mention and press in calligraphy

What does ordination in calligraphy theory mean?

     We often hear people say on the Internet: Pay attention to the massage. So what exactly does this massage mean?

     Pressing is the ups and downs in writing. Pressing means pressing the pen downwards; lifting means lifting the pen upwards. If you press and lift the pen during strokes, you can keep the tip of the pen centered.Jiang He in the Qing Dynasty said: "It must be lifted after a pause, and it must be lifted after squatting and standing. The lifter lifts the pen, which is reduced by the score of the beard and the score of squatting and standing." Jiang Heng said: "Every shoulder hook is used. , it is necessary to mention and pause, but the two words "ti and dun" are connected, which is quick to influence. If you are too late, you will suffer from the disease of shoulder drop and disconnection." Liu Xizai's "Yi Gai. Shu Gai" said: "Every book must be written and written. . Distinguishing press should be especially at the starting point of writing, and distinguishing lifting should be especially at the stopping point of writing." "Calligraphers use the two characters "ti press", which are consistent but not separated from each other. Therefore, when using a heavy pen, it must be straightened, and when using a light pen, it must be straight. It is necessary to press firmly to avoid the two diseases of falling and wandering." See "Xingbi." Pressing and mentioning is very important in studying books! 
mention and press in calligraphy

    Mr. Shen Yinmo, a modern calligrapher, pointed out that lifting and pressing the pen is like walking, putting the left foot down, lifting the right foot and putting it down again, repeating the process. In the process of using the pen, the thin strokes are lifted upward, so that the pen is lifted off the paper or slightly lifted without leaving the paper.

      Pressing is the action of pressing the pen down. The purpose of pressing is to spread the brush hair and make the stipples thicker. To put down the pen, you need to press. To put the pen back, you need to lift first and then press. If you want to press, you must lift. The turning point is completed by lifting and pressing, so lifting and pressing are closely related.
    Pressing again is called pause, pressing again is called squatting, and pressing without pressing is called stopping, as shown in Figure 7-5 to Figure 7-7. The relationship between lifting and pressing is that there is pressing in lifting, lifting in pressing, lifting and pressing, and pressing in lifting.

What is the fold in calligraphy? 

       "Zhe Feng" is also called "Reverse Front", that is, the front of the pen goes in reverse when starting to write. For example, when drawing horizontally from left to right, when writing, first move the pen backward to the left, to the top of the starting point, press down lightly, and then draw to the right; when drawing vertically, from top to bottom, when writing, first move backward to the top, to the top of the starting point. , press lightly to the lower right, and then draw downward.

      Zhefeng is a brushing technique used to change the direction of strokes. It refers to the folded and square writing style, which is different from the turning pen, that is, when the direction of the pen is changed, it turns from the positive side to the negative side, or from the negative side to the positive side. Jiang Kui's "Xu Shu Pu" of the Southern Song Dynasty said: "At the beginning of writing, there are those who take the lead and those who break the lead. The style of the family is determined at the beginning of writing. When writing, the first character is mostly the lead, and the second and third characters are inherited. The upper strokes are mostly made with folding edges. If there are mostly folding edges on the right side of a character, it should be on the left side." The folding edge is good for stippling and creating posture. After Bao Shichen wrote "Ode to Liu Wenqing's Four Wisdoms" in the Qing Dynasty, he said that his brushwork "uses the edge to build momentum, and bends the edge to gain posture."  

What is the wraparound mentioned in calligraphy?

 Guofeng refers to a technique of using brushes in calligraphy. The stroke starts in the opposite direction, "if you want to go up, go down first, if you want to go left, go right first." From now on, when the pen is used in a round shape, and the stroke is restrained in the middle of the stipple, it is called "wrapped front". Such as "Cao Quan Stele", "Shimen Inscription" and so on.

     Wrapping the edges means wrapping the edges of the pen together. There are two ways to wrap the pen edge: one is to twist the pen barrel to wrap the pen edge; the other is to turn the pen edge with the wrist. Wrapping the front is an instantaneous state during operation. The front will spread out and then wrap again. The lines drawn have a twisting feel, making the ink shades alternate. This brushwork is suitable for painting vines, etc.  

What is a counterattack in calligraphy?

     Going against the front is a technique of writing.When writing, the pen edge first moves backwards and then back to the forward direction. Also called "side forward" or "side forward". If you want to write a horizontal stroke, you want to go right first, that is, when writing, first push the tip of the pen backward to the left, and then move the pen to the right. Such strokes appear square and neat, making it easier to contain the muscles and bones. In order to hide the front and pave the way, the reverse method is used, "if you want to go down, go up first, if you want to go right, go left first". Those who write in the opposite direction are called "backward". Writing words with Ni Feng often has a vigorous and sophisticated meaning. Liu Xizai of the Qing Dynasty said: "If you want your pen to reach everywhere, you must use the inverse formula. Le Zefeng controls the right to control the left, and Nu Zefeng controls the lower and upper management, both are the same. However, this is only done secretly, and the appearance is not the same. .”

     Whether it is against the front or along the front, these are all skills in writing, which are means, not the purpose. In simple terms, the purpose is to make the words look good and make the strokes of the words more colorful. To put it further, some words are sharp and sharp. , some words are ready to go, each has its own beauty. The strokes and lines written by Ni Feng and Shun Feng are different, and an expert will be able to see it, unless your Ni Feng writing method is irregular.


The following information is for reference only:

A misguided reversal

    I don’t know how many people have been mistaken for writing against the trend. Among calligraphers, it should be 98%, right? Did the people of Jin and Tang Dynasties really write like this? A closer look at the "Lanting Preface" reveals that it is rare to write against the trend in the true sense; when looking at the "Manuscript of Sacrifice to My Nephew", it should be said that the result is the same, and Su Dongpo's "Huangzhou Hanshitie", which "I created the calligraphy", is even less so. This method of death is used to trap him; as for Xu Su Kuang Cao Ze, how can he write against the enemy who is harming others? Of course, someone must use Ni Fengqi's pen to interpret the ancient posts, and I guess there is nothing we can do about it. He slowly "copied" the ancient calligraphy like walking on thin ice, and wrote all the living calligraphy to death. We can only sigh with regret when he insists that he respects the original calligraphy of the ancients. I wonder why there is a saying today that "the art of calligraphy is declining". It's just that calligraphy is increasingly losing its vitality, vitality, and quickness, and is becoming more and more dry, domineering, and crazy. The ancient customs do not exist, not because people's hearts do not exist, but because the techniques do not exist. Don't overestimate the ancients. This is a scientific view of art that calligraphers should have. What do you guys think?

What does squatting mean in calligraphy?
      Crouching front is actually a kind of brush writing gesture.Whenever you make a crouching stroke, you should use force for a moment and then raise the tip of the pen, which is called crouching tip.

      Usually squatting means to stay. It is the same word as "squatting". In calligraphy, squatting and squatting are two different methods. Generally speaking, "crouching front" refers to the squatting position while the pen is moving slowly, while "crouching front" means squatting first when you want to move forward, then retreating and then advancing. Zhang Huaiguan's "Yutang Forbidden Sutra" of the Tang Dynasty said: "Squatting at the front means squatting slowly, and the severity is accurate." What does the golden knife mean?


In the art of Chinese calligraphy, there are two interpretations of "gold staggered knife": brushwork and font.
 Jincao Dao Brushwork: A good name for calligraphy using a quivering pen to create the strokes. "Tan Hui" records: "Li Houzhu (Yu) of the Southern Tang Dynasty was good at calligraphy. He wrote the music with a trembling pen, and his strength was as strong as cold pines and frost bamboos. It was called a golden sword." "Xuanhe Shupu" said: "The Queen The master also used the gold staggered knife method to make the noodles, which is also refreshing and extraordinary, and is also a grid method. Later, the master used the golden staggered knife method to write with one stroke and three strokes. In his later years, he changed it into a painting, so the shackles are like calligraphy."

    Jinmaodao font: font name. Zhang Yanyuan's "Fa Shu Yao Lu" of the Tang Dynasty contains a gold-wrapped knife and calligraphy. The specific form and style are now unverifiable.

  Li Keran created the deep and subtle "gold staggered knife style" lines; Zhu Qizhan created the powerful "iron stem silver hook style" lines; Liu Wenxi created the simple and strong lines that are good at depicting northern characters; Huang Yongyu created the twists and turns The "incoherent" lines of posture; Wu Guanzhong created long lines separated from points that are full of rhythmic beauty; Huang Zhou created wide lines that approximate planes with beautiful strength; Zhou Shaohua created lines and planes, lines and colors that blend into one. Lines with surface effects; Fuzhongqi created lines with decorative beauty that express local sentiment; Qiu Xiaoqiu, Song Yugui, etc. created new lines that combine color brushstrokes with ink lines, etc. The creation of these lines enriches the expressive and lyrical functions of Chinese painting. Source Calligraphy House. Pay attention to the abstract art forms such as points, lines, surfaces, pens and inks in the art of painting; pay attention to the audience's imagination and re-creation caused by the ambiguity of the painting space. Therefore, traditional Chinese painting art has the basic characteristics of symbolism, freehand brushwork, and expression. Substituting imaginary reality for visual reality is what distinguishes it from Western classical realistic art, and it is also the way in which Chinese painting is poetic. In terms of observation and expression techniques, Chinese painting "learns from the outside and gets the source of the heart" (Zhang Cao said). It does not completely copy and imitate the objective objects of nature, but adds a strong subjective color of the creator, that is, based on the creation of nature, there are thoughts and intentions. Currently, Chinese painters are increasingly using ink and color, and full-color "boneless paintings" have made great progress. However, the lines have not been weakened, let alone disappeared. Instead, they have formed new forms and gained new vitality through continuous innovation, showing the charm of oriental painting that is more characteristic of the times.  

What does jinshu in calligraphy mean?

The strong and beautiful dot paintings are called "jinshu". Mrs. Wei of the Eastern Jin Dynasty's "Bi Zhen Tu" said: "Those who are good at writing have many bones, and those who are not good at writing have more flesh. Those who have more bones and less flesh are called sinewers. Those who have more strength and more sinews are saints. Calligraphy refers to sinews and bones, both of which have the meaning of praise. For example, Yan Zhenqing and Liu Gongquan have always been called "Yan Jin Liu Gu". "

Yan Jin Liu Gu Introduction:

      Yan Jin Liu Gu: "Yan" refers to Yan Zhenqing, and "Liu" refers to Liu Gongquan. There are four famous regular script masters in the history of ancient Chinese calligraphy: Yan Zhenqing, Liu Gongquan, and Ouyang Xun in the Tang Dynasty, and Zhao Mengfu in the Yuan Dynasty. Yan and Liu occupy half of the seats. "Yan Jin Liu Gu" means that the styles of the two of them are as strong and powerful as muscles and bones, but they are different.

What is calligraphy one stroke book

  One-stroke calligraphy refers to cursive writing with continuous strokes from beginning to end, like a straight stroke, hence the name. A cursive script created by Wang Xianzhi, a calligrapher of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Also known as "continuous grass". Zhang Huaiguan of the Tang Dynasty said in "Shu Duan": "Boying (Zhang Zhi) Zhangcao learned the methods of Cui (Ai) and Du (Du), so he changed it into today's grass, and turned it into something wonderful. The style of the characters is one stroke. It is formed. Occasionally there are discontinuities, but the bloodline is continuous, and if it is connected, the climate is connected to the interlaced lines." Guo Ruoxu's "Pictures and Knowledge" of the Northern Song Dynasty said: "Wang Xianzhi can write in one stroke, and Lu Tanwei can paint in one stroke. "

Talk about "a book"
Beijing Normal University Li Hongzhi
   Speaking of "one-stroke script", I believe people will immediately associate it with cursive script, because compared to traditional Chinese characters (such as official script, regular script, etc.) that need to be written one stroke after another, the pen is lifted off the paper when writing cursive script. The number of times is obviously much less, and many pen shapes, parts and even upper and lower numbers are often written in one stroke. Because of this, many people simply call it "connected script", so they associate "one-stroke script" with cursive script. It’s natural to get up. However, "cursive script" can be divided into broad and narrow senses; cursive script in the narrow sense can be divided into three types: Zhangcao, Jincao and Kuangcao. Therefore, it is not general to simply understand "one-stroke script" as cursive script.

  Zhang Huaiyu's "Shu Duan" said in the article "Cursive Script (Jin Cao)": "Ran Boying learned the methods of Cui and Du, reviewed the old and learned the new, so he changed it (Zhang Cao) to become Jin Cao, and refined it. The style of the characters, It is written in one stroke, with occasional discontinuities, but the bloodline is continuous, and if it is connected, the weather will lead to its interlaced lines. However, the prince respects his deep meaning, so the words at the beginning of the line often follow the end of the previous line, and the world is called a one-stroke calligrapher. , originated from Zhang Boying, that is."

  Jincao is a cursive style that is dependent on regular script, resulting from the further simplification and cursiveization of Zhangcaojing, removing the waves, and strengthening the connection between strokes and characters. It sprouted in the late Han Dynasty and formed in the Wei and Jin Dynasties, represented by the cursive scripts of the two kings of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (Wang Xizhi, Wang Xianzhi and his son), the Sui monk Zhiyong, and the Tang Dynasty Sun Guoting. However, just from the perspective of continuity, there is obviously some distance between these representative works of Jincao and Zhang Huainiu's description of "One Stroke Script".

  Zhang Zhi was a cursive calligrapher in the late Han Dynasty and was hailed as the "Sage of Cursive Calligraphy" by later generations. "Chunhua Pavilion Tie" contains several large cursive (i.e. wild cursive) calligraphy works signed by Zhang Zhi, such as "Champion Tie" and so on. Judging from the large number of cursive scripts on Han Dynasty bamboo slips unearthed in the area where Zhang Zhi lived (Dunhuang), modern cursive script had just sprouted in the era when Zhang Zhi lived. The official script is mainly written in running script, but there is just a little bit of Jincao in it. As for Zhangcao, after all, it is a cursive style that is attached to the official script. Not only is there almost no connection between the characters, but no matter how cursive the individual characters are, they cannot be as crazy as Zhang Huaimai said. Cursive scripts like "Champions Post" that don't even have the slightest official meaning are clearly the style of the Tang and Song Dynasties. Not to mention the wild and flying brushwork and the ups and downs of the glyphs, just the kind of interline between the lines. Tacit understanding of interspersing and cooperating was definitely not possible by the people of the late Han Dynasty who used bamboo slips as their main writing carrier.

  All in all, the "one-stroke script" mentioned by Zhang Huaiyu should be understood as: it is an attachment to Zhang Zhi's cursive script by later generations when they cannot see his original work, and it may also be a substitute name for cursive script. With the evolution of fonts, Zhangcao transitioned to Jincao, which is much more continuous than Zhangcao, so it is more appropriate to call Jincao "one stroke script".

  As jincao matured, calligraphers represented by Wang and his son beautified jincao and left many example jincao works for future generations. They contributed greatly to the promotion and development of jincao. without. Source Calligraphy House. Not only that, Wang Xianzhi also made a bold attempt in some of his books such as "December Tie": writing the upper and lower numbers almost completely in one stroke. The ink mark of "Mid-Autumn Tie" in "Mid-Autumn Tie" (the four characters "no longer no " are one-stroke writing, can be seen very clearly. There are also such examples in Mi Fu's own calligraphy, such as "Qi Li Fu" in "Zhang Jiming Tie" "How is it?" six characters. Later generations called this group of characters written in one stroke "one stroke calligraphy". The evidence of Zhang Huainiu's statement that "only Wang Zijing (Wang Xianzhi's calligraphy) clearly understood his deep meaning" is also the evidence of this kind of calligraphy. They have also become the most commonly used illustrations when people explain "one-stroke script". It should be noted that such "one-stroke script" is not a pure cursive script, and is often sandwiched with running script glyphs, such as "December Post" The words "bu" and "fu" in "Zhang Jiming Tie" and the words "qi" and "fu" in "Zhang Jiming Tie" all belong to running script.

  In the Tang Dynasty, Zhang Xu, Huai Su and others developed Jin Cao into Kuang Cao, such as Huai Su's "Zi Xu Tie". Kuangcao is more continuous than today's grass, and it is truly "made in one stroke" and "qi passes through every line". Therefore, some calligraphy theorists believe that the so-called "one-stroke script" should refer to Kuangcao (see "One Stroke Calligraphy" by Zhong Mingshan) "Talking about Art").

  In short, the biggest feature of "one stroke writing" lies in its continuous writing. Due to the evolution of fonts and changes in the scope of word meanings, the actual meaning of "one stroke of writing" can generally be summarized into the above Strangely, Wu Shuo of the Song Dynasty created a unique "gossamer script" in which the numbers are connected by continuous lines of equal thickness, and the glyphs are all in cursive writing, but no one has classified it as a "one- stroke script". It may be that Probably because its "hairspring" feature is more prominent. 

What is quivering pen in calligraphy? And the writing method and characteristics of trembling pen:

       Trembling pen, also known as "war pen", is a calligraphy term. A technique using a pen, so named because the strokes are trembling. "Tan Hui" records: "Li Houzhu (Yu) of the Southern Tang Dynasty was good at calligraphy. His pen was trembling and he was writing music, and his strength was like cold pines and frost bamboos." It is also known as the "Golden Cross Knife". "Xuanhe Mask Flowers and Birds Three" records: "Tang Xiya first learned Li's wrong knife and brush, and then painted bamboo, which was like calligraphy, with a trembling appearance."

  Writers often pay attention to the starting and ending of stipple strokes, but ignore the line strokes in the middle. Bao Shichen of the Qing Dynasty said in "Yi Zhou Shuang Ji": "The method of using the brush can be seen at both ends of the painting, while the ancients' strong and unbridled style, which makes people unable to reach it, is cut in the middle of the painting. The two ends of the cover can be controlled in and out. Therefore, there are still signs to be found; the reason why the cut is rich but not timid, solid but not empty, is not due to the insight of the bones, and cannot be achieved by luck." The war brush is mainly used in the middle part of the pointillism to make it plump but not empty. Kong timid.
  The trembling pen is to move back and forth against the trend through appropriate lifting and pressing, pausing movements, and increasing the friction between the pen and the paper. The shape shown in the stipple painting is scaly and undulating, and the edges of the lines are not smooth and have a "hairy" shape. There is a feeling of staying in the line, and more importantly, it increases the inner change of pointillism. Bao Shichen said in "Yizhou Shuangji": "I have seen the six-dynasty stele rubbings, where they are left and left. Wherever they are horizontal or straight, they are running; the ancients will gradually frustrate and do not use them." If you go straight away, you will leave everything behind." If you can keep your pen, you won't make the mistake of being "frank". However, the reciprocation against the trend and the friction on the paper should be coordinated and natural, the movements should not be too large, and there should be no artificial distortion . It is necessary to maintain the overall sense of the lines, and contain a certain sense of astringency in the flowing lines. Do not be hairy for the sake of hair, or astringent for the sake of astringency, so that the edges will have a hard tooth shape. Therefore, when using the war pen, you should not only pay attention to the surface shape of the lines, but also pay attention to the inner expression of the spirit, charm, strokes and strength.
  The trembling pen also needs to solve the problem of "slowness" and "sickness" in writing. If you use the pen too fast, the movements will be slippery and the momentum will not be astringent; if you use the pen too slowly, it will be artificial and dull, and the momentum will not be fast. Therefore, it is necessary to use the center pen to control the speed of the good luck pen to achieve the effect of moving quickly, moving without slipping, and staying without stagnation. Zhanbi is a combination of pen power, pen speed, pen gestures, pauses, etc. Only when the combination is natural and coordinated can we write vivid and powerful dot paintings.
  Just like many calligraphers do not understand that the highest state of calligraphy is Taoism and nature, many calligraphers do not understand the characteristics of strokes written with "trembling" or "trembling" strokes, nor can they explain the characteristics of strokes written with "trembling" " or "trembling" strokes. The specific shape of the strokes. Since trembling or shaking is an involuntary mechanical repetitive action with the same frequency, it is a simple repetition without change. The characters written with such a trembling arm and hand have the following characteristics:

  1. Deliberate pursuit of gold and stone energy results in the appearance of lumps of the same shape or the same wavy curve with the same frequency in a single stroke of writing;
  2. Stagnation points with the same frequency appear in one stroke of the astringent pen;
  3. Zigzag shapes that appear with the same frequency in one stroke of the sliding pen.
  The fundamental characteristic of vulgar brushwork is the repetition of the same stroke without variation.