The Contradictory Beauty in Calligraphy
Calligraphy, like the natural world and our real life, is full of contradictions. Their difference lies in the different forms of expression. Contradiction is an important factor in the beauty of calligraphy. We see black and white colors in calligraphy, thick and thin lines, long and short, virtual and solid, broken and connected, smooth and rough, thick and light ink, dry and wet, dry and moist; The horizontal and vertical, left and right, round and square folds, the tightness and looseness of the structure, the tightness and the straightness, the denseness and the sparseness, the avoidance and the justness, the strange rise and the straightness, the direction and the back, the outward expansion and the internal strokes, the brushwork The center and side, hidden and exposed, lifting and pressing, reversing and smooth, late and fast, vertical and unrestrained, fast and astringent, drooping and shrinking, light and heavy, dignified and frivolous, dense and sparse in the composition, Coherence and dislocation, vertical and horizontal, etc., are all contradictions. These various, large and small, and bizarre contradictions are intertwined with each other, mutually repelling, merging, opposing, and uniting, and they are the basis and condition of each other's existence; There is no straightness, no lightness, no thickness, no denseness, no sparseness, no horizontality, verticality does not exist, and so on. All in all, all contradictory parties are me in you, and you in me, blending together and co-existing in a unity. This unity of opposites is calligraphy. After entering the brain through the human eyes, it forms a series of contradictory graphics, arouses various aesthetic emotions, and thus resonates. Therefore, we regard "the unity of opposites" as the main factor of the formal beauty of calligraphy.
The unity of opposites is also the fundamental principle of calligraphy creation. Among them, the opposite factor is always the dominant aspect of the fundamental principles of calligraphy. In a calligraphy work, any element needs to highlight its value in contrast. Black is highlighted by the contrast of white, and the curved lines in the lines exist by the contrast of straight lines. Calligraphy without contrast and contradiction cannot arouse the viewer's appreciation desire. In the process of calligraphy creation, calligraphers are actually creating and resolving conflicts, pursuing harmony and perfection. The ancients had known this aspect for a long time, and it was skillfully used in calligraphy. Wang Xizhi said in "Shu Lun": "The characters in a husband's book are flat and stable. First, you must use a pen. There are Yan and Yang, there is a slant, there is a side, and there is a slant, whether it is big or small, long or short.... To make a character, We must pay attention to the detailed and elegant start, dense and sparse and wide. Every time you make a dot, you must hang your hand to make it, or make a wave, then drag it back. Make a word, facing each other horizontally and vertically; , use a strong pen; if you use strong paper, use a weak pen."
The difference in the strength of contrast in calligraphy produces different visual effects and forms the style of calligraphy. For example, in Zhang Xu’s wild cursive script, the long and curved lines are strong and the short and straight lines are weak, the density and direction of the stitches, the speed and slowness of the pen, forming a strong contrast. The resulting effect greatly enhances the aesthetic feeling of calligraphy, thus creating a wild and unrestrained momentum; Huang Tingjian's cursive script is slow and fast, and the brushwork is often frustrating and fluent, and the lines are stagnant and smooth. , the lifting and pressing of the turning point, the back and the upside down, the stippling adopts the tight structure and looseness of the central palace, the strokes try to expand outward and inward, the structure highlights the side and the straight, the strong contrast results in a different form from Zhang Xu's. Another style of looking forward, full of appearance, harmonious and harmonious, vertical and horizontal opening and closing, and unrestrained opening has been created, which has a strong visual impact and spiritual shock. In Mi Fu's calligraphy, elements such as wrapping and hiding, fat and thin, sparse and dense, simplicity and complexity in stippling and knotting seek fusion in opposition to achieve unity in change; The twists and turns of the horizontal painting contrast with the straight line, the body posture of the common side is contrasted with the straight line, and the thick and light ink colors form his vigorous, vigorous, ups and downs, calm and cheerful momentum and style.
In short, an excellent calligraphic work allows the viewer to enjoy artistic enjoyment while the eyes are constantly searching through the interlocking and contrasting relationship of various contradictory elements. It makes the calligrapher's feelings more vivid and interesting. Create a more profound context, enrich the expressive skills of calligraphers, and expand the aesthetic vision of viewers. It makes calligraphy attractive and enhances the aesthetic taste of calligraphy works. Therefore, the beauty of calligraphy is the beauty of contradiction. The beauty of contradiction is both aesthetic and philosophical. It is great beauty.