A native of Hailing (now Taizhou, Jiangsu) in the Tang Dynasty, he was a calligrapher and critic of calligraphy and painting. There is no examination of his birth and death, and he was active from Kaiyuan (713-755) to Qianyuan (758-759) of the Tang Dynasty. Li Guanyou led the government soldiers Cao Shenjun, Hanlin Zongzong, Ezhou Sima and so on.
  Zhang Huaiguan wrote Shanzhen, Xing, Xiaozhuan, Bafen and other books. He himself said that his formal (script) and running (script) are comparable to those of Yu (Shinan) and Zhu (Suiliang), and Cao Yu has been unique for hundreds of years, and is no different from King Zhong. His younger brother Huaiyou had literary talents, was good at seal script and Bafen, and was especially good at cursive and Li. He was a bachelor's student in Hanlin Academy and Jixian Academy. His father Zhang Shaozong was also a calligrapher. It can be seen from this that Zhang Huaiguan grew up in such a calligraphy family, and there is no doubt that he is good at calligraphy. Unfortunately, Zhang Huaiguan's handwriting has not yet been discovered. Apart from calligraphy, his deeds are rarely mentioned.
  The calligraphy commentaries handed down from generation to generation include "Shu Appraisal", "Book Records of Two Kings and Others", "Shu Yi", "Character Theory", "Six Types Theory", "Book Break", "Pingshu Yaoshi Lun" and so on. He also wrote "Painting", but unfortunately it has been lost for a long time. Zhang Yanyuan of the Tang Dynasty quoted some of his essays in "Records of Famous Paintings in the Past Dynasties".
  "Shu Duan" describes the origins of the ten styles of calligraphy and the three grades of calligraphers. "Book Evaluation" evaluates the value of calligraphy, "Book Review" evaluates 19 famous calligraphers, "Character Theory" discusses books with friends, and "Book Review Medicine and Stone Theory" describes calligraphy skills.
  "Shu Duan" consists of three volumes: the first, middle and second volumes. The first chapter of the first volume is self-prefaced, followed by a general heading. After the general heading, the origins of the ten styles of the book are described one by one, with comments and praise for each series, and finally a general conclusion. The middle volume and the second volume list the ancient and modern calligraphers, starting from Cangjie in the Yellow Emperor's time to Lu Zangyong in the Tang Dynasty. There are a total of 86 people in more than 3200 years, with three grades: Fen Shen, Miao and Neng. Each has a short biography, and there are 38 people in the appendix of the biography. . The volume does not include a general review.
  Zhang Huaiguan's several works were written in the following years: "Shu Duan" in the 15th year of Emperor Xuanzong's Kaiyuan reign (727), "Shuju" in the 13th year of Emperor Xuanzong's Tianbao reign (754), and "Shuyi" in the first year of Emperor Suzong's Qianyuan (758). ), between 110 and 141 years after the founding of the Tang Dynasty. The year 289 of the Tang Dynasty is appropriate. What was the situation in the book world during this period? All things in the universe are constantly developing and changing, and the style of writing is also changing, with various shapes and forms. By the time of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the world of calligraphy was like the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, with heroes vying for the throne and hundreds of schools of thought emerging. Zhen, Li, Xing, and Cao were all in extreme change. When it developed into the Tang Dynasty, emperors and ministers competed to study this method. Moreover, it is difficult for the calligraphy style to show the potential for newness and novelty. Instead, it pays more attention to the competition of brushwork and structure, and increasingly emphasizes legality. As far as calligraphy styles are concerned, there are six styles (Qin Dynasty), eight styles (Xu Shen of the Han Dynasty), thirty-six styles (Wang Jian), fifty-six styles (Wei Ji), and even hundreds of styles. Say wait. This complex and complicated situation of contention among a hundred schools of thought has brought about the progress of calligraphy taxonomy. Zhang Huaiguan wrote in the "Preface to the Book": "The pale ones sing the first, and the ignorant ones continue. The opinions are clear, and it is rare to know which one is it. And when discussing the ancestors of Chinese characters, they all hold heresies and speculate that bees are flying, which is completely unfounded. "It's so confusing." His description of the confusion of calligraphy classification at that time is accurate. Zhang Huaiguan wrote "Book Break" to explain "the origins of the ten styles of books" and to judge "the origins of books" in order to "discuss the past and present, pull out the root of the fox, resolve the knots of disputes, examine the absurd and absurd, and explore the subtleties". The pros and cons of the three products.” Undoubtedly, his contribution to calligraphy is huge.
  Zhang Huaiguan listed ten styles of calligraphy: ancient Chinese, large seal script, small seal script, small seal script, eight points, official script, chapter, running script, Feibai and cursive script. He pointed out that "in addition to the ten books, there are books about turtles, snakes, lins, tigers, clouds, dragons, insects, and birds. They are not important in the world and should not be taken." For those who do not take this, Sun Guoting of Tang Dynasty held the same opinion as him in his book "Shupu". These miscellaneous books are still occasionally seen among the people, but they are not included in the scope of calligraphy research.
  Zhang Huaiguan said: "(Zhenwen) is slightly different from ancient Chinese and Dazhuan." In other words, ancient Chinese, Dazhuan and Zhuan are generally similar. In this case, in line with the classification principle of "removing minor differences and maintaining great unity", the above three bodies are merged into one, collectively called seal script. Xiaozhuan was created after the Qin Dynasty merged with the Six Kingdoms. The First Emperor adopted Li Si's national policy of "writing with the same text", banned other calligraphy styles, burned books, and created Xiaozhuan. The so-called "seal", he said: "The seal is passed down." The so-called large seal and small seal do not mean that the shape of the characters is large or small, but it refers to the ancient and modern meanings. According to ancient and modern legends, the big seal script is a seal script, and the small seal script is also a seal script. He said: "(The small seal script is) an addition to the larger seal script, similar to and different from the original script." In this case, the ancient script, the large seal script, the original script and the small seal script can be grouped into one category, and they can be collectively called seal script.
  He also said: "The regular script and the official script were originally made, and the large and small scripts are almost the same." It has the meaning of seal script; the second, regular script and official script are basically the same. From this, we can know that the official script mentioned in the Tang Dynasty was regular script, which is different from the official script we recognize today. And "(Bafen) is originally called regular script", "because of its age, the eight characters gradually become scattered, and it is also called Bafen." In short, now we can generally classify official script and Bafen into one category, collectively called official script .
  Cursive script includes Zhangcao, Xingcao, Jincao (small grass), and Kuangcao (large grass). He pointed out that "the beginning of cursive script is due to drafting." This is the fundamental reason for the formation and development of cursive script, which is what he said "the origin of cursive script." "Zhangcao is the speed of official script, and grass is the speed of Zhangcao." This sentence expresses the essential connection between Zhangcao and Cao, especially the closer connection with Jincao. He did not use the name "Kuaicao" in "Book Break". He wrote that cursive fonts are "involved in the upper and lower characters, or borrowed from below the upper characters to be above the lower characters. They have strange shapes and combinations, and include both numbers and meanings." Therefore, Zhangcao, Jincao, Kuangcao, and Xingcao can be generally divided into one category of cursive script.


《书断》卷中、卷下为:“自黄帝史籀苍颉,迄于皇朝黄门传郎卢藏用, ……论较其优劣之差,为神、妙、能三品,人为一传。亦有随事附者,通为一评,穷其藏否。”按“神、妙、能三品”品评书作,在我国书学史上,他是最早的一位。故《四库全书提要》称“书家有三品之目,自此书始”。这对于书之创作、鉴赏、收藏,均有一定的促进作用。孟子说“观水有术,必观其澜”。观书也有术,“三品”就是一种术。
  Regarding the three qualities of Shen, Miao and Neng, by what standards they should be evaluated, it seems elusive after reading the above three examples. Let’s take a look at what he said in his general comments after the third product. The general review roughly stated the following points: 1. "The greatness can be described in words"; 2. "Equal saints and equal depth, each has his own best"; 3. "From the bottom to the bottom when the skills are achieved, and the top to the top when the virtues are achieved."
  We say that the evaluation of calligraphy is a matter of appreciation of calligraphy and an aesthetic evaluation. It is a feeling of beauty, a comment after feeling it. We read these three examples and saw that the comments by Zhang Huaiguan and other calligraphers all expressed their personal feelings about beauty. Calligraphers writing books are creations, and reviewers reviewing books are also creations.
  Zhang Huaiguan said: "Those who have a deep understanding of calligraphy can only see the spirit and not the shape of the characters. If you are careful and mysterious, there will be no trace of the things left behind, so why not make sense." ("On Characters") This means that people who have a deep understanding of calligraphy, It is not just about focusing on the shape of the fonts, but more importantly, how to examine the inner spirit of the book, that is, the dots, lines, spaces, layout, and composition of the book give people a sense of weight, strength, rhythm, and life, etc., and feel its brilliance. , charm, artistic conception. This aesthetic vision and measure are like a particularly sophisticated and spiritual mirror. Is there anything that cannot be reflected, reflected, or penetrated? How can the evaluation of calligraphy works not be "tactful" ("Calligraphy Appraisal")? His feelings and comments about the beauty of calligraphy art are correct.
  Chinese characters are composed of movement changes of dots and lines. The movement of dots and lines is the movement exerted by the calligrapher's brush on the paper. Changes such as clicks and pauses, priorities, circles and folds, black and white separation, arrangement and combination, etc. are all caused by the calligrapher's will and are all changes made by the calligrapher. The traces of comprehensive qualities such as thoughts, emotions, knowledge, and cultivation. Therefore, this point line is both "static" and "dynamic". Only those who are "deeply knowledgeable in calligraphy" can appreciate the spiritual power of the author through the dots and lines of ink condensed on the paper and the white and white lines of ink and cloth between the lines. The cursive calligraphy of Zhang Zhi, a calligrapher who is "the best in ancient and modern times", in the eyes of many "knowledgeable calligraphers" in ancient and modern times, can feel that "if a clear stream has a long source, flows infinitely, lingers back in the cliff valley, and is at the mercy of nature"; if A wise man travels in the land of silence, and a luan and a phoenix soar in the wild wilderness." At the same time, only great calligraphers who are "unparalleled in ancient and modern times" can infuse the insights of life into the bottom of their wrists and the tips of their pens, and reveal them between the lines, thus creating immortal works. A mediocre person cannot write good works, nor can he tell whether the work is good or bad. What’s the point? Zhang Huaiguan said metaphorically: “It’s like the eight trigrams are arranged in rows, and the eight tones are harmonious. People who are deaf and blind don’t know what it means. "
  The process of feeling the beauty of calligraphy is a process of weighing "reason" and moving "emotion". "Principle" can have a conventional standard, but "emotion" is often not completely consistent. The sentiments of the reviewer will be inconsistent with the sentiments of the author, and the sentiments between reviewers will not be consistent. Therefore, Zhang Huaiguan said in the opening chapter of "Book Review": "One taste is different, and the five tastes are different; the different sounds are pronounced, and the deeds are lost. All kinds of things follow each other, and they may be added to each other. The taste of Kuang Shu is unbiased. Really? If we compare it to the smallest detail, who can verify it accurately? It can be said that it is very accurate." This argument is also very pertinent.
  The standards for appreciating and evaluating Chinese calligraphy and painting are often the same. Zhang Huaiguan wrote "Book Break" and "Hua Break". "Hua Break" is also divided into three categories: Shen, Miao and Neng. He is also the earliest proposer of the theory of three categories of Chinese painting. Unfortunately, "Hua Duan" has been lost for a long time, and its essays can only be found in Tang Zhang Yanyuan's "Records of Famous Paintings in the Past Dynasties". Zhu Jingxuan of the Tang Dynasty also quoted his theory of three grades in his "Preface to the Famous Paintings of the Tang Dynasty". Zhang Huaiguan's "Three Grades Theory" of calligraphy and painting has far-reaching influence. There have been many subsequent critics, but his Three Grades Theory is still the simplest.
  The Qing Dynasty's "Guochao Shupin" lists five grades: Shen, Miao, Neng, Yi and Jia. Bao Shichen's interpretation is: "Peaceful, simple and pure, brilliant and natural, it is called a divine product. It is fermented without traces, horizontal and vertical, and is in harmony, it is called a wonderful product. After tracing the traces to the source, thinking and thinking, it is called an Nengpin. Chu tune sings from itself, Those who do not stray from elegance are called Yipin. Those who adhere to the signs of elegance and elegance are called Jiapin. "The five grades Bao mentioned here are roughly summarized as follows compared with Zhang Huaiguan's three grades: Bao's Yipin is approximately equivalent to Zhang's divine grade; Bao's divine grade The top grade and wonderful grade are about the same as Zhang's fine grade; the high grade and fine grade of Bao are about the same as Zhang's fine grade. In this way, our standards for Zhang’s three qualities of Shen, Miao and Neng are roughly as follows: Shenpin, “The perfect method is made in heaven, and the charm is transcendent”; Miaopin, “The wonderful method comes from the heart, and the spirit is natural”; Nengpin, “The perfect method is in the chest, "Follow every trace and watch for signs."
  In "Commentary on Shujuanzhu", Zhang Huaiguan said that he "study has gradually become more and more knowledgeable, and he is still able to repair strange things, and there are many things that he has not yet exhausted." Lord, to develop his talents; if he doesn’t meet a close friend to promote his career, it’s because he doesn’t know.” "And if you hold on to extraordinary talents and solitary qualities, they will not be allowed to exist in the world, or they will have no roots. Therefore, Confucius said: 'There are many people who are erudite and profound in planning but have not met them! How can I be alone?' However, knowledge is valuable, behavior is hidden, and behavior is taboo. It is so bright and clean that even the most obscure traces can be known to all?" This sigh is true.
  At the back of the copy of "Shuguan" in the Taizhou Library is a brief review of "Shuguan" by Zhao Xun. Comparing "Shu Duan" to "the system of the great "Yi"" and "the canon of the Spring and Autumn Annals", he pointed out that "there are things written in ancient times that cannot be commented on, and things that can be commented on cannot be written down. Today's books are also unified in the three beauties." And Jueju, which makes a family prosperous by itself. Although it was not written by Confucius and Father. This book is also a book that unifies the three beauties and Jueju, which makes a family prosperous by itself. Although it was not published by Confucius, it is still a colleague of Qiu Ming. How great! How great! "Zhang Huaiguan's "Book Break" is indeed a masterpiece of book criticism that will be remembered forever in the history of calligraphy. It will always provide guidance and inspiration to readers, and will be read frequently.