Composition in Calligraphy Works

rulesIt refers to the overall arrangement of a calligraphy work, also known as Dabubai, or chapter structure, which is an important part of calligraphy art. For the artistic requirements of a work, it is not only necessary to write each single character well, but also to form many characters into complete chapters. Regardless of the space between words, lines and lines, as well as tops and bottoms, and seals for inscriptions, it is necessary to make an overall design and a reasonable layout.

A calligraphy work mostly includes three aspects: text, inscription and seal.

The text is the main content to be written and is the main body of the work. Articles, poems, aphorisms, etc., which are healthy, auspicious and peaceful, can be used as the content of calligraphy works. The title is the explanatory text outside the main text. Including the title of the text, the time and place of writing, the name, font size, and house number of the writer, the title and name of the recipient, etc. These contents are not required to be written in every piece of work. The content of the title depends on the specific needs of the work. Some of the content of the title is written in front of the main text, which is called the upper paragraph; some is written after the main text, called the lower paragraph. Content such as the name and title of the gifted object should be written in front of the text to show respect. The seals affixed in calligraphy works can be divided into content and name seals and idle seals. Judging from the location of the cover, there are the opening chapter and the foot chapter.

The one stamped on the top of the work is called the first chapter, and the one stamped after the main text and the next paragraph is called the foot chapter. Seals mainly play a decorative role in calligraphy works, so there should not be too many seals in a work, generally one to three seals are appropriate.

The text, inscription, and seal are the three organic components of a work. When creating, it is necessary to make overall arrangements so that the three form a perfect and harmonious whole.

Signature refers to the writing content in calligraphy works other than the text content. The inscription includes: the source of the content of the text, the recipient of the gift, the reason for the creation, the time of creation, the name and name of the author, etc.

There are two types of inscriptions: "double paragraph" and "single paragraph". The double style is to place the object of the book gift and the writer at the top and bottom respectively, the former is the upper style, and the latter is the lower style. The first paragraph states the name, source, and name of the recipient of the content of the work; the second paragraph describes the year and month of creation, the location of creation, and the name of the author, etc. The previous paragraph: The position should be relatively high to show respect, including name, title, and modest words. The next paragraph: write time, place, name, modest words.

A single paragraph with a lower paragraph but no upper paragraph is called a single paragraph, and a single paragraph may include or exclude the contents of the previous paragraph. If there is no book gift object, only a single payment will be made.

There are long models, short models and poor models for single models. The long style is to add the author's feelings or reasons for creating this work in front of the time, name, and place of the source of the text. The text should be sincere and long, making people endlessly interesting. It not only plays a role in adjusting the focus of the work, but also reflects the author's character and cultivation. The short paragraph means only a few items such as the source of the text, time, name, and location. If the work has a lot of blank space or due to the needs of composition, you can pay a long payment; if the content of the work occupies a lot of the screen, you need to pay a short or poor payment. If there is not much paper left and there is too little blank space, it is also possible to only include the author's name, which is called "poor money".

When planning the layout of a calligraphy work, the position of the inscription should be considered. If the book is presented as a couplet, the above paragraph must be written on the upper line, and the next paragraph on the second line; for other works, the format is generally written on the left side. If the inscription is divided into two lines, the previous line should be written on the front line, and the next line should be written on the back line; If the payment is made in a single line, the first paragraph should be written in the upper half, and the second paragraph should be written in the lower half to show courtesy. Neither the single style nor the double style can be flush with the text, and there must be unevenness so as not to be flat. Generally, there must be a few words at the top and bottom, and the inscription should be as close as possible. The font of the inscription is generally not in official script but not in seal script, not in official script in regular script, and not in regular script in running cursive. The inscription is generally "Wen Gu Qian Jin" and "Wen Zheng Qian Huo". If the main text is oracle bone inscriptions, bronze inscriptions, big and small seal script, seal script, zhangcao, regular script, running script can be used for signing; if the main text is official script, regular script, Weibei, regular script or running script can be used for signing; cursive writing, except for cursive script itself, is difficult to identify , generally not used for signature. The most widely used inscription font is running script, which is easy to recognize and lively. The size of the typeface should be smaller than the size of the main text, so that the primary and secondary are distinct.

The above inscription form is for vertical works. For banner works, generally only the payment is made but not the payment. The same as vertical works, the beginning and end of the inscription cannot reach or exceed the top and bottom words of the main text of the work.