1. About emotional cursive script

Chinese calligraphy has gone through a long process of cognition and practice from being used as a note to being appreciated as a work of art. Tang Zhang Huailai said: "The great you who interpret the tombs of the classics, and those who become the grand industry of the country, are not close to books. Afterwards, those who are able to add mysticism, so there is the Daoguangyan of Hanmo." [1] So calligraphy became the lyrical reach of literati and ink scholars. Of the medium. "Book Book" says: "Wang Xizhi" writes "Le Yi", it is sentimental and gloomy; the book "Painting Praise" is eccentric, "Huang Ting Jing" is nihilistic, and "Taishi Admonition" is also full of disputes, cum. Almost "Lanting Xingji" thinks and is supernatural, private "The Commandment Oath" has a miserable sentiment, the so-called "speaking of music and laughter, but the sorrow." The feeling is moving, and it will be coquettish; Yang Shu Yin is miserable, the original It is the heart of heaven and earth.” [2] It can be seen that the high-level works with different connotations praised by people are related to the author's "emotional" mood. The so-called "emotion" refers to the mentality of a person under different environmental conditions, that is, a kind of inner experience and cognitive attitude towards the outside world. That is to say, Sun Guoting's so-called "speaking of music and laughter, mourning has been sighed." When these emotions participate in the art form, they will exert a huge inner power, giving the work a unique "emotional" soul. As a literary critic put it: "Where there is emotion, there is magic power." [3] In addition, "emotion" is not only a reflection of the human body, but also caused by the influence of moral ethics and aesthetic taste. Phenomena such as admiration, hatred, love, hatred, etc. can all be attributed to the category of "emotions". Of course, many of these factors do not exist independently, but are often cross-linked, which can have a profound impact on the style and connotation of culture and art.

Chinese characters have a long history and have many styles, among which the flexible and changeable Dacao is the style that can be most affected by emotions. Han Yu's "Preface to the Master of Xian Xian" said: "Zhang Xushan cursive script, does not cure other skills, joy, anger, embarrassment, sorrow, joy and loss, resentment, yearning, drunkenness, boredom, injustice, and it must be in cursive script. Yan made it." [4] Zhang Xu’s big grass is closely related to his own emotions. "Caosheng". After Zhang Xu, only a few calligraphers, such as Huai Su and Huang Tingjian, had considerable cursiveness. The reason was to write well. Not only could they master the cursive writing skills proficiently, they also required the calligraphers to use "emotions" to inject personality into the works. soul. It is very difficult to combine the two, and this is an important reason why there are few large cursive calligraphers. In the late Ming Dynasty, Xu Wei used large cursive script to be wild and unruly, and the view was jaw-dropping. After that, Zhang Ruitu, Huang Daozhou, Ni Yuanlu, Wang Duo, Fu Shan and other big cursive writers came together to form the peak of "emotional" cursive script in the late Ming Dynasty. , Attracted the attention of the world.

It should be noted here that these emotional cursive scripts in the late Ming Dynasty were often described as "Romanticism". The term "Romanticism" comes from a foreign land, and its connotation has many interpretations. The Italian "Encyclopedia of World Art" uses the British Giladen's theory to explain: "The definition of romance should be calm and loneliness, so that the soul can indulge in deep feelings. The calm and suppleness of emotions." [5] The "Romanticism" article of the "Soviet Encyclopedia" says: "The base of the whole emotion and the soul, from which all vague visions of beauty and nobility arise, and they try to follow The ideals created by fantasy are satisfied." [6] It is not difficult to see that the former emphasizes "calmness" and "loneliness", while the latter focuses on "beauty" and "sublime." The connotation mostly borrows the interpretation of the former Soviet Union, and calligraphy is no exception. But if you compare it with Han Yu’s description of Zhang Xu’s cursive script "joy, anger, embarrassment, sorrow, joy and loss, resentment, yearning, drunkenness, boredom, and injustice, you will find that if you are intrigued by your heart, you will find it in cursive script." The connotation is obviously very thin, and it only tends to the beautiful and noble side, while the oppressive side such as "difficulty", "sorrow", "resentment", "boring" and "unevenness" are not involved. Calligraphy, like poetry, can often create good works in a very depressed and sad mood. Therefore, it is difficult to use "Romanticism" to explain the cursive works made by Xu Wei, Huang Daozhou, and Fu Shan, while "Emotional" can completely explain the cursive works.

2. The background conditions for the prosperity of emotional cursive script in the late Ming Dynasty

In the late Ming Dynasty, the court’s internal and external troubles were hard to return, the mass culture developed abnormally, and the social material conditions were relatively strong. Under the influence of Yangming’s "Xinxue", people paid attention to the exertion of individual subjective initiative. , There has been a very considerable development.

In the field of thought, Yangming's Xin Xue Wanli became a philosophical question affirmed by the court and became popular. Among them, Li Zhi, a disciple of Wang Gen's re-introduction of the Taizhou school, put forward the "childhood theory" of super peerless sentiment, [7] deeply criticized Cheng and Zhu Confucianism, and further clarified his aesthetic point of view: "Gai Sheng Se It comes from the sentimental nature, from the nature, can be forced to change it? Therefore, when the nature comes from the sentimental nature, then naturally it ends with etiquette. In addition to the non-emotional nature, there is also etiquette and righteousness to stop, but the strongness is If you lose it, nature is your ear."[8] Among them, the pursuit of individual liberation and opposition to dogmatism is like a bolt from the blue, which makes the students and literati deaf, a kind of outlook on life and literary thoughts that are different from the previous ones. In calligraphy, the previous imperial court’s “Chinese calligraphy” and “zhonghe beauty” have been constraining people’s hands and feet, and they are very eager to find a medium that reflects their personal aesthetic consciousness and inner feelings. At this time, the conditions are ripe for the subjective desire of "Zhi".

In the late Ming Dynasty, with the changes in people's ideology and outlook on life, the pursuit of enjoyment in large estates flourished, and the room buildings became wider and wider, leaving room for the production of large-scale paintings and calligraphy works. Zhang Mingchuan believes: "The halls before the middle of the Ming Dynasty mainly relied on pillars and arches to bear the load, and the walls could not bear the load. Even the walls were replaced by foldable long windows on both sides of the hall, and decorations were rarely hung on the walls. Movable screens are mainly used as the carrier of calligraphy and painting." "The rapid increase in the population of Suzhou in the mid-Ming Dynasty was an important reason for promoting the restructuring of halls. Suzhou official kiln bricks provided technical conditions for residential use, and brick walls provided technical conditions due to improved beams. The shelf and the brick wall shared the load-bearing capacity of the pillars, and the hall was built high, making the original movable screens look short. Therefore, a full-roofed back screen was installed in the center of the back of the hall, which laid a foundation for the creation and display of the calligraphy and painting nave. "[9] Using brick walls to replace beams can indeed withstand more pressure to increase the height of the building and make the building stronger and stronger. However, in the face of numerous Ming dynasty buildings, it is rare to see those who use brick walls as beams. First of all, the tall halls are a symbol of the status of wealthy and wealthy people. It mainly shows style and generosity, not for the sake of accommodating more people. In addition, the use of brick walls instead of beams is generally used by the people. Rich people do not use such simple things to build halls. There should be other reasons for the expansion of the area of ​​paintings and calligraphy in the halls. Ji Cheng was a well-known architect in the late Ming Dynasty. His "Yuan Ye" has "House Schema" saying: "Fan houses are based on seven frames. It does not require a spine, so it is easy to hang paintings." Liu Ganxian commented: "The spine is the roof ridge. The low column under the purlin. The spine of the gable is all grounded to reduce the beam span and increase the lateral rigidity of the structure. No ridge is required (the gable spine does not fall), and the wall is flat and easy to hang calligraphy and painting."[10] The real reason for the increase in the area of ​​paintings and calligraphy in the houses of the Ming Dynasty was that "no ridges were used in the construction", which was the usual practice of Ming people's architecture. In other words, the architects of the Ming Dynasty had already considered the location of the paintings and calligraphy as an important content when designing the houses.

The increase in the length and area of ​​the banner works is particularly conducive to the cursive writing. It can release the hands and feet to express the magnificent pen and ink momentum, vividly embody the rhythm and rhythm of the brush strokes, so that the emotional feelings in the chest can be thoroughly expressed. Catharsis. Judging from the scripts of the late Ming Dynasty, writing long and large shafts formed a trend. In Huang Daozhou, Wang Duo and others, works over three meters long appeared, and occasionally those over four meters long appeared. Sometimes I feel that the tension of the paper is not enough or the length is unsatisfactory, so I use a lot of silk that can be lengthened arbitrarily. This is also the unprecedented scene.

3. Emotional cursive script examples in the late Ming Dynasty

At the end of the Ming Dynasty, the politics were dark, and Wei Zhongxian and other eunuchs controlled the Chao Gang and acted wildly; the peasant uprisings were one after another, and people were panicked. Facing the realities such as the safety of society, the promotion of official career, and the good or bad family life, the scholar-officials are all in danger and worry about themselves. Should they be loyal to the country or protect themselves? Is the name going down in history or stinking for thousands of years? People are deep in very complex emotions. We tried to find the emotional traces in the depths of their souls through the pen and ink left by the calligraphers...

1. The swift and enthusiastic Zhang Ruitu

The pioneer of emotional calligraphy in the late Ming Dynasty was Zhang Ruitu (1570-1644). At the age of thirty-eight, Zhang was appointed as an official Hanlin editor by exploring flowers. Zhang's city residence is quite deep and he is cautious and cautious. When the Donglin Party fought with Wei Zhongxian's eunuch, it took an evasive attitude. His ability to "clean his body" and not participate in the eunuch's persecution of courtiers shows that he still has a conscience. However, the position of the second assistant who blindly protects himself and appeases the traitor and does not adhere to the practice of justice should be condemned by his conscience, which puts him in a painful self-blame contradiction. And this complicated psychological emotion played a very important role in the formation of his calligraphy style.

   Zhang Ruitu "Seven-character Poetry Axis in Spring Flowers" Cursive script on silk 187×48cm Collection by Duo Yunxuan

Zhang Ruitu chose a dangerous path from his teaching methods to creating calligraphy. In society, when people focused their attention on "Books do not enter the Jin Dynasty, they will become inferior products", but he focused on the study of the regular script of the Three Kingdoms Zhongyou and the emperor Zhangcao, and then combined the "Seventeen Posts" and " Cursive scripts such as "Book Book" and Zhu Yunming have created books with their own style. In short, the source of its cursive script: using Zhong Yao's pen, borrowing the body of Zhangcao, and dissolving the madness of the grass, expressing one's feelings. Especially in the arrangement of the composition, the control of pen and ink, and the adjustment of emotions, he has shown his extraordinary talents, adding more contradictory elements of calligraphy and life experience to the lines of pen and ink. Mr. Wu Faqian commented: "In his writing, what is displayed is a kind of restlessness of contradictory thoughts and the groan of painful soul." 'The interest of playing with skills, his art is just the confession of his contradictory, chaotic heart and the vent of the torn soul. Perhaps it is this kind of confession and vent that makes Zhang Ruitu's art highly expressive and finds The fitting point of modern aesthetic consciousness." [11] In response to Zhang Ruitu’s unique long calligraphy, Mr. Cong Wenjun found the rule of his calligraphy creation: "The beginning is the first to win the people, and the swift and energetic emotions fall down. In the subsequent pull In the lingering genus, there are new ideas from time to time, impossible to become possible, and there is no feeling of inability to succeed. His folding pen is hard and stubborn, but not blunt and obscure; he can place some round pens just right in the world of square folding Turning the trend, he can arouse the emotions of the viewers, excited and marveled with his magical pen and ink." [12] Only when the calligrapher creates under the driving force of emotions can he arouse the emotions of the viewers, which is similar to the so-called artistic so-called "To move others, first move yourself" is a truth. Facing Zhang Ruitu's cursive script, people from the left high to the right bottom loosened the tightly deformed knot, swept the pen vertically and flexed the side, and peeked into the long-term depression formed by the calligraphy that turned out to be unconcerned. Of perverted psychology.

2. Huang Daozhou and Ni Yuanlu:

In the history of the late Ming Dynasty, Huang Daozhou and Ni Yuanlu were the most respected heroes. These two are close friends of fellow scholars of the same science. In the politics of career, they are both known for being upright and daring to argue, so the career has been difficult and ups and downs; in the outlook on life, both are famous for their righteousness and fearlessness, so they ultimately die for the country. Become a martyr. In calligraphy, the aesthetic consciousness of the two is similar, and the style and taste are also the same.

Ni Yuanlu's "Excerpt from Zuo Si "Fu of Shu" Cursive Script Axis" cursive script, 156.5×49.5cm. Collection of the Kurokawa Institute of Ancient Culture, Hyogo, Japan

Huang Daozhou (1585-1646) said that "writing a book is the seventh or eighth factor in learning, so don't care about it." However, he and calligraphy seem to be closely connected throughout his life. Huang's thirty-eight-year-old jinshi entered the official career. In the twenty years since he was captured by the Qing soldiers and generously resigned, Shangshu denounced the current malpractice more than 30 times. The people and the frontiers have been hit repeatedly, and their upright temperament has not changed. But no matter what the situation is, calligraphy is always inseparable from the Zodiac, even in the prison of the Qing court, it is unstoppable. Even before the end of your life, you have to write your friend's request and then be generous. "Ming Dynasty Yiwen" stated that: "On the eve of the righteous life, an old servant held a needle and thread to the public and wept and said: "It is the last thing I serve the lord." How do you mourn? "The old man holds wine and meat and decision, drinking and drinking as usual. He sleeps until he slept, coughs and changes his clothes, saying that the servant said: "Yumou asks for a book with a scroll, if I promise it, I can't say it." and The ink stretches on the paper, written in lower case, the second running script, the script is very large, it is written in large characters, and the seal is added. Ni Yuanlu (1593-1644), official to the Ministry of Etiquette and a bachelor of the Hanlin Academy, was repeatedly dismissed because of "Geng Jie and Shuang Shuang" [14] "Eye Lonely Walk" [15]. On the night of March 19, the 17th year of Chongzhen, Emperor Chongzhen hanged himself, and Li Zicheng was trapped in the capital. "Yuan Lu dressed up and worshipped Que, and the big book said: "The southern capital is still worthy. If you die, I will divide it. Don't use clothing. My corpse, I’m in pain.’ Then I sat south and took the silk to hang myself to death.” [16] Like Huang Daozhou, Ni Yuanlu was accompanied by calligraphy throughout his life, and hanged himself on the country after inscribed in the book. Huang Daozhou wailed his tears for his "Embeta", praising his heroic integrity and noble personality.

Huang Daozhou Ming Dynasty Five-character Rhythmic Poem in Cursive Script

Huang Dao Zhou Shankai, Xing, and cursive script, follow the path of Zhang Ruitu from his hometown, taking the method to super Jin Yan into Wei Gu Zhi Jinyan. The cursive script of Huang Daozhou was brewed on the basis of Zhang Cao, so people called it "li Cao is a family of its own." [17] "Tong Yin on Paintings" commented on "the cursive brushwork is bizarre and super wonderful, and it has the essence of the "two kings"", [18] people often say from it. Mr. Cao Li'an commented: "The structure of the characters is wonderful, the branches are sparsely white, and the veins are coherent. In particular, his brushwork is extremely varied, and all kinds of brushwork are dissolved in one furnace, and the writing is free and easy, without artificiality."[ 19] Huang Daozhou was only concerned about national affairs, but because of "severe coldness, disharmony and vulgarity" [20], it is difficult to tolerate it. It can be said that a hero is useless, so he is always in a depressed state of mind. Mr. Hu Chuanhai commented: "I always feel that the tone of Zhuang Daozhou's works is depressing." "We can see that in the layout and structure of Huang Daozhou's calligraphy, it does subconsciously reveal a touch of sadness. Sentiment." [21] Huang's cursive-shaped flat characters are dense and the lines are very sparse. "The sparse place can be a horse, and the dense place does not let the wind pass." The two contradictory aspects of calligraphy are harmoniously unified in the whole. Just like a person, he is depressed psychologically and emotionally, but being a person with a sunny atmosphere and taking into account the overall situation is amazing.

Ni is a genius with early wisdom. At the age of nineteen, he fancied the book "Nine Days Poems", "Chen Gong continued to marvel at Confucianism, thinking that he was an immortal talent"[22], he knew that his calligraphy had an elegant voice in his early years. He first gave the Hanlin editor and repair officer, "The guest has good paper and begs for the book. He has swung more than ten characters, asked the knowledge as a middle official property, and wanted to crack it, but he ran away. A county magistrate asked for cursive system. Caused by bundles and silk wrapped in gold. The public accepts silk and returns gold. It is self-defeating.” [23] In the Ming Dynasty, the eunuchs erected party feathers to change the dynasty, and the country was deeply troubled by it, and Ni Yuanlu hated it deeply. When the paper of the book was written by the middle official, he was furious and destroyed the book. It is admirable to treat ill-gotten gains correctly. Ni Yuanlu "learned from Zou Yuanbiao for his lifelong learning, and from his friends Liu Zongzhou and Huang Daozhou." [24] In calligraphy, Ni's comprehension is extremely high, and he can change without abiding by conventional studies. Therefore, Kang Youwei called his "new theory and abnormal state". [25] Mr. Cong Wenjun pointed out: “Ni’s cursive script emphasizes grandeur and seldom cares about the subtleties. Therefore, his works can always actively guide people to pursue the sentimental interest of calligraphers.” [26] And Liu Zhengcheng Through a lot of reading, Mr. Ni thinks that “the writings have a bitter and spicy taste.” [27] On the whole, Ni Yuanlu’s calligraphy masters Yan Lugong and Su Dongpo, etc., are influenced by aesthetics and expressive techniques. Zodiac Zhou’s calligraphy style is quite influential, vigorous and strong in style, vigorous and open-minded, and broad-minded in style, and magnificent in style; with careful taste, you can indeed feel a stubborn and persistent perseverance from the lines and lines of its dry pen. Spirit and bitterness, pungency and taste of life.

Regarding the calligraphy art of Huang and Ni, Qing Dynasty Song Nao commented: "At the end of the Ming Dynasty, Mr. Ni Hongbao, Yang Jibu, Huang Shizhai, poetry, calligraphy, and calligraphy all have a kind of restraint." [28] Huang Daozhou and Ni Yuanlu are both. Excellent feudal scholar-bureaucrats are also tragic statesmen. They are full of strategy and wealth, and they are upright and jealous, and they will inevitably be trapped by treacherous ministers. So they are all upright gentlemen, they have a sense of mission to be sent from the heavens, and their wishes are not realized, but they have the "suppression and upright spirit" in their chests. It is under the influence of this kind of emotion that they add to the calligraphy. Infinite vitality and personality charm.

3. Wayward Wang Duo and Fu Shan

Wang Duo (1592-1652) also joined Huang Daozhou and Ni Yuanlu as Jinshi, edited and edited by the official Hanlin, Zuo Shi Lang of the Ministry of Rites, etc. In the thirteenth year of Chongzhen, he was awarded the Shangshu Book of the Ministry of Rites of Nanjing. After breaking Beijing Chongzhen's self-hanging, Ma Shiying was equivalent to the establishment of the Nanming court by King Lifu of Nanjing. Wang Duo was awarded the Book of Honor, Dongge University Scholar, and Young Master. On May 15th of the first year of Hongguang, the Qing soldiers came under the city of Nanjing. Wang Duo, Qian Qianyi, Zhao Zhilong and others led hundreds of officials to open the city gate to welcome the surrender. After being sent to the Qing Dynasty, he went to the post of Shangshu in the Ministry of Rites, and the history books were included in the biography of "the second minister".

Wang Duo calligraphy writing

Wang Duo is very similar to Zhang Ruitu. He is good at speculation and self-preservation. He is a madman from outside Confucianism and inside. His thesis reads: "The essay must be deep-hearted and vigorous. Vigorously, such as the gods in the sea, wearing the baluo, sucking for ten days, insulting the stars, playing for nine, hitting three mountains, kicking the world!"[29] , The extreme arrogance can be seen from this. The same is true in calligraphy, although he has repeatedly emphasized: "If you don't learn ancient books, you will fall into the wild and vulgar." [30] But when writing, it is always more important to express yourself. Blindly exerting force, he will mistakenly recognize the various methods of iron painting and silver hook, so the devilish energy is very big." [31] The "devilish energy" is also the emotion that is difficult to control. Wang Duo tried to say: "Every book, when talking about soldiers and swords, sometimes feel uneasy, and give out anger under the ten fingers, and there is a state of contempt for the spine." [32] At that time, most people said that the book was more powerful but "extraordinarily few." "The person who accumulates and borrows", [33] This also refers to the difficult things of its "magic energy". Don't you know that it is this kind of "magic energy" that produces the great charm of calligraphy, which is fascinated by future generations. After the Qing Dynasty, Wang Duo put his life value on "just a few lines of good books", so he was very concerned about the views of others. There must be deep love for my book. Those who don’t know are called Gao Xian, Zhang Xu, Huai Su Ye Dao, I am dissatisfied! I am dissatisfied! The more important calligraphy dignity also reveals the emotional psychology brought about by his unusual life experience.

Fu Shan's Cursive Script Poetry and Poetry of the Ancient Fragrant Aya 183cm×48.5cm Collection of Shanxi Provincial Museum

Fu Shan (1607-1684), the Ming scholars, was the opposite of Wang Duo in personality, and he was a well-known anti-Qing scholar. In calligraphy, he advocates "I would rather be clumsy than clever, rather ugly than glamorous, rather be detached than light, and be frank than arrange" [35]. People said that Fu Shan Xingcao was "lively and full of energy", "dangyi and detached", "dangyi and majestic, aggressive". [36] From his stippling fonts, I can see that Fu Shan's pens always contain a kind of vigor and excitement, a spirit of resistance that does not admit defeat and does not bow. This spirit is consistent with Huang Daozhou and Ni Yuanlu. The difference is that Huang and Ni are the majestic and upright ministers in the court, and they still have their rationality to control under the staunch and vigorous gestures. The Fu's book is not as powerful as Huang and Ni, but is superior in majestic style, showing a kind of transcendence and aloof and heroic charm. Sometimes the emotional rise makes the brush and ink out of control, so the magical brush of Jiangshanzhisuke and the absurd brush and ink like wild fox and Zen appear at the same time. This is also the reason for the two extremes of Fu Shan's calligraphy works, such as the town house talisman. Where.

Cursive script belongs to freehand art, which is most easily affected by emotions. Only when you are affected by emotions and want to use pen and ink to vent, can you truly enter the work into the author's spiritual soul. However, cursive script belongs to the dynamic style. The cursive style that originally belonged to the stippling style, driven by a certain "emotion", will make the original style of stippling even more deformed and exaggerated, producing many unexpected effects. Of course, when the strong "emotions" reach "I don't know there is me and no one is there", the writing will inevitably follow the feeling of pen and ink and break away from the rules. Writing seems to become a pure performance art, and calligraphy becomes a heresy. Therefore, we have to pay attention to the two sides of emotional cursive script. On the one hand, its spirit is greatly enhanced due to the support of emotions. On the other hand, under strong emotions, the pen and ink will get out of control. It is inevitable that there will be a situation of losing the other, which can be summarized into three. This kind of phenomenon: one is destructive, use pen to sweep the vertical strokes of letter-hand drawing, scattered pen sideways, and upside down; the second is chaotic, do not avoid broken ink and broken writing and common characters, should be broken continuously and not connected, or even structured incorrectly. The combination is unreasonable; the third is extreme, which is inextricably linked up and down. The left and right are like smoke and fog, the round is a big trap and the small circle is round, and the square folds will increase the accumulation of firewood. Therefore, calligraphy works that are refreshing for people have been created, but they always have advantages and disadvantages.

In short, emotional cursive script is based on the nature of cursive script and infused with a kind of passion. It will produce many unexpected and magical pens. At the same time, the magic of wild foxes also gathers the front of the pens unexpectedly, so most of his works have mixed reputations. The litigation is disputed. Looking back at the history of Chinese calligraphy, we are advancing in the constant affirmation, negation, and negation of the negation. The shortcomings criticized yesterday are likely to become the characteristics of praise today. The history of calligraphy has developed and grown in the diversity and complexity. . It can be concluded that emotional cursive script is also a driving force that cannot be ignored in the development of calligraphy history.

[1] (Tang) Zhang Huailan, "Literature Theory", "Selected Calligraphy Essays in Past Dynasties", Shanghai Calligraphy and Painting Publishing House, 1979, p.209.

[2] (Tang) Sun Guoting, "Book Genesis", "Selected Calligraphy Essays in Past Dynasties", p. 128.

[3] Wang Shi, "A Brief Talk on Emotions and Novels", "Contemporary Literary Circles", Issue 2, 1987.

[4] (Tang) Han Yu, "Preface to the Master of Xianxian", "Selected Calligraphy Essays in Past Dynasties", p.292.

[5] Selected Translation 1 of "Encyclopedia of World Art" edited by the Italian Society of Cultural Cooperation, Shanghai People's Fine Arts Publishing House, 1987, p. 259.

[6] "Romanticism" Article in "Encyclopedia of Soviet Union", "Literary Theory Translation Collection", 1958, first issue, p. 233.

[7] (Ming) Li Zhi, "The Theory of Childhood", "Selected Works of Ming Dynasty", People's Literature Publishing House, 1999, p.229.

[8] Ibid., p. 234.

[9] Zhang Pengchuan, "A Discussion on the Origin of the "Zhongtang" Style of Painting and Calligraphy", "Up and Down Loess-Art Archaeology Collection", Jinan Shandong Pictorial Publishing House, 2006, p.253.

[10] (Ming) Jicheng "Yuanye", Jilin Wenshi Publishing House, 1998, p. 95.

[11] "A Dictionary of Chinese Calligraphy Appreciation", Dadi Publishing House, 1989, p. 1036.

[12] Ibid., p. 1035.

[13] (Qing Dynasty) Lin Huiru, "Anecdotes of the Ming Dynasty", "Yongli Factual Records · Another Kind", Beijing Ancient Books Publishing House, 2002, pages 270 and 271.

[14] (Qing Dynasty) Ni Huiding's "Ni Yuanlu Chronicle" appendix Zhao Jishi "Ni Wenzhengong Biography", Zhonghua Book Company 1994, p. 104.

[15] Ibid., p. 115.

[16] "History of Ming Dynasty", Zhonghua Book Company, 1974, p. 6841.

[17] Ma Zonghuo, "Shu Lin Zao Jian", Cultural Relics Publishing House, 1984, p. 189.

[18] Same as above.

[19] "Calligraphy News", No. 49, 1992.

[20] "History of Ming Dynasty", p. 6595.

[21] "A Dictionary of Chinese Calligraphy Appreciation", p. 1042.

[22] Ni Huiding's Chronicle of Ni Yuanlu, p. 5.

[23] Ibid., p. 115.

[24] Same as above.

[25] Kang Youwei, "Guangyizhou Shuangxiu", "Selected Calligraphy Essays in Past Dynasties", p.860.

[26] "A Dictionary of Chinese Calligraphy", page 1050.

[27] "A Dictionary of Chinese Calligraphy", p. 1048.

[28] (Qing Dynasty) Song Nao's "Xibei Class Draft", Volume 28, "Postscript of Huang Shizhai's Modern Poems in Regular Script", Siku Quanshu.

[29] (Ming) Wang Duo's "Wen Dan", block copy.

[30] "Complete Works of Chinese Calligraphy 61·Wang Duo Juan", Rong Baozhai Publishing House, 1993, p.649.

[31] (Qing Dynasty) Ni Houzhan, "Ni's Miscellaneous Calligraphy", "Selected Essays on Calligraphy in Ming and Qing Dynasties", Shanghai Bookstore 1994, p. 423.

[32] Ink of Wang Duo's "The Poems for the History of the Path", "Complete Works of Chinese Calligraphy 61·Wang Duojuan", Rongbaozhai Publishing House, 1993, p. 191.

[33] (Qing Dynasty) Wang Hong's "Dizhai Inscription Postscript", Ma Zonghuo's "Shu Lin Zao Jian", p. 196.

[34] "The Complete Works of Wang Duo's Calligraphy", three volumes, Henan Fine Arts Publishing House, 2007, page 827.

[35] (Qing Dynasty) Fu Shan, "Shuanghong Niche Calligraphy", "Selected Essays on Calligraphy in Ming and Qing Dynasties", p.542.

[36] Ma Zonghuo, "Shu Lin Zao Jian", Cultural Relics Publishing House, 1984, p.196.