Aesthetic characteristics of calligraphy art 

Calligraphy refers to the writing methods, rules and regulations of words. The specific meaning of Chinese calligraphy refers to works of art with beautiful appreciation value. Broadly speaking, the origins of writing in various ethnic groups in the world can be traced back to "hieroglyphics". They all have their own characters and writing techniques, and they all have their own "calligraphy". However, the characters of all countries have discontinued from pictograms and moved from "ideographic" to "ideographic". Only Chinese Chinese characters have continued from the "ideographic" of the original pictograms. Long-term development has made Chinese calligraphy a unique art form in the world. 

1. The basic elements that constitute aesthetics    

Calligraphy takes writing Chinese characters as its object, and uses strokes, structure, and composition as its basic elements. It achieves the purpose of expressing art through the use of pen and ink. The reason why Chinese calligraphy can become an art is that Chinese characters have great plasticity and adaptability, which means that Chinese characters are born with artistic qualities. For example:

(1) The shapes of Chinese characters are varied: There are square, rectangular, flat square, fret-shaped, to fret-shaped; wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, narrow at the bottom and wide at the top; high on the left and low on the right, high on the right and low on the left, etc.

(2) Chinese character fonts are constantly evolving:Oracle bone inscriptions, bronze inscriptions, Zhou inscriptions, Warring States characters, small seal script, bamboo slips, official script, Zhangcao, Jincao, Wei stele, block script, running script, etc.

(3) Each font of Chinese characters has rich and different styles and writing characteristics.: Either heavy, or elegant, or solemn, or elegant, or vigorous, or smart, or childish, or sophisticated, or tranquil, or elegant, or dense, or sparse...

(4) The unique tools of calligraphy - brush, ink, and rice paper each have special functions: "the thickness, lightness, dryness, and wetness of the ink color"; the "square and round, firm and soft, lift and press, pause and setback, quickness, contraction and release" of the brushwork, etc., as well as the "points, lines, surfaces,... structure, organization"

(5) Different eras and different cultural backgrounds: Inscribed oracle bones from the Yin and Shang Dynasties, cast bronze inscriptions from the Zhou Dynasty, silk scrolls and bamboo slips from the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, inscriptions on cliffs from the Han and Wei dynasties, rulers and tablets from the Jin and Tang dynasties, etc. It can be said that there are so many famous steles and calligraphy, and so many famous masters of the Fang family, all of which constitute the basic elements of Chinese calligraphy aesthetics and the long and splendid cultural history of Chinese calligraphy. Shen Yinmo, a contemporary Chinese calligrapher, said: "The world recognizes Chinese calligraphy as the highest art, because it can show amazing miracles. It has the brilliance of pictures without color, and the harmony of music without sound. It is fascinating and refreshing. Especially calligraphy The combination with literature deepens the spiritual connotation, making calligraphy a national art that expresses the deepest artistic conception and sentiment."      

   It can be seen that calligraphy, like other sister arts, has strong artistic expression. Calligraphers often use the brush in their hands to express their feelings, borrow objects to express their aspirations, or cultivate their body and mind. Organically intertwining one's own life emotions, spiritual connotations and aesthetic tastes with the lines of pen and ink. Painter Lu Zifeng said: "During the modeling process, the artist's emotions have been integrated with the power of the pen. Wherever the pen touches, whether it is a long or short line, short to extremely short dots and blocks expanded from dots, they become emotions." Traces of activity.” 2. A huge system of fonts and calligraphy styles     

(1) Seal script Seal script generally refers to ancient characters before the Qin Dynasty, including oracle bone inscriptions, bronze inscriptions, Zhou inscriptions, Warring States characters, and small seal scripts. Oracle bone inscriptions are the characters engraved on tortoise shells and animal bones in the Shang Dynasty. It is also the earliest writing system of considerable scale that can be seen in the history of Chinese calligraphy, and it has a strong calligraphy artistry. Mr. Dong Zuobin, a paleontologist, once divided Oracle Bone Inscriptions into five periods based on their different styles. The styles are as follows: "The first period is majestic, the second period is neat, the third period is decadent, and the fourth period is vigorous." , The writing style of the five issues is strict." The oracle bone inscriptions present a variety of artistic styles, some are straightforward and natural, some are strict and beautiful, some are strange and dangerous, some are powerful and simple, some are wanton and indulgent, etc. The artistry of oracle bone inscriptions started the source of changes in calligraphy styles in later generations.​​ Bronze inscriptions refer to the inscriptions on bronze vessels such as tripods, pots, plates, guis, bowls, and bells cast during the Zhou Dynasty. Because they are cast, they are more solemn, powerful, and thick than oracle bone inscriptions. The bronze inscriptions are generally square and the strokes are arranged relatively evenly. Judging from the style classification of the early, middle and late periods, there are also great differences. For example, the "Sanshi Pan" is vigorous, simple and natural; the "Wall Plate Inscription" is thick and handsome; the "Big Men's Tripod" is sharp and curious; the "Mao Gong Tripod" is strict and standardized, etc., each has its own style.     

   Small Seal Script is a simplified font of Big Seal Script. It is an orthodox script with a certain dignity implemented after the Qin Dynasty unified the six countries. Its strokes are uniform in thickness, rounded, symmetrical, slow in strokes, and rigorous in structure. It is extremely beautiful and decorative. . Later generations developed Xiaozhuan to such an extent that they called Xiaozhuan "Iron Line" and "Jade Pillar Seal".     

(2) Official script The official script has also undergone major reforms on the basis of the seal script. The shape of the seal script has changed from a rectangular shape to a flat square, and from the round shape of the pen to a square shape. The complex has been deleted and simplified, making the official script a watershed between modern writing and ancient writing. Official script originated in the Qin Dynasty and matured in the Han Dynasty. A large number of stone carvings and tablet inscriptions have been left over from the Eastern Han Dynasty. It can be said that each monument has its own unique style and wonder. It is a glorious peak period in the history of calligraphy. Generally speaking, the style of official script can be divided into three styles, the one represented by the "Cao Quan Stele" is meaningful and Ana; the one represented by the "Zhang Qian" stele is square and strange; the one represented by "Ode to the Stone Gate" Wanton and free, graceful and contented. The simplification of official script also gave rise to the rapid writing method of official script itself.     

(3) Cursive writing The bamboo slips of the Han Dynasty were the cursive handwriting used daily by the Han people, and based on this, the original cursive script of the time - Zhangcao was developed. Each character in Zhangcao is independent and not connected to each other, retaining the traces of official calligraphy. Han bamboo slips and Zhangcao are the transition form from official script to Jincao. Jincao removes the twists and turns of the chapter grass, making the strokes between the upper and lower characters connected, and the characters reflect each other, continuous, smooth and graceful, full of expressiveness and rhythm. According to the different degrees of grass, there are small grass, big grass and wild grass. The brushwork of big grass and wild grass is more flying and indulgent, with loops, ups and downs, dragons and snakes winding, and majestic momentum, which greatly enhances the expressive power of calligraphy. Cursive writing is also known as the highest form of expression in calligraphy.      

(4) Regular script The orthodox official script on tablets developed regular script, which emerged in the late Han Dynasty and became popular in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties. The early regular script (called Jinli at the time) was influenced by the official script. The structure tended to be flat, and the writing style was natural, lively and innocent. The large number of tablets and epitaphs from the Northern Wei Dynasty are representative of the regular script style of this period. The scale and level of their excavations are comparable to the official script of the Han Dynasty, and they are known as the Northern Stele and the Wei Stele. In the Tang Dynasty, the structure of regular script changed from flat to rectangular. The development of regular script reached its peak, with a dignified and rigorous structure and complete writing techniques. After the Tang Dynasty, regular script writers emerged in large numbers with various styles. The famous ones include Ou style, Yan style, Liu style and Zhao style. Once Tang Kai was established, it became the current standardized and popular Chinese character. For more than a thousand years, the font of Chinese calligraphy has not evolved again.     

(5) Running script Running script is based on regular script. The strokes borrow the flexibility of cursive script and simplify the regular script. The writing style is coherent and changes from fold to round. The writing is smooth and the fonts are beautiful. The writing is quick and clean and easy to read. It is very practical. . The style of running script is also rich and colorful. Since the Han Dynasty, every era has representative masters, such as Wang Xizhi, Wang Xianzhi, Yan Zhenqing, Mi Fu, Su Dongpo, Zhao Mengfu, Wen Zhengming, etc. 

2. Comprehensive aspect of calligraphy art appreciation     

   It is not easy to appreciate the art of calligraphy. The difficulty in appreciating it is that it is too abstract. Abstraction itself lies in the ability of differential representation art to intuitively capture a picture or scene of life, allowing the viewer to refer to life experience to appreciate and evaluate the work of art (of course this also requires the viewer to have a certain aesthetic ability) such as painting , film and television, opera, sketches, etc. Appreciation of the art of calligraphy requires the appreciator to have certain cultural and artistic qualities, especially those who have received aesthetic education in the art of calligraphy, have the ability to identify or perceive the beauty of different lines, and have a common sense understanding of the dharma stickers of the past. And only after long-term accumulation can we achieve a certain appreciation of calligraphy.      

   The abstract nature of calligraphy art should be equal to music and dance. The ups and downs of music melody, the length and speed of rhythm, whether the rhythm is soothing or smooth, the lightness and darkness of tones, etc. are all closely related to calligraphy. Its similarity depends on the author's ability to control the sound of music or the lines of calligraphy, and it involves life. Through concentrated extraction with abstract art, we can use abstract language symbols to create imaginative creations. This kind of imaginary space reflects life in an abstract, unfixed and unspecific way, but the art itself has strong regularity. Regarding abstraction, different people have different feelings about different works and draw completely different conclusions. Therefore, it is also unstable for the viewer. However, in order to achieve the purpose of appreciating music, we must grasp the premise of the rules of music appreciation. Mastering this rule is also the minimum musical literacy of the listener. Appreciating calligraphy also requires mastering the language of calligraphy and having a precise aesthetic ability for the beauty of calligraphy lines, which is just like mastering the rules of music appreciation. 

1. Traditional calligraphy aesthetics   

    The traditional aesthetics of Chinese calligraphy has always been combined with nature, like the mountains, rivers, clouds, wind, rain, thunder and lightning; or compared to dragons, snakes, birds and beasts; Advocating "charm"; people in the Tang Dynasty valued sincerity and loyalty, so the calligraphy style of the Tang Dynasty reached "law"; people in the Song Dynasty inherited the legacy of the Jin Dynasty and advocated the "artistic conception" of calligraphy; people in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties paid more attention to appearance and etiquette, His calligraphy style advocates the "posture" of characters. That is to say, no matter which calligrapher you are, it is difficult to go against the general background of the times. It is just that everyone has different personalities. This is what Sun Guoting meant when he said, "It was not good in the past, but it is not bad today." For example, the description of Wang Sengqian's calligraphy: "Like the children of the Xie family, even if they are no longer upright, they still have a romantic character"; the description of Mrs. Wei's calligraphy is "like a dancing girl arranging flowers", etc. Use people to describe the beauty of calligraphy. Wang Xizhi's calligraphy is described as "the characters are majestic and majestic, like a dragon leaping over the Tianmen, a tiger crouching in the Phoenix Pavilion...", "each 'dot' is like a falling stone from a mountain"; "each 'horizontal' is like a formation of clouds thousands of miles away"; " "Each 'up' is like a rhinoceros with a broken land"; "Every 'up' is like a long-lived withered tree"... In fact, different lines give people different feelings, and "straight lines" give people a feeling of straightness and strength. ; "Slash" gives people a thrilling feeling; "Arc" gives people a feeling of vitality; "Curve" gives people a dynamic feeling; "Circular line" gives people a soft feeling; "Square line" gives people a sense of vitality; With a tough feeling, thick lines are heavy, thin lines are smart, mottled lines are vigorous, flying white lines are vast, etc. The ancients also compared the natural, dynamic, vigorous and solemn lines in calligraphy to "house leakage marks", "broken walls", "broken hairpin strands", "cones scratching the sand", and "printing mud".     

   Therefore, no matter whether it is Zhen, Cao, Li, Zhuan or Xing, they all have different styles, and they are all formed under the combination and action of these different lines. Ouyang Xun's regular script is rigorous and steep, and his penmanship is unique and dangerous, and he can turn danger into safety. This style is formed by using a combination of concise, tough, inner and straight diagonal lines; Yan style regular script is broad and graceful, with strong, thick, outward extensions, starting and ending turns, and mostly round pen lines. ; Liu Gongquan's regular script and Yan style are similar in structure. In comparison, Liu style is more upright and fresh; Zhao Meng's Fu regular script is meaningful, charming and peaceful. The style of writing is more coherent and composed of light and dynamic lines. Then other fonts such as official script, seal script, Beibei, and running script also have the same lines for combination. For example, European style corresponds to "Cao Quan Stele"; Yan style corresponds to "Shimen Inscription"; Zhao style is in the same line as Wang Xi. As for the application of lines in cursive script, it is even more varied and colorful. 

2. Era background and current conditions     

   The understanding of lines is certainly an important foundation and fundamental for appreciating calligraphy. In addition, understanding the background of each calligrapher's era, as well as the calligrapher's inheritance, literary accomplishment, and understanding of the calligrapher's mood and environment at the time are also necessary for appreciating calligraphy. Basic common sense and background of the times: for example: people in the Jin Dynasty were bohemian and elegant, advocating clear conversation, and also advocated "charm" in calligraphy style; people in the Tang Dynasty valued sincerity and loyalty, so the calligraphy style of the Tang Dynasty reached the "law"; people in the Song Dynasty adhered to the Jin Dynasty The style inherited from the dynasty advocated the "artistic conception" of calligraphy; the Yuan and Ming dynasties paid more attention to appearance and etiquette, and their calligraphy style advocated the "posture" of calligraphy. That is to say, no matter which calligrapher you are, it is difficult to go against the general background of the times. It is just that everyone has different personalities. This is what Sun Guoting meant when he said, "It was not good in the past, but it is not bad today." Differences in personality should be most restricted and revealed, which is a concentrated expression of the influence, influence, talent, function and character of the teacher. For example, Xian Zhi learned from Xizhi, Xiao Ou learned from Da Ou, and even learned from each other in the early Tang Dynasty.       

   When writing a work, the calligrapher's mood and environment at the time are also important conditions that affect the style of the work. The "Preface to Orchid Pavilion", known as the best running script in the world, was written by Wang Xizhi and forty -two well-known literati at that time gathered in Orchid Pavilion in Shaoxing. The situation at that time was "the sky was clear, the wind was gentle, and there were lush trees." Lin Xiuzhu, the clear stream is rushing around, and in the happy mood of "one mourning and one chant", while slightly drunk, he wrote the eternal masterpiece "Preface to Orchid Pavilion". Contrary to this state of mind, the "Manuscript for Nephew Sacrifice", known as the second running script in the world, was written by Yan Jiming, the nephew of the great calligrapher Yan Zhenqing of the Tang Dynasty when he was quelling the rebellion. "Draft of Sacrifice". Therefore, the style of "Preface to the Orchid Pavilion" is quiet , elegant, not exciting and inexperienced. In contrast, the style of "Manuscripts for Memorials to My Nephew" is rough and lush, regardless of clumsiness and smearing circles. Although the "Manuscript of the Nephew Memorial" is a random draft, it still reflects the profound skills of a great calligrapher of a generation. 

3. The art of calligraphy must have rich literary connotations     

    While appreciating the work, the content written in the work is very important. The content is the soul of the work. The ancients said, "Writing is used to convey the truth, and books are used to exchange color." No matter how good the writing is, it must serve the article. The two complement each other and are inseparable. Regardless of the written content, aphorisms, aphorisms, or prose, it can all reflect the literary accomplishment of a calligrapher. When a calligrapher writes a work, it means purpose and pertinence. If you are sending it to a friend to congratulate you, the content selection should naturally be related to the festive content. If you want to write a birthday wish for an elderly person, it should be related to the content of the birthday wish. Farewells, encouragements to study, home furnishings, hall hangings, etc. should all be related to the situation and things of the writer or appreciator... On the contrary, when someone gets married, give them a "farewell poem" or "I wish you a long life and thousands of miles." Sharing the Chan-juan" made a joke. In addition, the style of calligraphy works should be coordinated with the written content as much as possible, such as writing encouragement sentences such as "Never tire of learning", "Learning is valuable and persistent", "Art has no limit" and other aphorisms. Then the writing style is suitable to focus on thick and powerful, showing the firmness of the content with style. For example, for works that decorate the hall, because the space is large, it is best to write magnificent grass, such as Su Dongpo's "Water Melody Song Head" and so on. The bedroom home space is relatively small, so it is suitable to write "quiet" and "calm" or write "the nature of orchid and stone", "wind and bamboo into rhyme", "breeze into the pavilion", etc. according to the owner's elegance and hobbies. The calligraphy style should be gentle and meaningful. An elegant atmosphere is appropriate. If you write "green pines and green cypresses" or "reach the peak", your handwriting should be powerful. On the contrary, if the brushwork is soft and the willows are swaying in the wind , the form and content will appear disharmonious and inconsistent. In short, calligraphy is a comprehensive art. It requires both creators and appreciators to make continuous efforts to learn, practice, accumulate and strengthen comprehensive cultural knowledge in order to understand, understand, master and even master the art of calligraphy. the goal of.