Aesthetic Features of Calligraphy Art 

Calligraphy refers to the writing method, rules and rules of writing. The specific meaning of Chinese calligraphy refers to works of art with beautiful appreciation value. In a broad sense, the origin of the characters of all nations in the world can be traced back to "pictographic characters", each has its own characters and writing skills, and has its own "calligraphy". However, the characters of all countries have been interrupted from pictographs, and have moved from "ideographic" to "ideographic". Only Chinese characters have continued from the original pictograph "ideographic". Long-term development has made Chinese calligraphy a unique art form in the world. 

1. The basic elements of aesthetics    

Calligraphy takes writing Chinese characters as the object, takes strokes, structure, and composition as the basic elements, and achieves the purpose of expressing art through the use of brush and ink. The reason why Chinese calligraphy can become an art is because Chinese characters have great plasticity and feasibility, that is to say, Chinese characters are inherently artistic. For example:

(1) The shapes of Chinese characters are varied: There are square, rectangular, flat square, pin-shaped, and pin-shaped; there are top wide and bottom narrow, bottom narrow and top wide;

(2) The font of Chinese characters is constantly evolving:Oracle bone inscriptions, bronze inscriptions, 籀 inscriptions, Warring States characters, Xiaozhuan, bamboo and wood bamboo slips, official script, Zhangcao, Jincao, Wei Bei, block script, running script, etc.

(3) Each font of Chinese characters has rich and different styles and writing characteristics: Either heavy, or elegant, or solemn, or elegant, or vigorous, or smart, or childish, or spicy, or tranquil, or elegant, or dense, or sparse...

(4) The special tools of calligraphy - brushes, ink, and rice paper each have special functions: "Ink color thick, light, dry, wet"; brushwork "square and round, rigid and soft, lifting, frustrating, slow, retracting" and so on, as well as "points, lines, surfaces, structure and rules"

(5) Different times and different cultural backgrounds: Inscribed oracle bones from the Yin and Shang Dynasties, cast bronze inscriptions from the Zhou Dynasty, silk and bamboo slips from the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, cliff inscriptions from the Han and Wei Dynasties, chidots from the Jin and Tang Dynasties, etc. It can be said that there are so many famous inscriptions, and the masters of the Fang family are brilliant, all of which are enough to constitute the basic elements of Chinese calligraphy aesthetics, and enough to build a long and splendid cultural history of Chinese calligraphy. Shen Yinmo, a contemporary calligrapher in our country, said: "The world recognizes that Chinese calligraphy is the highest art, because it can show amazing miracles, without color, but with the splendor of pictures, without sound, with the harmony of music, fascinating and pleasing to the heart. Especially calligraphy The combination with literature deepens the spiritual connotation, making calligraphy a national art that expresses the deepest artistic conception and sentiment."      

   It can be seen that calligraphy, like other sister arts, has a strong artistic expression. Calligraphers often use the brush in their hands to express their feelings, or to borrow things to entrust their wishes, or to cultivate their bodies and minds. Organically interweave and fuse one's own life feelings, spiritual connotations and aesthetic tastes with brush and ink lines. Painter Lv Zifeng said: "During the modeling process, the author's emotions are always integrated with the brushwork. Wherever the brush goes, no matter whether it is a long line or a short line, whether it is a short to extremely short point or a block enlarged by a point, it becomes a feeling. Traces of activity.” 2. Huge system of fonts and calligraphy styles     

(1) seal script Seal script generally refers to ancient characters before the Qin Dynasty, including oracle bone inscriptions, bronze inscriptions, 籀 inscriptions, Warring States characters, and Xiaozhuan. Oracle bone inscriptions are the characters on the tortoise shell and animal bones carved in the Shang Dynasty. It is also the earliest writing system with a considerable scale that can be seen in the history of Chinese calligraphy, and it has a strong calligraphy artistry. Dong Zuobin, an ancient philologist, once divided oracle bone inscriptions into five periods according to the different style changes. , and the fifth period of book style is strict." The oracle bone inscriptions present a variety of artistic styles, some are straightforward and natural, some are rigorous and beautiful, some are bizarre and dangerous, some are vigorous and simple, and some are wanton and indulgent. The calligraphy artistry of oracle bone inscriptions opened the source of the changes in calligraphy styles in later generations. Bronze inscriptions refer to the inscriptions on bronze vessels such as tripods, pots, pans, gui, yu, and bells cast during the Zhou Dynasty. Because they were cast, they are more solemn, powerful, and heavy than oracle bone inscriptions. Bronze inscriptions are generally upright and square, with relatively well-proportioned stroke arrangements. Judging from the division of styles in the early, middle, and late periods, there are also great differences. For example, the "Sanshi Pan" is vigorous, simple, wanton and natural; the "Wall Plate Inscription" is thick and handsome;     

   Xiaozhuan is a simplified font of Dazhuan. It is an orthodox character with a certain majesty promoted by the Qin Dynasty after the unification of the six kingdoms. . Later generations developed Xiaozhuan to Zhizhi, calling Xiaozhuan "Iron Line" and "Yuzhu Zhuan".     

(2) Lishu On the basis of the seal script, the official script underwent major reforms, changing from the rectangular shape of the seal script to a flat square, from the round shape of the pen to the square fold, and simplifying the complexity, making the official script a watershed between modern characters and ancient characters. Lishu originated in the Qin Dynasty and matured in the Han Dynasty. A large number of stone inscriptions and stele inscriptions have been left over from the Eastern Han Dynasty. It can be said that each stele has a posture, and each stele has a strange shape. It is a glorious peak period in the history of calligraphy. Roughly, the style of official script can be divided into three ways, represented by the "Cao Quan Stele", the way is meaningful and Ana; the way represented by the "Zhang Qian" stele is square and strange; the way represented by "Ode to the Stone Gate" Wanton square vertical, elegant contented. The simplification of official script also gave birth to the quick writing method of official script.     

(3) cursive script The bamboo and wood slips of the Han Dynasty were handwritten cursive scripts used daily by the Han people, and on the basis of this, the original cursive script at that time—Zhangcao was developed. Each character of Zhangcao is independent and not connected with each other, and it retains the traces of official script. Han bamboo slips and Zhangcao are transitional forms of official script to modern cursive. Today's grass removes the twists and turns of chapter grass, so that the strokes between the upper and lower characters are connected, and the characters reflect each other, continuous, smooth and graceful lines, full of expressiveness and rhythm. According to the degree of grass, there are small grass, big grass, and wild grass. The pens of big grass and wild grass are more flying and indulgent, with lingering circles, ups and downs, dragons and snakes winding, majestic, which greatly enhances the expressive force of calligraphy. Cursive script is also known as the highest form of expression in calligraphy.      

(4) regular script The orthodox inscription official script developed the regular script, which originated in the late Han Dynasty and prevailed in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties. The early regular script (called Jinli at that time) was influenced by the official script, and its structure tended to be flat, and the brushwork was natural and lively, innocent and innocent. A large number of steles and epitaphs in the Northern Wei Dynasty are representative of the regular script style of this period. The scale and level of unearthed can be compared with the official script of the Han Dynasty. They are called Beibei and Weibei. In the Tang Dynasty, regular script changed from flat to rectangular, and the development of regular script reached its peak, with dignified and rigorous structure and complete brushwork. After the Tang Dynasty, regular script masters came out in large numbers, with various styles, the famous ones are Ou Ti, Yan Ti, Liu Ti, and Zhao Ti. It has been more than a thousand years since Tang Kai became the current standardized Chinese character after it was finalized, and the font of Chinese calligraphy has not evolved.     

(5) running script Running script is based on regular script. The strokes borrow the flexibility of cursive script, and the regular script is simplified. The strokes are coherent, from folded to round. The writing is smooth and the font is beautiful. The writing is fast and easy to recognize, and it is very practical. . The style of running script is also rich and colorful. Since the Han Dynasty, there have been representative masters in each era, such as Wang Xizhi, Wang Xianzhi, Yan Zhenqing, Mi Fu, Su Dongpo, Zhao Mengfu, Wen Zhengming and so on. 

2. Comprehensive aspects of calligraphy art appreciation     

   It is not easy to appreciate the art of calligraphy. The difficulty in appreciating it is that it is too abstract. Abstraction itself lies in the difference between the art of reproduction, which can intuitively capture a picture or a scene of life, so that the viewer can refer to the experience of life and make an appreciation and evaluation of the work of art (of course, this also requires the viewer to have a certain aesthetic ability) such as painting , film and television, opera, sketches, etc. Appreciation of calligraphy art requires the appreciator to have certain cultural and artistic accomplishments, especially the aesthetic education of calligraphy art, the ability to identify or perceive the beauty of different lines, and have a common sense understanding of past dynasties. Only after long-term accumulation can we achieve a certain appreciation ability for calligraphy.      

   The abstract nature of calligraphy art should be equal to music and dance. The ups and downs of the music melody, the length of the rhythm, whether the rhythm is soothing or smooth, and the tone of the tone are closely related to calligraphy. The same depends on the author's ability to control the sound of music or the lines of calligraphy, and is between life. The concentrated extraction between abstract art and abstract language symbols is used to create imaginative creations. This kind of imaginary space is abstract, not fixed, and not specific to reflect life, but art itself has strong regularity. Regarding abstraction, different people have different feelings about different works, and draw completely different conclusions. So it is also unstable for the appreciators. However, in order to achieve the purpose of enjoying music, it is necessary to grasp the premise of the law of music appreciation. Mastering this rule is also the minimum music literacy for the appreciators. Appreciation of calligraphy also requires mastering the language of calligraphy, and having a definite aesthetic ability for the beauty of calligraphy lines, which is like mastering the laws of music appreciation. 

1. Traditional Calligraphy Aesthetics   

    The traditional aesthetics of Chinese calligraphy has always been combined with nature, compared with mountains and rivers, clouds, wind and rain, thunder and lightning in nature; or compared with dragons, snakes, birds and beasts; Advocating "charm"; people in the Tang Dynasty focused on showing sincerity and loyalty, so the calligraphy style of the Tang Dynasty reached the "legal test"; people in the Song Dynasty inherited the legacy of the Jin Dynasty and advocated the "artistic conception" of calligraphy; Its calligraphy style is more advocating the "posture" of characters. That is to say, no matter which calligrapher it is, it is difficult to run counter to the general background of the times, but each person has a different personality. This is what Sun Guoting said, "When the past was bad, it is not bad today." For example, describing Wang Sengqian's calligraphy: "Like the children of Xie's family, even if they are not upright, Yi Yi has a kind of romantic character"; describing Mrs. Wei's words "like a dancing girl arranging flowers" and so on use people to describe the beauty of calligraphy. Describe Wang Xizhi's calligraphy as "majestic and elegant, like a dragon jumping over the gate of heaven, a tiger crouching on a phoenix pavilion...", "each 'dot' is like a falling stone from a mountain"; "each 'horizontal' is like a thousand miles of clouds"; " Each 'left' is like a broken rhinoceros"; "each 'vertical' is like a long live dry tree"... In fact, different lines give people different feelings, and "straight lines" give people a sense of straightness and strength. "Slant line" gives a sense of thrill; "arc" gives a sense of vitality; "curve" gives a sense of dynamic; With a tough feeling, as well as the thickness of the thick line, the dexterity of the thin line, the vigor of the mottled line, the vastness of the white line and so on. The ancients also compared the natural, dynamic, strong, and dignified lines in calligraphy to "house leak marks", "broken walls", "folded hairpin strands", "cone-shaped sand", and "printing pad".     

   Therefore, no matter it is the fonts of Zhen, Cao, Li, Zhuan, and Xing, they all have different styles, and they are all formed under the combination and effect of the above-mentioned different lines. Ouyang Xun's regular script is rigorous and steep, and his use of the pen is extremely risky, turning danger into a breeze. This style is formed by the combination of simplicity, toughness, internal boredom, and straight and oblique lines; Yan Ti regular script is broad and graceful, with strong, thick, external extensions, starting and ending turnings, and mostly round lines. The structure of Liu Gongquan's regular script and Yan style is roughly similar, and Liu style tends to be more straight and fresh in comparison; Zhao Meng's regular script is meaningful, charming and peaceful. The pen is more coherent, light and dynamic in style. Then other fonts such as official script, seal script, Beibei, and running script also have the same lines for combination. For example, European font corresponds to "Cao Quanbei"; Yan font corresponds to "Shimen Ming", and Zhao font is in line with Wang Xi. As for the line application of cursive script, it is even more varied and colorful. 

2. Background and current conditions     

   Appreciating calligraphy's understanding of lines is of course an important foundation and fundamental. In addition, understanding the era background of each calligrapher, as well as the calligrapher's inheritance, literary accomplishment, and the difference in mood and environment of the calligrapher at that time are also necessary for appreciating calligraphy. Basic common sense, the background of the times For example: Jin Dynasty people are free and elegant, advocating clear talk, and also advocate "charm" for the calligraphy atmosphere; The legacy of the dynasty advocated the "artistic conception" of calligraphy; Yuan and Ming people paid more attention to appearance and etiquette, and their calligraphy style even more admired the "posture" of calligraphy. That is to say, no matter which calligrapher it is, it is difficult to run counter to the general background of the times, but each person has a different personality. This is what Sun Guoting said, "When the past was bad, it is not bad today." Differences in individuality should be constrained and manifested most, which is the concentrated expression of the influence, edification, talent, function, and character of the teacher. For example, Xianzhi learns from Xizhi, Xiaoou learns from Daou, and even the early Tang Dynasty learned from each other.       

   When writing a work, the mood and environment of the calligrapher at that time are also important conditions that affect the style of the work. The "Lanting Preface", known as the best running script in the world, was gathered in Lanting in Shaoxing by Wang Xizhi and forty-two well-known literati at that time. Lin Xiuzhu, with the clear stream and rapids reflected on the left and right, under the carefree mood of "one mourning and one chant", while slightly drunk, wrote the eternal masterpiece "Preface to Lanting Pavilion". Contrary to this state of mind, the "Manuscript of Sacrifice to Nephew", known as the second best running script in the world, was written by Yan Jiming, the nephew of Yan Zhenqing, the great calligrapher of the Tang Dynasty, when he was beheaded by the rebel general when he quelled the rebellion. "Draft of Sacrifice". Therefore, the style of "Preface to the Orchid Pavilion" is quiet, elegant, and not aggressive. In contrast, the style of "Manuscript for the Nephew" is rough and gloomy, regardless of clumsiness, and smeared around. Although the "Manuscript for the Nephew" is a random draft, it still reflects the profound skills of a generation of great calligraphers. 

3. The art of calligraphy should have rich literary connotations     

    While appreciating, the content written in the work is very important, and the content is the soul of a work. The ancients said that "Writing is used to convey the truth, and books are used to change color", no matter how good the handwriting is, it must serve the article, and the two complement each other and are inseparable. Regardless of the written content or aphorisms, epigrams, or prose, it can reflect a calligrapher's literary accomplishment. When a calligrapher wants to write a work, it means purpose and pertinence. If you send congratulations to your friends, the content selection will naturally be related to the festive content. If you want to write to the birthday of the elderly, it must be related to the content of the birthday. Sending off, encouraging learning, furnishing home, hanging in the hall, etc. should all be related to the scene and things of the book reader or viewer... Conversely, when someone gets married, they will give a "farewell poem" or "I wish you a long life, thousands of miles away" "Together Chanjuan" made a joke. In addition, the style of the calligraphy work should be coordinated with the content of the writing as much as possible, such as writing encouraging sentences such as "Learning is never tiresome", "Learning is valuable and persevering", "Knowledge is endless" and other epigrams. Then the writing style is suitable to focus on thick and powerful, showing the firmness of the content with style. For example, in the works of decorating halls, because of the large space, it is best to write magnificent grass, such as Su Dongpo's "Shui Tiao Ge Tou". The living space in the bedroom is relatively small, so it is suitable for writing "quietness" and "tranquility" or "the nature of orchid and stone", "wind and bamboo into rhyme", "breeze into the pavilion" etc. according to the owner's elegant taste and hobbies. Elegant breath is appropriate. If you write "green pines and green cypresses" and "reaching the peak", you must have momentum. On the contrary, if the style of writing is soft and the willows are swaying in the wind, the form and content are not harmonious and unified. In short, calligraphy is a comprehensive art, which requires both the creator and the appreciator to go through continuous hard work, study, practice, accumulation and strengthening of comprehensive cultural knowledge in order to realize, understand, master and even control the art of calligraphy the goal of.