Huai Su's "Da Cao Thousand Character Essay"

  [Author] Shi Huaisu (725-785), a calligrapher of the Tang Dynasty. Monk. His common surname was Qian, his courtesy name was Zangzhen, and he was from Changsha (now part of Hunan). In the third year of Shangyuan Dynasty (762), he was ordered to live in the West Taiyuan Temple. Work documents. He is especially good at cursive writing. When he is in a mood, he can move his pen like a sudden rain and a whirlwind, flying and turning, unpredictable and strict. Books tend to become dull in his later years. He was poor and had no paper to study, so he once planted more than ten thousand banana trees, took leaves to practice calligraphy, and named his residence "Lvtian Temple"; according to legend, he studied calligraphy diligently and turned his bare pen into a tomb. Chen Si's "Short History of Books" of the Southern Song Dynasty records: "If the book is not enough, I paint a plate of books and paint a square board. After writing again and again, the board is all worn." He received the brushwork from Jinwu Bingcao Wu Tong, who passed it on to Zhang Xu. Kuangcao succeeded Zhang Xu and developed, which is called "Kuaicao succeeds Dian". As famous as Zhang Xu, he is known as "Dian Zhang Zuisu". It had a huge impact on future generations. The ink inscriptions passed down from generation to generation include "Kusun Tie", "Autobiography Tie", "Xiaocao Thousand Character Essay"; engravings of "Notre Dame Tie", "Lü Gong Tie", etc.

   [Work] Also known as "Thousand Gold Tie". Ink on silk. Written in the 15th year of Zhenyuan (AD 799), it has 84 lines and a total of 1045 words. There are many kinds of Huaisu Qianzi calligraphy, but the "Xiaozi Zhenyuan version" is the best. It is praised as "one character is worth a thousand gold", so it is called "a thousand gold calligraphy". Signature: "This book was written in Lingling on June 17, the 15th year of Zhenyuan, when I was sixty-three." This book was written by Huaisu in his later years. , neither impatient nor impetuous, the tone is particularly clear and elegant, and the font size is consistent. At first it seems careless, but in fact the writing is in line with the law, without the madness and anger, and instead sticks to plainness and elegance. It reflects another pursuit of Huaisu's artistic creation. The calligraphy of this calligraphy is excellent, simple and elegant, vigorous and quiet, varied but never crazy. The style is close to that of "On Calligraphy". It is very legal and has a lot of ancient meanings. The pen is round and smooth, mostly with "hidden front". According to the book, the muscles and bones are contained inside, and the method of "house leakage marks" is deeply understood. Its structure is smooth and even, its rules are strict, it is more skillful than simple, and rich in uprightness. Calligraphy has become dull, but every line is meticulous and has a richer charm. Ming Mo Ruzhong said: "The original work of Huai Su's "Thousand Character Classic" on silk has abnormal stippling and vertical and horizontal ideas. At first it seems careless, but then the movements follow the pattern and fit the chemical industry. There is something indescribable about its wonderfulness." Ming Wen Zhengming He said: "The works written on silk in his later years should be regular and meticulous, and can be said to be plain and natural." Wenjia said: "The writing style of "Qianwen" on silk is rigorous and dense, and every word has its meaning. It eliminates the habit of madness and anger and focuses on It is plain and elegant." Yu Youren said: "This is Master Su's best work in his later years. It can be said that 'pine wind and flowing water are naturally harmonious, and you can hold the piano without playing it'."

    In the history of cursive calligraphy art, Huai Su and his "Autobiography" have been discussed by calligraphy enthusiasts for more than 1,200 years since the middle of the Tang Dynasty. Huaisu, who became a monk at the age of ten, was named Zangzhen and his common surname was Qian. He was a native of Lingling, Yongzhou (now Lingling, Hunan). When he was young, he was interested in calligraphy during his spare time in meditation. Being poor and without paper and ink, he planted more than 10,000 banana trees for calligraphy practice and used banana leaves instead of paper. Since the residence is surrounded by banana trees, the residence is humorously called "Green Sky Temple". He also used lacquer trays and lacquer boards to replace paper. He studied diligently and carefully, and the writing on the trays and boards was all through. There were also many broken pen tips, which were buried together, which was called the "Bi Zhong".

     He had a relaxed temperament and was keen on cursive writing, but had no intention of practicing Zen. He drank wine and ate meat, made friends with celebrities, and had friends with Li Bai, Yan Zhenqing, etc. Famous for "crazy grass". There are many records about Cinsu in the literature of the Tang Dynasty. "The pen is moved quickly, like a sudden rain and whirlwind, flying and turning, changing at will, and the law is there." Princes and celebrities also loved to make friends with this crazy monk. Renhua of the Tang Dynasty wrote in a poem: "The crazy monk came to Beijing the day before yesterday, rode on the princes' horses in the morning, and stayed in the princes' houses in the evening. Who doesn't make a plain screen, and who doesn't paint the wall with whitewash. The white wall shakes the sunshine, and the plain screen condenses the dawn frost. Wait for you. The sway is unforgettable, the horse welcomes you to sit in the hall, the gold plate holds the wine and the fragrance of bamboo leaves. After ten cups and five cups, you can’t understand it, but after a hundred cups, you start to go crazy..." The predecessors commented on his wild and careless inheritance. Xu has made a new development, which is called "continuing Dian with madness" and also known as "Dian Zhang Zui Su". It has a great influence on future generations.

     Huai Su is good at using the center stroke to create large strokes with pure force, such as "sudden rain and whirlwind, filling the hall with momentum", to the state of "suddenly three or five screams, filling the wall with thousands of words". Despite his speed, Huai Su was able to fly through the entire story with very few mistakes. Compared with the messy and imperfect calligraphy methods of many calligraphers, it is actually much better. This is a Kuangcao who knows Huaisu. Although his thoughts are wandering and ever-changing, he never leaves the laws of the Wei and Jin Dynasties. This is indeed due to his extreme penance. There are many handwritings handed down by Huaisu: Thousand-Character Essay, Purity Sutra, Notre Dame Post, Zangzhen Post, Lü Gong Post, Beriberi Post, Self-narrative Post, Ku Bamboo Post, Fish-Eating Post, Forty-Two Chapter Sutra, etc.  

  "Dacao Thousand Character Essay" should be Huaisu's masterpiece of cursive script. Compared with "Self-narrative Post", its lines are more rounded and thicker, and the changes in the thickness of the lines are not very obvious. The pulling strings between words are slightly less than those in "Self-narrative Post". The size of the font changes according to the natural structure of the font. , not overly emphasized, appearing natural and subtle. In terms of form, it is a horizontal manuscript, and in terms of brushwork, it has the flavor of the Wei and Jin Dynasties; in terms of ink technique, the ink is even and moist, without excessive changes in thickness. Structurally, the independent form of each character is relatively unrestrained, but the entire line spacing does not have big jumps, but is relatively smooth. Only in the last five lines, passion burst out, and long vertical characters appeared, such as "dai", "wen", "ye" and other words. In such a short distance of the five lines, three long vertical characters appeared. It is not difficult to see that the writer was at that time. His excitement seemed to spread for thousands of miles. If you read it calmly, you will find that you can't help but marvel at the proficiency in the writing method of "The Thousand-Character Essay on Da Cao" and the freedom it achieves.

     The author believes that this post is also a must-visit post for learning cursive writing. First, the cursive script is complete and has certain common rules. Every calligraphy style has its own special language symbols, and the symbolism of cursive script is more unique and obvious. Second, the knots are subtle and smooth, less intense than the big openings and closings. Changes, but without losing the turbulent melody of life within the structure; third, the lines are powerful and rounded, and the center of the pen penetrates the back of the paper, like a dragon moving, long live the withered vine; fourth, the potential is restrained, ready to go, embodying the moderation of traditional Chinese culture Harmonious artistic aesthetic. These characteristics are more suitable for friends who are new to cursive writing and can avoid detours. After mastering the basic brushwork and knotting of cursive script, you can further draw on the strengths of others and integrate them artistically, thereby gradually forming your own personal language and artistic style.

    "The Thousand-Character Essay on Grass" is like a beautiful serenade, expressing the true feelings of life in warm whispers, especially the last few exaggerated strokes, which make it more real and natural.

     Appreciating Huai Su's cursive calligraphy, you will feel the sway of his elbows and wrists when he slightly turns in his strange and changing line quality, and the pen and ink surge with the turbulence of his heart... As a result, his mood cannot be calm for a long time, even as time flies by. Today, 1,200 years ago, it is enough for us to be captivated and excited by his spiritual aura.


The sky and the earth are dark and yellow, the universe is vast, the sun and the moon are waxing, the stars are arranged, the cold comes and the summer comes, the autumn harvests and the winter hides

The rest of the leap year comes, Lu Lu adjusts the sun, the clouds cause rain, the dew turns into frost, gold produces beautiful water, and the jade comes out of Kungang

The sword is called the giant palace, the pearl is called the night light, the fruit is precious, the plum blossom is heavy, the vegetable is heavy, mustard ginger, the sea is salty and the river is light, the scales are hidden and the feathers are flying.

The dragon master, the fire emperor, the bird official and the human emperor, began to write characters, wore clothes, and gave up the throne to the country. Yu Tao and Tang Dynasty

Condemning the people and attacking the crime, Zhou Fa Yin Tang sat in court and asked, Chui Gong Pingzhang, Ai Yu Li's head, ministers Fu Rong and Qiang

Far and near are one, leading the guests to return to the king. The phoenix sings in the bamboo. The white horse food court turns into vegetation. Reaching all directions.

Covering this body and hair, the Four Great and Five Constant Beings, Gongwei Juyang, how dare you damage the women who admire chastity, and the men who follow the example of talents?

If you know your faults, you must correct them. If you are able, never forget them. Don’t talk about the shortcomings of others. Rely on your own strengths. The messenger can be restored. The desire of the weapon is difficult to measure.

The ink is sad and the silk is dyed. The poem praises the lamb.

Sounds are conveyed in an empty valley, listening is learned in an empty hall, misfortunes are caused by bad accumulation, good fortune is celebrated by good luck, a piece of jade is not a treasure, an inch of yin is a competition.

Serving the king as a father, he is strict and respectful; filial piety should be done to the best; loyalty means doing one's best; being in deep positions and walking on thin soil, long-term prosperity and warmth

Like orchids, as prosperous as pine trees, the stream flows endlessly, the abyss is clear and reflected, the face is still and thoughtful, the words are stable

The beginning is sincere and the beauty is prudent, and the end is prudent and appropriate. The foundation of a prosperous industry. The qualifications are extremely incompetent. Learn well and become an official. Regent and enter politics.

Keep the sweet tang, go and sing it for the benefit, the music is different from the noble and the humble, the etiquette distinguishes the honor and the humble, the superiors and the inferiors are harmonious, the husband sings and the wife follows

Received training from outside and worshiped the mother's rites. All the aunts and uncles, You Zibi'er, Kong Huai brothers, and the same spirit connected the branches.

Cutting rules, benevolent and compassionate, avoid making mistakes, be upright and honest, be upright and incorruptible, be calm and affectionate 

The heart is excited and the mind is tired, keeping true and full of ambition, chasing things and changing the mind, insisting on elegance, being a good noble and self-reliant, the city of China 

The two capitals of east and west, Luo behind Mang and facing Luo, floating on the Wei River and occupying Jing, the palace is full of luxuriance, the view from the building is startling, and the pictures depict animals. 

Paintings of colorful fairies, Bingshe next to Kai, A tent with couplets, a banquet, drums, harp and sheng, promotion to accept the emperor 

The suspicious star turns around, you pass through Guangnei, and you reach Chengming on the left. It not only gathers the tomb records, but also gathers the heroes. Du Manuo Zhongli 

Painted script on the wall. General Luo of the government, Huaiqing, the hero of the road. Households were sealed in eight counties. Thousands of soldiers were given to the family. High crowns accompanied the chariot. 

Drive the hub and vibrate the tassel, be rich and wealthy in the world, drive the car fat and light, make great achievements in policy, write the inscription on the stele, Yi Yin of Feng River 

When I was in charge of Aheng, I was in Qufu, I was in Weidan, and I was in the camp. Duke Huan helped the weak and helped the weak. Qi returned to Han Dynasty and benefited. 

Talk about feeling Wu Ding, Jun Yi is secretly not, Dou Shi Ning, Jin and Chu are more domineering, Zhao Wei is in trouble, Guo is destroyed in a false way 

Implementing the alliance with the soil, how to abide by the contract law, Han Chao and the punishment, starting Jian Pomu, using the best military, Xuanwei Desert 

Well-known paintings, traces of Yu in Kyushu, the merger of hundreds of counties in Qin Dynasty, Yue Zong Taidai, Zen master Yunting, Yanmen Zisai 

Jitian Chicheng, Kunchi Jieshi, Juye Dongting, Kuangyuan Mianmiao, Yanxiu Yaoming, treating the root cause in agriculture. 

To finance the crops, to pay tribute to the southern acres, I am an art millet, to pay tribute to the new ones when they are ripe, to encourage rewards and to depose the emperor, Meng Ke Dun Su 

Shi Yubingzhi, the common people are of the mean, Lao Qian sincerely gives the order, listens to the sound and observes the reason, discerns the appearance and color, and brings good luck to the future. 

Encourage others to grow, avoid paying tribute and ridicule, favoring increases resistance, and humiliation is close to shame. Fortunately, Lin Gao saw the opportunity between the two. 

Who is forced to break up the group? I just live in a leisure place. I am silent and lonely. I seek the ancients and seek opinions. I can relax and relax. I enjoy playing and playing hard. 

Qi Xie Huan Zhao, the history of the canal, the garden strips, the loquats in late green, the parasol trees withered by fleas, the Chen Genwei shading 

Fallen leaves are swaying, wandering ducks are traveling alone, Ling Mojiang Xiao is lingering in reading and playing in the market, looking at the bag box, it is easy to be scared. 

It belongs to the wall of the ear wall. It is a place for eating and drinking. It is good for the mouth and fills the intestines. It is cooked and slaughtered when full. Hungry and tired of chaff. Relatives and old friends. 

Old and young, different food, concubine Yu Ji spinning, turban curtain room, Wan fan, round wedding dress, silver candle, shining brightly, sleeping day and night 

Blue Bamboo Shoots and Elephant Bed, String Song and Wine Banquet, Taking Cups and Lifting Drinks, Straightening Hands and Stamping Feet, Happy and Healthy, Direct Succession 

Sacrifice to Haochang, worship again, fearful and frightened, keep the ultimatum brief, answer carefully and carefully, and want to bathe in dirt. 

Hold on to the heat and wish to cool down. Donkeys, mules and calves are special. They jump with fear and surpass the horse. Kill thieves and thieves. Capture rebels. Bu She Liao Wan 

Ji Qin and Ruan Xiao, Tian's pen and paper, Jun Qiao and Ren Diao, explaining the differences and benefiting from vulgarity, all are wonderful, Mao Shi Shuzi 

Worker's smile is beautiful, every year is approaching, the sun is shining brightly, the Xuanji is hanging in the sky, the dark soul is shining all over, and the salary is repairing. 

Yongsui Jishao leads the way step by step, looking down at the gallery temple, girding up the villa, wandering and looking around, ignorant and ignorant 

It’s okay to be a fool and wait for someone to criticize you, to say that you can help someone