mention and press in calligraphy

What is the reference to the theory of calligraphy?

     We usually hear people say on the Internet: Pay attention to the reference, so what exactly does the reference refer to?

     Pressing and mentioning is the ups and downs of writing and brushwork. Pressing means that the pen goes down; lifting means that the pen is lifted up, and the pen can be kept in the center with the action of pressing and lifting the pen.Jiang He said in the Qing Dynasty: "It must be lifted after a pause, and it must be lifted after squatting and standing. The lifter lifts the pen, and the score of the beard and the score of squatting and standing are also subtracted." Jiang Heng said: "Everyone who turns the shoulder hook to le It is necessary to mention and pause, but the two characters of Teton are connected, which is faster than influence, and if you are too late, you will suffer from the disease of falling shoulders and out of joint." Liu Xizai's "General Introduction to Books" said: "Every book needs a pen and a pen to press, and a pen and a pen to lift it. Distinguishing the key should be at the beginning of the pen, and discerning the mention should be at the end of the pen." "The two characters of the calligrapher are in the same but not separated. Therefore, the important part of the brush must be lifted, and the light of the pen should be used. You must press it firmly, and you will be able to avoid the two diseases of falling and drifting." See "Handwriting." It is very important to learn the book! 
mention and press in calligraphy

    Mr. Shen Yinmo, a modern calligrapher, pointed out that the lifting and pressing of the pen is like a person walking. Put down the left foot, lift and put down the right foot again, and repeat it. In the process of using the pen, the thin strokes are lifted up, so that the pen is lifted off the paper or slightly lifted without leaving the paper.

      Pressing is the action of pressing down the pen. The purpose of pressing is to spread the pen and make the stippling thicker. You need to press to write, and you must first lift and then press to close the pen. If you want to press, you must lift. The turning point is completed by lifting and pressing, so lifting and pressing are closely related.
    Heavy pressing is called pause, second heavy pressing is called squatting, and no heavy pressing is called dwelling, as shown in Figure 7-5 to Figure 7-7. The relationship between lifting and pressing is that there is pressing in lifting, and lifting in pressing, pressing and pressing.

What is the folding front in calligraphy? 

       "Zhefeng" is also called "Naifeng", that is, when starting to write, the pen goes against the front. For example, if you draw horizontally from left to right, when you write, you should first turn the pen backwards to the top of the starting pen, press down lightly, and then draw to the right. , tap down to the right, and then draw down.

      Zhefeng is a brush technique when changing the direction of strokes. Refers to the folding and square of the pen, which is different from the turning pen, that is, when the pen tip changes direction, it turns from the positive side to the negative side, or from the negative side to the positive side. Southern Song Dynasty Jiang Kui's "Continued Books" stated: "At the beginning of writing, there are those who set up the front and those who break the front. The upper strokes are mostly fronts, if the right side of a word is mostly folding fronts, it should be the left side." Zhefeng is good for stippling square energy and creating postures. After Bao Shichen wrote "Ode to Liu Wenqing's Four Wisdoms" in the Qing Dynasty, he said that his brushwork "raises momentum by setting the front, and obtains posture by folding the front."  

What is wrapped front in calligraphy?

 Wrapping the front refers to a technique of using a pen in calligraphy. The pen runs in the opposite direction, "If you want to go up, you go down first, if you want to go left, you go right". In the future, the brush is usually used in a round manner, and the stroke is introverted in the middle of the stippling, which is called "wrapped front". Such as "Cao Quanbei", "Shimen Ming" and so on are often used.

     Wrapping the front means wrapping the pen together. There are two ways to wrap the front: one is to twist the pen to wrap the front; the other is to turn the pen with the wrist. Wrapping the front is an instantaneous state during operation, and the front will spread out and then be wrapped again. The lines drawn have a twisting feeling, which makes the ink color alternately change. This kind of brushwork is suitable for painting vines and so on.  

What is the reverse front in calligraphy?

     Backlash is a technique of brushwork.When the pen is written, the tip of the pen goes retrograde first, and then turns back to the pen. Also called "Slant Front" and "Side Front". For example, when writing a horizontal painting, if you want to go to the right and then the left, that is, when you write, push the tip of the pen to the left first, and then move the pen to the right. This kind of strokes looks square and neat, and it is easy to contain bones and muscles. In order to hide the front, use the method of reverse entry, "if you want to go down, you should go up first, if you want to go right, you should go left", and writing in the opposite direction is called "Nifeng". Using Nifeng as a character often has a vigorous and sophisticated flavor. Liu Xizai of the Qing Dynasty said: "If you want the pen to be everywhere, you must use the inverse formula. Le Zefeng controls the left, and Nu Zefeng controls the top, both of them. However, this is only done secretly. .”

     Whether it is reverse front or smooth front, these are all techniques of brushwork, a means, not an end. The purpose in layman’s terms is to make the characters look good, to make the strokes and lines of the characters more colorful, and to put it further, some characters are sharp , and some characters are ready to go, each with its own beauty. The strokes and lines written by Nifeng and Shunfeng are different, and an insider will be able to see it, unless your writing style of Nifeng is not standardized.


The following information is for reference only:

Misunderstood against the front

    I don’t know how many people were missed when Ni Feng started writing. Among the calligraphers, it should be said that 98% of them? Did Jin and Tang people really write like this? A close review of the "Preface to the Lanting Pavilion" shows that it is rare to start writing against the front in the true sense; looking at the "Draft for the Nephew", it should be said that the result is the same, and Su Dongpo's "Huangzhou Cold Food Post" which is "made by me" should not be. Use this method of death; as for Xu Su's crazy grass, how can he start writing against the evil front? Of course, some people must start with Nifeng to interpret ancient posts, and we have no choice but to think about it. He slowly "imitated" ancient posts like walking on thin ice, and wrote all the living calligraphy to death, but insisted that he respected the original posts of the ancients, and we can only sigh in embarrassment. I wonder why there is an argument that "calligraphy is declining day by day", but calligraphy is losing its strength and quickness, and most of them are old and crazy. The absence of antiquity does not mean that people's hearts are not ancient, but that techniques do not exist. Don't elevate the ancients too much, this is the scientific artistic view that calligraphers should have. What do you guys think?

What does squatting front in calligraphy mean?
      Squatting forward is actually a gesture of writing with a brush.When making a squatting pen, one pauses hard and then picks up the tip of the pen, which is called squatting.

      Usually squatting means to stay. It is originally a word with "squatting". In calligraphy, squatting front and squatting front are two methods. Roughly, squatting front refers to the squatting posture while the pen is moving slowly, and squatting front means squatting first when you want to sway, then retreat and then move forward. In Tang Dynasty Zhang Huaiguan's "Yutang Jinjing" said: "Squatting forward, slowing down and squatting, the severity is accurate"; What does the golden wrong knife mean?


In the art of Chinese calligraphy, "Golden Cuo Dao" has two interpretations: brushwork and font.
 Jincuodao Brushwork: It is a good name for calligraphy with trembling brushwork. "Tan Hui" contains: "Li Houzhu (Yu) of the Southern Tang Dynasty is good at calligraphy, and he writes trembling pens and songs. It is as strong as cold pine and frost bamboo, which is called the golden wrong knife." "Xuanhe Shupu" says: The master also used the Jin Cuo Dao method to make the face, which is also refreshing and extraordinary, and it is another style. The master Jin Cuo Dao calligraphy used the method of three strokes in one stroke, and it was transformed into a painting in his later years, so the trembling is like calligraphy."

    Jincuodao font: font name. Zhang Yanyuan's "Fashu Yaolu" in the Tang Dynasty contains a whole set of Jincuodao calligraphy. The specific form and style are no longer available for inspection.

  Li Keran created the deep and implicit "golden wrong knife" lines; Zhu Qizhan created the old and vigorous "iron stem and silver hook" lines; Liu Wenxi created the simple and vigorous lines that are good at depicting northern characters; Wu Guanzhong created long lines separated from dots that are full of rhythm and beauty; Huang Zhou created wide lines that approximate surfaces with the beauty of strength; Zhou Shaohua created a blend of lines and surfaces, lines and colors. Lines with surface effects; Fu Zhongqi created lines with decorative beauty to express the rural complex; Qiu Xiaoqiu, Song Yugui, etc. created new lines that combine color brushstrokes with ink lines, etc. The creation of these lines enriches the expressive and lyrical functions of Chinese painting. Source Calligraphy House. Focus on abstract art forms such as points, lines, surfaces, brush and ink in the art of painting; pay attention to the imagination and re-creation of the audience caused by the ambiguity of painting space. Therefore, Chinese traditional painting art has the basic characteristics of symbolism, freehand brushwork and expression. Replacing visual reality with imaginative reality is a feature that distinguishes it from Western classical realistic art, and it is also a poetic embodiment of Chinese painting. In terms of observation and expression techniques, Chinese painting "learns nature from the outside and learns from the heart" (Zhang Jiaoyu). It does not completely copy and imitate the objective images of nature, but adds the strong subjective color of the creator, that is, on the basis of creating nature, there are thoughts and meanings. At present, Chinese painters are using ink and color more and more, and the full-color "boneless painting" has made great progress. However, the lines have not been weakened, nor will they disappear. Instead, they have formed new forms and gained new vitality through continuous innovation, showing the charm of oriental painting with more characteristics of the times.  

What does the tendon script in calligraphy refer to?

The strong and beautiful stippling is called "jinshu". Mrs. Wei of the Eastern Jin Dynasty said in "Bi Zhentu": "Those who are good at writing skills have bones, those who are not good at writing skills have more flesh, and those with many bones and little flesh are called sinew books. Those who have many strengths and tendons are holy. Calligraphy talks about tendons and bones, both of which imply praise. , For example, Yan Zhenqing and Liu Gongquan have always been called "Yan Jin Liu Gu". "

Yan Jin Liu Gu Introduction:

      Yan Jin Liu Gu: Yan" refers to Yan Zhenqing, and "Liu" refers to Liu Gongquan. The four famous masters of regular script in the history of ancient Chinese calligraphy: Yan Zhenqing, Liu Gongquan, Ouyang Xun in the Tang Dynasty, and Zhao Mengfu in the Yuan Dynasty. Yan and Liu occupied half of the seats "Yan Jin Liu Gu" means that the styles of the two of them are as strong and powerful as tendons and bones, but they are different.

what is calligraphy

  One-stroke script means that the strokes in cursive script are continuous from beginning to end, like a straight stroke, hence the name. A cursive script created by Eastern Jin calligrapher Wang Xianzhi. Also known as "continuous grass". Zhang Huaiguan of the Tang Dynasty said in Shuduan: "Boying (Zhang Zhi) Zhangcao learned from Cui (Ai) and Du (Du)'s method, so he transformed it into today's grass, turned it into a wonderful one, and the style of the characters is one stroke. It is formed. Occasionally, it is not connected, but the blood is continuous, and if it is connected, the climate is interlaced." Guo Ruoxu of the Northern Song Dynasty said in "Pictures and Experiences": "Wang Xianzhi can make a book, and Lu Tanwei can make a painting. "

Talk about "a book"
Beijing Normal University Li Hongzhi
   Speaking of "one-stroke script", I believe that people will immediately associate it with cursive script, because compared with traditional characters (such as official script, regular script, etc.) that need to be written one by one, the pen is lifted off the paper when writing cursive script The number of strokes is obviously much less, and many pen shapes, parts, and even upper and lower numbers are often written in one stroke. Because of this, many people simply call it "connected strokes", so they associate "one stroke" with cursive script. It's a natural thing to do. However, "cursive script" can be divided into broad and narrow senses; cursive script in the narrow sense can be divided into three types: Zhangcao, Jincao and Kuangcao. Therefore, it is not general to simply understand "one-stroke script" as cursive script.

  Zhang Huaiyu's "Shu Duan" said in the article "Cursive Script (Cursive Script)": "Ran Boying learned the methods of Cui and Du, and learned the new by reviewing the old, so he changed it (Zhang Cao) to become the current cursive. It is written in one stroke, sometimes it is not connected, but the blood is continuous, and if it is connected, the climate passes through the lines. But the prince respects his deep fingers, so the first character of the line often follows the end of the previous line, and the world is called a one-stroke book. , from Zhang Boying, that is."

  Jincao is a cursive style attached to regular script, which is produced by further simplifying and cursing the Zhangcaojing, removing the waves and strengthening the connection between strokes and characters. It sprouted at the end of the Han Dynasty and formed in the Wei and Jin Dynasties, represented by the cursive scripts of the two kings of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (Wang Xizhi, Wang Xianzhi's father and son), the monk Zhiyong of the Sui Dynasty, and Sun Guoting of the Tang Dynasty. However, only in terms of continuity, these masterpieces of Jincao are obviously far from Zhang Huaitun's description of "One-stroke Book".

  Zhang Zhi was a cursive calligrapher in the late Han Dynasty, and was hailed as the "sage of cursive" by later generations. In "Chunhua Ge Tie", there are several big cursive (that is, wild cursive) calligraphy signed by Zhang Zhi, such as "Champion Tie" and so on. Judging from the large number of cursive scripts on bamboo slips of the Han Dynasty unearthed in the area where Zhang Zhi lived (Dunhuang), Jincao had just sprouted when Zhang Zhi lived. Liyi's running script is the main one, but it is just that there is a little bit of today's grass in it. As for Zhangcao, after all, it is a cursive script attached to the official script. Not only is there almost no connection between the characters, but no matter how cursive the individual characters are, they cannot be as crazy as Zhang Huaitun said. Cursive scripts like "Champion Tie" without even a little bit of official meaning are clearly the atmosphere of the Tang and Song Dynasties. Not to mention the unrestrained brushwork and the ups and downs of the characters, it is just the kind of line between the lines. The tacit interspersed cooperation is definitely not something that people in the late Han Dynasty who used bamboo slips as the main writing medium could do.

  All in all, the "one-stroke script" mentioned by Zhang Huaikun should be understood as: it is an affiliation to Zhang Zhi's cursive script, and it may also be a synonym for cursive script. With the evolution of fonts, Zhangcao transitioned to Jincao, which is much more continuous than Zhangcao, so it is more appropriate to call Jincao "one-stroke script".

  In the process of this grass becoming mature, the calligraphers represented by Wang and his sons beautified and processed this grass, leaving many model works of this grass for later generations, which contributed a lot to the promotion and development of this grass without. Source Calligraphy House. Not only that, Wang Xianzhi also made a bold attempt in some of his books such as "December Tie": he wrote the upper and lower numbers almost completely in one stroke, which is derived from Song Mi Fujie's "December Post" by Wang Xianzhi. "Mid-Autumn Tie" ink marks (in which the four characters "never again, no" is a stroke of writing, which can be seen very clearly. There are also such examples in Mi Fu's own writings, such as "Qi Li Fu" in "Zhang Jiming Tie" He Ruye" six characters. Later generations called the group of characters written together in one stroke as "one-stroke book". The evidence Zhang Huaitong said that "only Wang Zijing (Wang Xianzhi's character) clearly shows his deep meaning" is also this kind of book They have also become the most commonly used illustrations when people explain "one-stroke script". It should be noted that such "one-stroke script" is not pure cursive script, and there are often cursive scripts in the middle, such as "December Tie The words "bu" and "fu" in "Zhang Jiming Tie" and "Qi" and "fu" in "Zhang Jiming Tie" all belong to running script.

  In the Tang Dynasty, Zhang Xu, Huai Su and others developed this grass into wild grass, such as Huai Su's "Self-narration Post". Wild grass is more continuous than today's grass, and it really achieves "one-stroke formation" and "breathing through interlaced lines". Therefore, some calligraphy theorists believe that the so-called "one-stroke book" should be in terms of wild grass (see Zhong Mingshan's " Talking about Art Records").

  In short, the biggest feature of "one-stroke book" is its continuous writing. Due to the evolution of fonts and changes in the meaning of words, the actual meaning of "one-stroke book" can generally be summarized into the above-mentioned situations. The strange thing is that Wu Shuo, a man of the Song Dynasty, created a unique "yousishu" whose numbers are continuous lines of equal thickness and thickness, and the fonts are all cursive calligraphy, but no one classifies it as a "one-stroke book". Because of its more prominent features of "hairspring". 

What is the trembling pen in calligraphy? And the pen writing method and characteristics:

       Trembling pen, also known as "war pen", is a calligraphy term. A technical method of using a pen, because the strokes are trembling, so it is named. "Tanhui" contains: "The Empress Li (Yu) of the Southern Tang Dynasty is good at calligraphy. It looks like a quivering pen, and it is as strong as cold pine and frost bamboo." It is also called "Golden Cuo Dao". "Xuanhe Mask Flowers and Birds Three" contains: "Tang Xiya first learned Li's wrong knife and brush, and then painted bamboo. It is like calligraphy, with a trembling shape."

  Writers tend to pay attention to the start and end of stippling, while ignoring the strokes in the middle. Bao Shichen of the Qing Dynasty said in "Shuangji of Art Boats": "The method of using the brush can be seen at both ends of the painting, while the ancients' strong and unrestrained and unattainable ones are cut off in the middle of the painting. Covering the two ends to control Therefore, there are still signs to be found; the reason why the section is full but not timid, solid but not empty, is not a bone-like insight, and it cannot be achieved by luck." The war brush is mainly used in the middle part of the stippling to make it plump but not empty. Emptiness.
  The trembling pen is to go back and forth against the trend through appropriate lifting and pressing, frustrating movements, and strengthening the friction between the pen and the paper. The shape shown in the stippling is scaly and undulating. There is a feeling of staying in the line, and more importantly, it increases the inner change of stippling. Bao Shichen said in "Shuangji of Art Boats": "I have seen the rubbings of steles in the Six Dynasties, and they left all the places where they went, and they did everything they left. Wherever they pass horizontally or straight, there are places where they go; If you go straight away, you will stay wherever you go." If you can keep your pen, you will not commit the problem of "straightforwardness". However, the reciprocation against the trend and the friction on the paper surface must be coordinated and natural, and the movements should not be too large, and there should be no contrived and contorted state. It is necessary to maintain the overall sense of the lines, and contain a certain sense of astringency in the flowing lines. Don't be hairy for the sake of hair, or astringent for the sake of astringency, so that the edges will have a hard tooth-like shape. Therefore, in the application of fighting brush, we should not only pay attention to the shape of the surface of the line, but also pay attention to the expression of inner spirit, charm, gesture and strength.
  Trembling pen also needs to solve the problem of "slow" and "disease" in pen movement. If the brush is used too fast, the movement will be smooth and the momentum will not be astringent; if the brush is used too slowly, it will be easy to be artificial and dull, and the momentum will not be fast. Therefore, it is necessary to use the pen at the center to control the speed of the good luck pen, so as to achieve the effect of being fast, moving without slipping, and staying without stagnation. Combat pen is the combined application of pen force, pen speed, pen gesture, setback and so on. Only when the combination is natural and coordinated can we write vivid and powerful stippling.
  Just as many calligraphers do not understand that the highest state of calligraphy is Taoism and nature, many calligraphers do not understand the characteristics of the strokes written by "jitter" or "shake", nor can they clearly explain the characteristics of the strokes written by "jitter" or "shake". The specific shape of the stroke. Since trembling or trembling is a mechanical repetitive action with the same involuntary frequency, it is a simple repetition without change. The words written with the pen with trembling arms and wrists have the following characteristics:

  1. Deliberately pursuing the spirit of gold and stone, so that there are pimples of the same frequency or the same wave-shaped curve in a single stroke of writing;
  2. Stagnant points with the same frequency appear in one stroke of Shibi;
  3. Zigzags with the same frequency appear in one stroke of the sliding pen.
  The fundamental feature of Subi is to repeat the same stroke without change.