People who learn calligraphy must read it, it is very useful

Shao Wenlong

There are tens of thousands of people who learn calligraphy, and there are little stars who get married. Why? Because many people have entered into a misunderstanding in the process of learning calligraphy. Although they are unswervingly infatuated and have a long-term determination, they will not achieve anything in the end. Next, I will make an analysis and consensus with book friends on the top ten misunderstandings that are most likely to fall into when learning calligraphy

1. Inadvertent selection of posts and inaccurate posts

1. How to select posts?

Selecting copybooks is like worshiping a teacher, and worshiping the author of the copybook as a teacher. To write well, you must worship a famous teacher. Only a famous teacher can produce a good apprentice. Everyone wants to enter key middle schools and key universities. Why? It is because there are famous teachers. The ancients said: "Take the law from the top, and get the middle; take the law from the middle, and get the bottom."

Chinese calligraphy has a history of 6,000 years, and talents have emerged in large numbers in successive dynasties. Wang Xizhi, Wang Xianzhi, Zhang Xu, Huai Su, Yu Shinan, Ouyang Xun, Yan Zhenqing, Liu Gongquan, Zhao Mengfu... and other ancient calligraphy masters are familiar to almost every Chinese intellectual. Their attainments in calligraphy are almost perfect, which can be said to have reached the realm of perfection. Their works have been reviewed and evaluated by generations of literati, and finally they are regarded as Fatie. Nowadays, no calligrapher's works can really be called "Fa Tie". Obviously, the ancient French posts should be the first choice for post selection. Of course, this is not to say that calligraphy cannot be learned today, but that we should absorb some of the strengths of modern masters after intensively studying the tradition.

2. Choose your favorite post.

Likes and dislikes of a thing determine a person's interest, interest affects attitude, attitude influences behavior, and behavior determines the result. When you take a fancy post at a glance, its style will be more suitable for your aesthetics, and it will arouse your sympathy. When you study the post, you will pay more attention to all its details and try your best to imitate its various aspects. technique and style. Even if you work hard and sweat for it, you will be happy. Therefore, when selecting posts, in addition to choosing the method posts and the best copybooks, you should also consider choosing the posts you like, so that you will get started faster. Only when you get started, with the learning, understanding and understanding of calligraphy, you will gradually become rational, that is, to rationally examine the calligraphy styles of various schools in the past, and the emotional choice of choosing posts based on interest in the past will eventually become It will be overcome by you and completely discarded. At this time, you have undoubtedly raised a level in calligraphy.

3. How to post?

Lintie is also called copying. Lin, is to write according to the copybook; imitation, is to use translucent paper to cover the copybook for rubbing.

Lintie is an effective means of learning the calligraphy of predecessors, and it is an indispensable bridge leading to creative freedom. Only by laying a solid foundation at the stage of posting and learning the experience and essence of predecessors' creations, can it be possible to create good works that "the past is not good, but today is not bad". Although most people know the necessity of temporary posting, they may not have a deep understanding of temporary posting itself. There are differences in realms in calligraphy creation, and there are also differences in realms in temporary posts. Su Dongpo said: "The more precise the observation, the more brilliant the imitation", which means that the more meticulous the observation when copying the post, the more glamorous the copied work will be. The level of post-posting realm affects future creation to a certain extent, which is often overlooked by calligraphy lovers.

How to properly post? Generally speaking, the state of Lintie can be divided into three levels: "Scrutiny", "Jinlin", and "Deep Enlightenment".

(1) Take a closer look

To look closely means to examine carefully the brushwork, structure, and composition of the characters in the post. It is necessary not only to grasp the shape of the strokes statically, but also to understand the echo relationship between the stipples dynamically. In terms of structure, we should not only see the arrangement of the lines themselves in space, but also pay attention to the distribution of the blank space after the lines divide the plane, so as to understand the principle of space distribution. In terms of the overall composition, attention should be paid to the line spacing between characters in the original post, the relationship between correctness and density, and other factors. At this stage, the main solution is to improve the ability of observation, to be able to see the subtleties of Fatie. Many apprentices have to be careless. On the whole, it seems that they are not far from the original post, but they miss a lot in the subtleties, which is no different from copying books. The beauty of the predecessors' post is often in every stroke, or even a small movement, which is full of charm. When writing a post, your eyes should be like a magnifying glass, able to magnify details that ordinary people can't notice. Whether you can "look carefully" is related to whether your vision can be high, and if you don't have a good eye, you can't have a high hand. Therefore, temporary practitioners should not blindly copy them mechanically, but should read more posts and observe more.

(2) "Jinglin"

Sun Guoting said: "The heart is never tired of being refined, and the hands are never tired of familiarity." The so-called "familiar hands" not only means similarity in appearance, but also similarity in spirit. To achieve both form and spirit, it is natural to write slowly and accurately at the beginning of writing. Over time, if you practice to a certain extent, practice makes perfect, and your spirit will come naturally. In fact, "Jinglin" is inherently difficult for every book learner, but it is the basis of everything. Among the many trainees, there are not many who can really do this. There are two reasons for this: one is that at the beginning of the practice, the state of "seeing" cannot be achieved;

(3) "Deep understanding"

"Learning without thinking is nothing." Feel with your heart, feel the shape and echo of stippling, feel the expression and echo of the body, feel the dynamics and look between words, feel the distribution and closeness between lines, and feel the formation and harmony of the whole article. The so-called "similarity" is just a deep understanding of the external form of Fate; to grasp the style, artistic conception and spiritual outlook of Fate, one must "understand" - to imagine and feel the emotional changes of predecessors when they swiped a brush, The dynamics of brushwork and the inner cultivation of works. Therefore, Wang Sengqian said in "Praise of the Brush": "The wonderful way of calligraphy is the spirit, followed by the shape and quality, and those who have both can be introduced to the ancients." That is to say, the most important thing in calligraphy is the spirit. There is life and dynamic expression; while those with fine font structure and strokes but lack of expression can only be regarded as the second-class level. If a person writes characters that are both exquisite in shape and quality and fresh in spirit, then he has inherited the essence from the ancients.

2. Do scribbles on your own and don't come to the inscriptions.

A friend asked me: "Can I write calligraphy well without posting?" I said: "No." The friend said solemnly: "Then according to what you say, who is the first calligrapher to write?"——I was speechless in embarrassment! Although it is impossible to answer the question of "who came first with the chicken or the egg", it is doomed not to learn calligraphy well if you don't read the post.

There are three reasons:

First of all, if you don’t read the post, you can’t learn rich techniques and aesthetics from the post, so you can’t get rid of your own vulgarity, scribbling casually, without a model, without reference, even if you practice hard all your life behind closed doors, you still have nothing to do with calligraphy.

Secondly, Chinese calligraphy has a history of thousands of years. In the long history, generations of artists have continuously inherited the experience accumulated by their predecessors, repeatedly integrated their own aesthetic style, and gradually formed a complete and systematic theoretical system. A culture and art with rich and delicate technical rules, one cannot engage in calligraphy activities without understanding or indirectly understanding Chinese calligraphy. Even if you have learned the characters of your father, teacher, classmates, friends or neighbors, it is still a temporary script, but it is not a scripture, which can also make you improve, but this kind of progress is slow. Yes, detours, but without exception, the indirect inheritance of traditional calligraphy culture.

Third, whether a person's handwriting is good or not is related to the aesthetic principles of calligraphy. What kind of calligraphy is good and what kind of calligraphy is bad? Well, how good is it, bad, how bad is it? What is the reason? ——This requires standards. Although Chinese calligraphy has no absolute standards, it has relative aesthetic rules. An excellent work must have two basic levels: one is the level of inheritance of traditional calligraphy art; the other is the level of personal aesthetic style integrated. The so-called "inheritance and development", these are the two basic criteria for the evaluation of calligraphy works, and other detailed rules are established within this evaluation framework. If you don't follow the calligraphy, you reject the tradition. If you don't inherit the traditional calligraphy, you will fail at the first pass. What else is there to talk about?

3. Thick the past and despise the present, or favor the present and depreciate the past.

Beginners of calligraphy must of course learn from ancient methods. Whether you learn the tradition well or not determines the foundation of your calligraphy in the future. However, the purpose of learning ancient methods is to create new ones, not to follow the ancient methods and stick to the rules. Many people have worked hard on traditional skills, even to the extent that the form and spirit are exquisite and false, but they just don't want to learn from today's people, and have nothing to do with modern calligraphy. I have never crossed the threshold, let alone create new methods, and always dig out the pockets of my ancestors, so that I have been a calligrapher for half my life and have no success in my life. This is called inheriting but not innovating. On the contrary, nowadays many beginners are greedy for quick success, eager for quick success, disregarding the tradition, and directly take the works of the so-called "masters and celebrities" and "competition gold medal winners" of today's people. Or after winning the prize, they will be ecstatic, flaunting themselves everywhere, scorning the tradition, and the catchphrase is: "You wait to write as much as you can, and you are a calligrapher! Those who write more are art!"

Of these two kinds of people, the former can still become a craftsman, while the latter will only go crazy.

Fourth, only face the inscriptions, do not read the inscriptions.

Friends who are initially copying posts generally attach great importance to the observation and copying of the strokes and structures of individual characters, but seldom pay attention to the relationship between characters, ignore the grasp of the overall composition of the work, and do not experience and understand the author at that time. The emotions when writing and the signs shown in the works, let alone the grasp of the comprehensive personal cultivation, creative style, and artistic conception of the works revealed by the works. This affects the quality and efficiency of temporary posts to a certain extent. In the practice of calligraphy, some people have copied the posts for decades, and the characters written by them are very similar, but they are more like specimens, sluggish, lifeless, and lack of aura. It is said that drawing a dragon is easy, but finishing the eyes is difficult. The difficulty lies in whether there is spirit and vivid charm. To overcome this defect, you have to read the post. When reading a post, many authoritative explanations are to read the content of the text in the post, understand what the post is talking about, and then feel the author's emotions at that time. I think that although this statement has some truth, it is not comprehensive and not convincing. Just imagine, if we only need to read the text, we can call up a printed article of "Lanting Collection Preface" from the computer. Let's see, can you improve your calligraphy? Ghosts believe it! In fact, to put it bluntly, reading posts is to read posts, appreciate posts, and understand posts. That is to look comprehensively from one word to one line, and from one line to an article, not only looking at stippling and structure, but also looking at composition, layout, style, and artistic conception. By reading more, until you understand the beauty of calligraphy revealed in the posts, and repeatedly appreciate the artistic conception and style shown in it; finally, you can get a sense of it, and realize the deep artistic accomplishment, the style of the times and the cultural connotation of calligraphy. In this way, we will get its "meaning" and forget its "shape".

5. Specialize in practice and not study theory.

In history, there is a story about Meng’s mother’s three relocations. It is said that when Mencius was a child, there was a cemetery in front of his house, and people often died and sent them here for funerals. A funeral ceremony was held for burying a person, and the family members fell on the ground like cows and horses and wailed loudly. Mencius often stood on the sidelines to watch, and was deeply influenced and influenced. The biggest characteristic of children is that they are good at imitating. Every time they go home, they dig a hole in the backyard, and put dirty clay figurines in it, and then cry loudly. Meng’s mother is very shocked when she finds out, worrying that the child will go astray and be ruined. Life, had to move quickly. Then, children imitate funeral rituals without knowing the reason, which is out of naivety and ignorance; then if we want to see the grave without asking who is buried, we just lie on the ground and cry, isn't it a big laughing stock? ——Learning calligraphy is also the same principle. You must understand the principle: Who wrote this post? Under what circumstances did you write it? Which genres did you inherit from? What are the characteristics? What is your taste? Is it suitable for me to learn from his posts? What aspects should we learn? In addition, you must know the general rules of learning calligraphy. For example, you can understand the theory of learning: calligraphy has laws, but there is no fixed method. If there is a law, there will be no death, but if there is no law, there will be chaos. Beginners seek the law, masters use it, and advanced people abandon the law; official script is a means, knowledge of the law is the requirement, and usage is the goal; official script speaks the law, running script expresses ideas, and cursive script indulges; no official script is not ancient, no regular script Unsteady, no seal and cursive flow; regular script meaning is heavy and the line is dead, official style is heavy and the script is clumsy, no line meaning is stagnant; learning regular script is not as good as the old, learning grass is not as good as the old... and so on. Only when we understand these truths can we be targeted when we study books. People often say that "the theory is not clear, but the practice is not effective", calligraphy should be written well, and the theory should guide it. Appropriate theoretical study can make you get twice the result with half the effort, but blind practice can only make you get twice the result with half the effort.

6. Practice hard behind closed doors and rarely communicate.

Truth is clarified in debate, and learning is improved in communication. Communication is not just about showing your own work to others and asking others to point out problems; more importantly, it is to learn from others' strengths in communication, learn from others' strengths, and make up for your own weaknesses. When practicing calligraphy, some people sit hard in the study room, stay at home, think hard, and persevere. Although they have gained a certain amount, the characters they can write still cannot be printed on rice paper. calligrapher. The main reason is that I don't communicate with others, and practice hard alone. I practice so straight that Monk Zhang Er can't figure it out, and I practice so straight that a frog at the bottom of a well can't see the sky.

7. Keep the teacher's door alone and reject dissidents.

At the end of the last century, Mr. Jin Yong's martial arts novels were popular all over the country, and his novels vividly interpreted the Chinese martial arts spirit. In his writing, knights of the Jianghu respectfully inherit the teachings of their masters, stick to their sects, and reject dissidents. As a result, their martial arts are mediocre, and it is difficult to become masters. They always want to dominate the martial arts but their dreams are repeatedly shattered; Only those who learn from the strengths of other schools at the same time can finally become a martial arts master who is alone in the martial arts world. This phenomenon is also the same in the calligraphy world. The ancients said, "Books come to thousands of steles to create a style", which has two meanings: one is to emphasize that the amount of writing should be large, and the other is to visit hundreds of schools and absorb the strengths of all schools. If there is no amount of accumulation in Lintie, it will not lead to a leap in writing quality. "Ji An Zhuan" is famous all over the world, but such a classic in lower case is the realm achieved by the author's daily practice of thousands of characters. On the other hand, learning calligraphy should learn from others, just like a bee gathers honey. The fragrance of flowers is gathered to make delicious honey. Only by "learning the words of a hundred schools of thought" can "become a word of one family". It is useless to learn calligraphy and stick to the head of the family.

Eight, stop and stop, one exposure to ten cold.

Anyone who has been to Mount Hua knows that tourists do not walk as fast as mountain pickers. They are unhurried and down-to-earth. Although they come from behind you, they are always in front of you in the end. why? It is that they persevere and never stop. Many friends learn calligraphy only on the basis of impulsive enthusiasm, three-minute enthusiasm, before the Four Treasures of the Study are completed, and then die down; some people have long-term plans, intending to learn calligraphy in ten years, but in these ten years Three days of fishing, two days of drying the net, and sometimes losing it for half a year. When I picked up the pen again, I felt that I had no progress and no interest, so I scribbled for a while and then hurriedly quit. Practicing calligraphy, one day will make one day's work; one day of not practicing, one day's work will be lost for three days. Such a method of exposing the ten-cold practice method, although it has been said that it has been practiced for ten years, the effect is not as good as that of several months. How can you learn calligraphy well?

Nine, changing strings and changing ruts, throwing oneself into the teacher's door indiscriminately.

People often say, "long-term illness seeks medical treatment indiscriminately". When a person is sick for a long time, he will always be very anxious. At first, I went to see a doctor, but I only took one dose of the medicine prescribed by him, and I felt that the effect was not great. I heard that there was a miracle doctor somewhere, so I hurriedly visited, but the medicine was not finished again, and I was transferred to another hospital..., If this continues, don’t Speaking of a miracle doctor, even a god can't save you. Learning calligraphy is also very taboo for this kind of practice of "seeing doctors indiscriminately after a long illness", and the practice of seeing the height of the mountain from one mountain to another. Prompt posts generally go through two stages: entry and exit. To enter a post is to copy after a long period of time, and to master the characteristics and style of a certain post skillfully and accurately. Posting is to be able to master the style of the original post in terms of shape and spirit, and to be able to consciously get rid of the influence of the original post after changing the post. . In practice, there are many comrades who have hurriedly changed posts before they have really fully entered the posts, and then changed again before they have learned well. If things go on like this, some people will dig a hole for a lifetime, but they will never dig a well; they will learn calligraphy all their lives, but there will be no shadow of traditional inheritance, and the works they write will naturally be like water without a source and a tree without roots.

Of course, there is also the opposite phenomenon. Some people put a lot of hardships in the post, and they write it well, but contrary to what I said above, they can't jump out of the original post, and they can't get rid of the original post. The writing is the face, and the official script is written for people to see, but the face is tweaked, it seems that the face has been brainwashed, so that it is not a face for life. This doesn’t work either, you must insist on writing new posts after changing posts until you get rid of the shackles of color and body. Generally speaking, it is easy to enter a post and difficult to post a post.

Ten, eager for quick success, intolerance of loneliness.

Art is a high-level spiritual experience and a high-level pursuit of happiness in life. When you really enter the palace of calligraphy art, the physical and mental happiness you experience at that time is by no means the low-level feeling of delicacies from mountains and seas, prosperity and wealth, but the encounter with the sages, the understanding with the gods, and your heart will beat for your epiphany . No wonder Confucius said, "To hear the Tao in the morning is enough to die in the evening!" Learning calligraphy is the pursuit of the spiritual world, not for the sake of a thousand dollars, a title on the gold list, and a return to one's hometown. Therefore, learning calligraphy requires a correct attitude.

Learning calligraphy is the same as learning other arts. Innate perception ability and acquired hard study are equally important. There are many self-taught masters among the people who have never been in a major, but their sensitivity and understanding of art will surprise you. On the contrary, many so-called graduates who have received a good art education do not think about making progress. It can be seen that learning art requires obsessive and pious enthusiasm, and never regard it as a utilitarian means of making a living. Otherwise, you will definitely regret it. What do you regret? One is to regret that it makes you lose the romance of life and waste your youth; the other is to regret that it makes you lose the chance of getting rich and promoted, and what you get is just a hopeless situation like an ascetic. Some people say that those great calligraphers can earn thousands or tens of thousands of yuan with a swipe of their brushes. How can they be ascetics? That's because you only see the romance after success, but you don't see the hardships of "the night is dark and the lights are cold just before dawn". People who are eager for quick success and impatient with loneliness are not suitable for calligraphy art activities.