"Huashan Temple Stele" Eastern Han Dynasty official script inscription. The seal on the forehead is inscribed "Xiyue Huashan Temple Stele". It was established in the Xiyue Temple in Huayin County, Shaanxi Province in the eighth year of Yanxi's reign (165). One is said to have been written in the fourth year of Yanxi's reign. "Jin Shi Cui Bian" records: the stele is seven feet seven inches high and three feet six inches wide, with a total of twenty-two lines and a full line of thirty-seven characters. It was destroyed by an earthquake in the 34th year of Jiajing reign of Ming Dynasty (1555). From now on, those who survive in the temple will be re-engraved. 

   The inscription on this stele records the emperor's practice of Zen and worship of heaven and earth. The calligraphy of this stele has undergone many changes during the period of regulation and strictness, and is highly valued by those who study Han Li. Because there are four words "Guo Xiang Cha Shu" at the end of the stele, it has aroused discussion among scholars of all ages. Some think it is "Guo Xiang Cha"'s book, while others think "Guo Xiang" Cha Shu came to other people's books. There is also Tang Xuhao's "Records of Ancient Monuments". It means that it was written by Cai Yong, and the person who "chashu" (meaning to check and proofread) is Guo Xiang. But he did not provide sufficient evidence to explain why it was written by Cai Yong. Once this was said, it had a huge impact. For example, Song Hongshi's "Li Shi", Gu Yanwu of the Qing Dynasty's "Li Bian", Gu Nanyuan's "Li Bian" and Weng Fanggang's "Li Bian", etc., are all based on Xu's theory. Ming Guo Zongchang's "History of Epigraphy" and Zhao Kan's "Graphite Engraving Hua" began to doubt this theory, and the person who believed that the real calligraphy was Guo Xiangcha. In the front catalog of "Graphite Engraved Hua", under "Huashan Stele", it is titled "Guo Xiangcha Shu", while "History of Epigraphy" directly calls "Huashan Stele" "Xiangcha Stele". Modern scholars have basically confirmed that Guo and Zhao's theory is true.

   This stele, like the Ritual Vessel Stele, is hailed as a model among Han official scripts. It is elegant and upright, harmonious and dense, with neat words and line spacing, beautiful ripples, and the atmosphere of a temple. It is the main line of official script. Guo Zongchang of the Ming Dynasty said in his "History of Metal and Stone" that "the movement of the body and movement is the majesty of the Han Dynasty". Jin Nong, a famous official script writer in the Qing Dynasty, once praised "Huashan Shanshi is my teacher". Zhu Yizun of the Qing Dynasty commented on this stele and said: "There are three kinds of Han Li, one is square, one is smooth, and the other is strange and ancient. But Yanxi's "Huayue Stele" is a perfect combination, which is unprecedented, and has all three. Its length should be the first rank of Han Li." (Postscript to "Inscriptions on Epigraphy and Stone"). Liu Xizai also said: "The steles of the Han Dynasty are as sparse and scattered as those of Han Chi and Kong Zhou, and as strict as those of Heng Fang and Zhang Qian. They are all in the flourishing state of Li. Like the Huashan temple steles, they are majestic and dense, flowing and frustrated, and their meanings are inexhaustible." ("Yi Gui") Weng Fanggang said: "Zhu Zhucong's most recommended stele in the Han Dynasty. From Yu Pingxin's perspective, the Han Li's "Liu Utensil Stele" is the most popular. The upper part of this stele is in seal script, and the lower part is also in regular script. , so as to see the reason why the front and rear changes are so, this stele is easy to see in the origin of calligraphy. What makes it easy to see is not the original one." ("Emperor and Stone Records of the Two Han Dynasties")

   This stele was valued in the Tang Dynasty, and there should be a rubbing of it, but it has not been handed down. There are four old rubbings of the original stone handed down from generation to generation.

1. Changyuan version, also known as "Shangqiu version". Because in the Ming Dynasty, Wang Wensun's place in Changyuan (now part of Henan) was hidden, and after the Qing Dynasty, it was hidden in Shang Qiu and Song Nao's place, so it has these two names. Later, it was handed over to Chen Chongben, Yongli, and Duanfang. Later, Wu Rangzhi, Zhu Yizun, Song Nao, Chen Chongben, Weng Fanggang, Ruan Yuan, He Shaoji, Weng Tonghe, and others wrote postscripts. It was an early copy of the Song Dynasty and was later attributed to the Nakamura Fusaki family in Japan.

2. Huayin version, also known as "Guanzhong version". In the Ming Dynasty, it was stored in the Mozhuang Tower of Huayin Shang brothers Yunju and Yunzhao. It was later collected by Guo Zongchang and Wang Hong in the Qing Dynasty. Zhu Yizun and Duanfang passed it on to the collection. The post was followed by inscriptions and postscripts by Guo Zongchang, Wang Duo, Weng Fanggang and Qian Qianyi. Now in the Palace Museum,

Three and four Ming editions. Original rubbing of the entire piece mounted on scroll. It was collected by Feng Daosheng in the Siming Dynasty and was stored in Wanjuan Tower in Fengfang, Ningbo. It also belonged to the Fan family in Tianyige, Ningbo. In the Qing Dynasty, it belonged to Xieshan, Qian Daxin, Ruan Yuan, Duanfang and others, and finally to Hu Huichun in Hong Kong. In 1975, Hu Huichun donated it to the Cultural Relics Bureau of the Ministry of Culture for collection in the Palace Museum. The scroll is surrounded by inscriptions by Weng Fanggang, Chen Chongben, Ruan Yuan, He Shaoji and others, which have been intact for hundreds of years. It allows us to get a full view of the original stele, which he was unable to do.

 4. The Shunde edition, which is the edition kept by Jinnong Jindong, has several seals from the "Xiao Linglong Mountain Pavilion" printed by brothers Ma Yuelu and Ma Yueguan, Jinnong's friends, so it is called the "Linglong Shan Pavilion edition". Unfortunately, there are only two pages and ninety-six words. In the late Qing Dynasty, Li Wentian (1834-1895) of Shunde, Guangdong, was the superintendent of schools in Jiangxi. He bought it with a salary of 300 gold and silver, and it became a treasure in his "Taihua Building". Zeng Yan and Zhao Zhiqian filled in two missing pages from the hooked edition, and Hu Chuan re-hooked two pages from the Changyuan edition. In the last years of Guangxu's reign, Duan Fang, the governor of Liangjiang, tried his best to buy this post from Li's son, but failed. After the Second World War, this rubbing belonged to Mr. Lee Wing-sen's "Beishan Hall" in Hong Kong. Lee later donated this rubbing to celebrate the completion of the new building of the Cultural Institute of the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the establishment of the Art Museum. It is now in the collection of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The above four volumes all have photocopied editions in circulation, and there is also a Song rubbing from the Zhenhan Pavilion published in Hong Kong's "Shupu", which is actually a forgery.

   Official script developed from the Western Han Dynasty to the Eastern Han Dynasty, and its writing structure gradually became more perfect, rigorous and mature. "Huashan Temple Stele" also reflects this. Most of the dot painting is to build the front and go against the trend, hiding the head and protecting the tail. "The round pen belongs to the paper, so the center of the pen always moves in the dot painting." The lines written in the calligraphy are crisp and straight, which can give people a three-dimensional feeling. The pen used in this stele has both square and round strokes, with ups and downs, clear strokes, clear strokes, sudden downs and downs, and powerful force. Through the subtle changes of the strokes and turns of the pen, the opposite unity of movement and stillness of this monument is formed. The square posture of the folded pen represents static, while the circular posture of the pen is vivid, the straight line is static, and the curved pen is dynamic. Regarding the typical characteristics of official script, twists and turns, silkworm head and wild goose tail are extremely emphasized. The wave is strong and contains strong bones, and the wave is full of decorative beauty. Fang Shuo of the Qing Dynasty praised this stele in his "Inscriptions and Postscripts on Paintings and Calligraphy of Zhenjing Hall": "The characters are ridged and the strokes are like casts, and the meaning encompasses the ages. It has the power to overwhelm the three peaks. Bamboo Tuzhai) The old man said that he was the first among the Han Li, and he couldn't help but It’s thrilling, and no good person can be deceived!”

   This type of inscription is a solemn "temple text" commemorating merits and virtues. It is neat and dignified and has strict laws. The knots are square and slightly changed. Long and short are used interchangeably, and the slant and right strokes of the strokes respond to and avoid each other. Zhu Yizun of the Qing Dynasty commented on this stele: "There are three types of Han Li: one is square, one is smooth, and the other is ancient. Only Yanxi's "Huayue Stele" is unique, and has the best of the three. . It should be the first in the Han Dynasty." It can be seen from this that when studying this stele, we should pay attention to its square, smooth and ancient characteristics.

    This stele has many similarities with the stelae of "Yiying" and "Liqi". The upper part of the knot is tightened and the lower part is stretched, which not only retains the dignity of the steles such as "Yi Ying" and "Shi Chen" but also exaggerates its stretching. The overall atmosphere of "Huashan Temple Stele", which is gorgeous, rich and simple, is still an excellent model for Xi Li. While we see the many advantages of this monument, we should also pay attention to its shortcomings. When studying official script, we should make full use of our strengths and avoid weaknesses, study the laws of official changes, pursue the spirit of the ancient times, be good at absorbing the essence of Han steles, and avoid falling into the trend of Tang official script.


Explanation of "Huashan Temple Stele":

Zhou Li held the position of Fang (the mountain town in Henan is called Wei, which is called Xiyue, and the Chunqiu legend says that the mountains match the sky, and the stems are fixed). The sacrificial canon says: The sun, moon and stars are responsible for the enlightenment, geography, mountains and rivers, and reproduction. The merit) is added to the people, and the sacrifices are rewarded. The Book of Rites says: The emperor offered sacrifices to the heaven and the earth, and (mountains and rivers, every year, they have risen one after another from three to five years), and they offered mountains and rivers, either to the emperor, or to (the princes, so in the Tang Dynasty, Yuchou consulted the four mountains , and at the age of five, he went on a hunting tour, all In the fourth month (in the middle of the month, each province went to its own mountain to offer firewood to the fire), [Xia] Shang Ze did not hear about the profits and losses. , there are also) who served at Fang Yue and worshiped Gui (bi, played six songs). Emperor Gaozu first rose up and changed the Qin Dynasty to obscene worship. Taizong followed the instructions, and each edict had its own department. Those whose mountains and rivers were in the princes should be worshiped according to the time. Filial piety Emperor Wu practiced the rituals of Zen, the way to ascend the holiday, patrolled the Five Mountains, and worshiped Feng, so he built a palace underneath it. The palace was called Jiling Palace, Jian said Cunxian Temple, and the gate was called Wangxian. Gate. In the reign of Zhongzong, the envoys were envoys to hold sacrifices and pray at three temples every year. The latter did not carry on the previous ones, and (to) the death of Xin, they soaked in the Qiuxu, and the signs of the toe of the wall are still there. Jianwu's In the Yuan Dynasty, the incident was carried out, and the rites came from the province, but two thousand stones were sent to the temple every year. There was a wind and drought. I prayed and prayed, but there was no retribution. From then on, for more than a hundred years, I visited the west for something. He often went to Heng to offer sacrifices, but the stele he erected was engraved with (recording current events), and the words were erased and could not be remembered. In the seventh month of the fourth year of Yanxi, Yuan Feng of Runan, the chief guardian of Anguo Pavilion, held the throne of Weiyue. After the ancient system was repaired and abolished, Min Qi Ruozi, who understood the meaning of harmony, civil society and gods, and was proficient in the blessings of sincerity and sacrifice, is recorded in the case biography. The original origin, the inscription stone, was hung on the back, and his words said:
  The rocky Xiyue Mountains are so steep that they reach the sky. There is a river near the first day of the lunar month, so the Yangyang is deserted. The rocks stir up the clouds, and the rain brings rain to our crops. The supplies and goods are also related to Yaoguang. They are worshiped in the two states. In ancient times, they were called Yongliang and Feng Yubinqi. Wenwu conquered the prosperity, the emperor showed his righteousness, patrolled the provinces, jade and silk were tied, etiquette and high performance, the six music changes, dance to health, in the middle period of Han Dynasty, the temple was built, the mountains were guarded, the order was the hope, the Hou Wei Anguo, and the Ming Si Chapter, honoring the spiritual base, guarding the common altar, brights but fragrant, virtue gods encouraging their fragrance, restraining evil letters, and gathering good luck, so that they will last for many years, and the people will have no boundaries. 
  The Lord of the Yuan Prefecture respectfully paid homage to the God of Ming Dynasty, and decorated the stele with decorations. He moved to the capital Zhaoyin. The Lord of the Yuan Prefecture arrived. He admired the good work and followed it. On the twenty -ninth day of April in the eighth year of Yanxi's reign, Jiazi left. The Lord of the Yuan Prefecture met. , named Zhouyang, a native of Nuyang, Runan, Sun Fujun Baqiu, styled Shanling, born in Xindu, Anping, Shiling Zhujie , styled Xuande, born in Ganling, Cheng Zhang Fang, styled Shaoyou, born in Jing, Henan, Zuo Wei Tang You, courtesy name Junhui, was born in Mi, Henan. His lord was Wang Chang of Pleiyin, whose courtesy name was Dechang . He was the capital of Jingzhao Yin Supervisor, Shuipe Baling [Du Qian] Shishi, and sent [book] to Zuo Xinfeng Guo chashu , Engraved by Zhang Yingchuan, Handan Gongxiu (Su), and Gong Guojun (Qian).