruta, garlic, mustard and dogwood are fragrant for a moment, and the old green leaves are stored in lotus leaves in winter. The pears, persimmons, and peaches are waiting for frost, and the dates, apricots, and melons are delicious. Garden vegetables and fruits help rice grains.

Eleventh, Ganlu plays a beautiful song to all the kings, and the robes and skirts are both beautiful and beautiful. The robe is pleated, and the Zen clothes cover the knees without any trousers. The threads of admonition are mended and the seams are blooming, and the shoes are more and more satin-like. The geese wear brown stockings and scarves with horns, and Shang Wei does not lend them to herdsmen. The more you persevere, the better you will be.

Twelfth, the clogs are rough and poor, and the fur (leather rope) is used to select the barbarian people. After leaving the secular life and returning to the righteousness, I came to be a relative, translated and praised, and called myself my concubine. General Rong Fan visited his neighbors, and the county magistrate of Linshi brought gold and silver. Iron and rhodium are drilled into cauldrons, and lead and tin stirrups are forged and ingots are forged. Jian (Jin and Sui Dynasties) hook, axe, chisel and cylindrical blade.

Thirteenth, bronze bells, cauldrons, 锗锇铓, ingots, maces, keys, drills and 锢鐈. Bamboo utensils are made of bamboo, 簦笠簟秧稨, (心乇)篯篯筥(心AO)箅bon. There are baskets, baskets, baskets and baskets, oval bowls, trays, cups and bowls. Li Doucen rises half a 獮箪, 槫榼椑榹 dagger and chopsticks. The fou plate is filled with urns and the pot is made of urn.

Fourteenth. The bamboo slips were inspected by the Chucheng family, and the Taniguchi tea produced by Banzhao was found. Water bugs include frogs, shrimps, carp, rays, crabs, rays, and abalone. Wives were married to nuns, and slaves and maids slept on the bed rails. There are luxuriant mats, tents and curtains.

Fifteenth, the curtains of the dust-bearing houses are hung with silk threads, and the mirrors and combs are of different workmanship. The fragrance is smoked, the powder is moisturized, and the bath is moisturized. The robe is decorated with an incomparable pair of figures, with a Langgan amber dragon on its arm. The jade rose urn is decorated with jade beads and jade rings. Shoot demons to ward off evil spirits and get rid of evil spirits.

Sixteenth, the lute, harp, harp, harp, and harp are used to build the zither, and the bells, chimes, flutes, harps, and drums sound. The five tones will always sing and praise, and excellent haiku will be encouraged to watch and lean into the garden with laughter. The wine waiter stayed in the wine shop until he woke up, and the kitchen slaughterer gave orders to the envoys. The charcoal, the reed, and the cooked food are all cooked, and the boiled and roasted husks each have their own form. The acidity and fermentation are light and turbid and clear.

Seventeenth, muscle (weak moon) preserved fish smells fishy, ​​fermented wine makes the mash extremely extreme. The chess game is easy to play, and the crown, hairpin, and spring are tied together. The head and forehead are aligned with the eyebrows, eyes, and ears, and the nose, mouth, lips, tongue, and teeth are aligned. Cheeks, neck, shoulders, arms and elbows, fists, wrists, claws, thumbs and hands. The chest is plump, the chest and ribs are plump, and the throat is fat.

Eighteenth, the intestines, stomach, abdomen, liver, lungs, and heart govern the five internal organs of the spleen, kidneys, navel, and milk. The legs, hips, spine, waist, and back are crooked, and the thighs, feet, knees, and tibia are pillars. Kick the ankle and the heel close together, the spear is inlaid with the shield blade and the hook. The halberd is made of beryllium, the sword is made of molten metal, and the bow and crossbow are armored with arrows. Hammer, stick, and tree.

Nineteenth, the carriage has a shaft and a wheel (car Kang), and the spoke hub is in charge of the carriage (beside the car) (car mulberry).轵轼轸軨轙蜜heng, cover 轑椑棿戹戹棠. The bridle is the martingale (half car), the rein is restrained, and the saddle (leather is thin) is the saddle. The color of Jin Jie (leather velvet) is brilliant, and the paint of leather (leather stingy) is still dark and pale. Houses, houses, houses, buildings and halls.

20. The entrance, the well, the kitchen, the verandah and the capital, the rafters and the roof tiles are thin. The walls are painted with mud, and the walls are covered with dry planks. The screen toilet is filled with muddy manure soil, and the east box of the stable and warehouse is built. The wind blows like a fan, the wind blows with a hammer, and the countryside around the town is rustling. Hundreds of people are working with plows and hoes on the border of the border.

Twenty-one, planting trees and collecting the taxes and rents, and harvesting the crops, plucking and plucking the loaves with a rake. Tongzi, fir, pine, elm, eucalyptus, locust and sandalwood are supported by thorns and leaves. The horses and donkeys are racing, and the horses are galloping and the horses are leaping ahead.炂羖甲羠 (sheep sign) 羝羭, the six animals are dolphins and pigs. A cunning dog, a pheasant chick.

Twenty-two, Q (cow market, Yinbei, two-year-old cow) special lamb calf, male and female follow each other. The juice of the chaff is drenched with the custard, the phoenix is ​​jue, the swan is flying, the geese are flying, and the pheasants are flying. Eagles and harriers (ordinary birds, sound packets) are caught in the net, and doves, pigeons, and quails die in the net. Kites, magpies, owls and owls looked at each other in shock, leopards, foxes, jackals and rhinoceros were far away. The raccoon rabbit flies, the flying wolf elk.

Twenty-three, deer skin is worn on the shoes, and the cold air is released and the abdomen is distended. Scab, scabies, dementia, deafness and blindness, carbuncle, scabies, scabies, scabies and scabies. Hernia, epilepsy, deafness, malaria, blood stasis, pain and stranguria. Diabetes, cough, nausea and vomiting, heat, fistula, hemorrhoids and eyes. The decline of Dulong welcomes the medical craftsmen.

Twenty-four, moxibustion, needles and medicine drive away evil spirits, and Scutellaria baicalensis is used to cure the disease. Licorice, licorice, trestleau, black-beaked aconite, pepper and coriander. Pinellia acacia, Ai Liwu, Ligusticum magnolia, Magnolia officinalis, Guiyanglou. Fritillaria fritillary, ginger and wolf's teeth, polygala and Dipsacus ginseng melon. Tingli Platycodon grandiflorum has dried up turtle bones.

The twenty-fifth thunder arrow (艹瞿) is a fungus and a rabbit. If you ask about the dream, your parents will be afraid. The temple offers sacrifices to Sheji, Cong La, and worships the gods. The coffins and coffins are sent away in large numbers, and the mourning mourners' faces are swollen. Weeping and offering sacrifices to the graves and graves, all the things are gone and the five senses come out. Official study of satirical poetry and filial piety.

Twenty-sixth, the laws and regulations of the Spring and Autumn Period are written, and the rules of etiquette are used to strengthen one's body. Wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, his reputation is unique and unrivaled. He is highly promoted and recommended as a shepherd. The Prime Minister, Censor Lang Zhongjun, approaches Gongqing Fu Puxun. He often serves the generals before and after him.

Twenty-seven, the feudal lords of the feudal lords have local ministers, and their accumulation of knowledge is not caused by ghosts and gods. Feng Yi Jingzhao was in charge of governing the people, he was honest and upright, and he was gentle and respectful to his relatives. Changes confuse the old and the new, evil and evil are both rational and tame. Geng died and returned to his sincerity, claiming to be a member of the country. The owner of the valley who takes money far away is average.

Twenty-eight, Gaotao established prisons and the law existed to punish those who committed fraud and impeachment. Tingwei is the supervisor of the ancient ancestors, and he is the commander-in-chief of the troubled and suspicious articles. Fighting, killing and arresting five neighbors, visiting the pavilion chiefs and doing miscellaneous consultations. The thieves are imprisoned, and the cronies are drawing them to defeat. The false accusations turned out to be true.

Twenty-nine, living in trouble is not enough to show mercy, but to be poor and sentimental is to be in prison. When the records of the records were verified, the year was recorded, and Luli Township and County made interesting comments. The ghost is new and white, and it is natural to be unwilling to be cautious. The wheel belongs to the imperial edict to make the valley and the mountain, and the daily life of Qingzhu comes first after the class. Cut off the roots of the timber.

Thirty. When you are in danger, deal with Cao Cao. Don't talk about your worries. The shackles are broken and they are on the run, attacking and robbing the carriage glue. The stingy husband pretends to be a helper and helps him to be imprisoned, and the ruthless man protects the innocent and frightens the deer. Lack of interest, lewdness, arrest and beg for forgiveness, often feel that they have been submerged and report to stay. Angry and resentful when the law is wronged.

Thirty-one, slander and flattery conflict with each other, worry and worry lead to courage and independence. He is willing to examine and read satirically and admonish, and the Jingshui River is annotated with Wei titles. The pen is researched and thrown into the candlestick, and the pardon is saved and demoted to rank. Between Handan and Bashu, Yingchuan and Linhuai gather lessons. Those who are polluted and greedy will be humiliated.

Thirty-two, the land of Han is vast, and everything is prosperous. Thousands of people come to court, and ministers and concubines send orders. The border is peaceful, China is peaceful, the people are virtuous, and Yin and Yang are at peace. In the windy and rainy season, everyone is prosperous, the locusts are not around, and the grains are ripe. The wise and the sages advance together, Mr. Doctor, Changle Wuji Laofu Ding.