Confucius said: "If a worker wants to do a good job, he must first sharpen his tools."
   Brushes are an important part of Chinese calligraphy and painting. Without brushes, there would be no line quality characteristics of Chinese calligraphy and painting. The inkstone can not be washed frequently, and the ink left overnight is called Sumo. The brush must not be lazy, because the brush will lose its hair, the brush will break, and the pen barrel will crack or even bend. Moreover, nowadays, a good brush must be expensive, and to write satisfactory works naturally depends on a good brush. Therefore, I think that among the four treasures of the study, brushes need to be cherished the most.

  Washing brushes is inseparable from water, of course the water should be clean water. Water can't be stingy, because it takes a lot of water to wash a brush. Write it out for your reference:

  1. Use up all the ink in the brush
  This is to make washing the pen more concise. The method is that after writing, you can scribble on the paper as you like without dipping the ink, until the ink in the belly of the pen is used up. It is said that the master Huang Binhong paints with ink and ink. You don't need to wash the brush after painting, just wipe it dry on the skirt, because the ink in the brush has been used up, and the brush hair has been cleaned during the process of dipping in water. Wash it in the process of painting. As for the pen, I think those who are well versed in the nature of the pen and the theory of ink can do it.

  2. Soak the pen first and then wash the pen
  It is best to wash brushes in a fixed container, such as a basin, washbasin, etc. Soak the brush in a certain amount of water, not too much water, just enough to cover the brush. Soak for about 20 seconds, so that the ink in the belly of the pen can be diffused and it is easy to wash the pen. You can't just soak the brush in water. After a few days, the tube of the brush will crack and damage the expensive pen. Don't be lazy about washing pens.

  3. Do not damage the pen by washing the pen
  In the process of washing the pen, the tip of the pen should always be down. You can gently fiddle with the brush hair with your fingers, but you can't pull out the brush hair forcefully. You can stir the tip of the pen in the water, but not for too long, which will damage the root of the pen. It should be washed until the brush is lifted out of the water, and the water that seeps out of the brush with your fingers is not too much ink, so that the brush is basically cleaned. Finally, squeeze out the remaining water in the pen with your fingers or absorbent paper, and the pen washing process can be ended.

  Four, how to wash multiple brushes
  If multiple brushes are washed at the same time, in order to better protect the brushes, it is best to wash the brushes separately, because the materials of the brushes are different, such as Jianhao, Yanghao, Langhao, Zihao and so on. , are bound to be very different. Washing separately can basically make every pen clean.

  5. Maintenance of the brush after washing
  After the brush is washed, it involves the daily maintenance of the brush. One thing to pay attention to is that the brush cannot be placed with the head up. Because the remaining water in the brush will seep down into the pen tube, crack the pen tube, and eventually the pen head will fall off. In this case, colleagues in the north need to pay special attention. Try to hang the tip of the brush down or place it flat in the pen curtain, so that the brush will dry naturally and the bristles will be scattered, which is convenient for the next use.
  Another point to mention is that Sumo not only stinks, but also hurts the pen. Because the molecular structure in the ink changes, the damage to the brush hair is obvious, so it is best not to write with old ink. The ancients said: "Excellent pen and ink, life is a joy." Treat our brushes well, and after a long time of wielding them, they will naturally go smoothly, and good works may emerge as the times require.

Common problems with brushes, their causes and how to fix them

rod cracking

1. Improper material selection for the pen holder.
2. Uncomfortable storage is related to the north-south climate.
3. If the use time is too long, the root of the pen tip will swell when it touches ink and water, and shrinks when it is not in use, causing the bamboo pole to crack.
[repair method]
1. If the middle part of the rod is cracked, you can apply adhesive to the crack.
2. Pay attention to the usage and storage methods.
3. If the root of the nib is cracked, it can be wrapped tightly with silk thread and coated with adhesive to prevent the nib from falling off.

pen top

The pen holder falls off. The adhesion is not strong, and the glue is not used properly. Use an adhesive to re-bond (water-resistant glue)
nib falling off
1. The barrel is too large and the bond is not strong.
2. Manufacturers use improper adhesives and non-water-resistant adhesives.
[repair method]
1. Use water-resistant adhesive to rebond.
2. To choose the adhesive used for sticking organic glass.

sporadic hair loss

1. The floating brush can't be rinsed off, and it's normal to start a new brush.
2. The bonding is not firm.
3. The nib is not tightly made.
4. The use time is too long.
5. When using too much force, the brush hair will be broken, or the dry and wet time will be too long and it will be boring.
[repair method]
1. Before using the new pen, rinse off the floating hair.
2. Use a syringe to inject the adhesive into the root of the brush head, then stand the brush head upright until it dries before using it.
3. It is a normal phenomenon that the vellus hair will rot if it is used for too long.
4. The bearing capacity of the vellus hair varies, it should be suitable for the bearing capacity of the brush hair, pay attention to the method of brush handling, high-quality brush pens have strong wear resistance.

Hair loss in a row or in clumps
1. The root of the hair head is not firmly bonded
2. The ink is very corrosive, and the quality of the ink is too poor, which will cause the tip of the pen to rot, and the root of the pen is most likely to rot.
3. If you don’t hang it up to dry after rinsing, insert the pen holder or put it into the pen case, the ink will seep into the pen chamber for too long, causing the brush hair to rot.
4. The quality of rough wool selection is too poor.
[repair method]
1. To rebond, inject adhesive.
2. Rinse the ink after use, and use the inferior ink suddenly.
3. Hang up to dry after rinsing, and do not put it into a pen case. Adhesive is injected when hair loss is severe.
4. Carefully pay attention to the purchase of reliable products.

The brush has a short service life and poor wear resistance

1. The pen is crafted, the heat treatment temperature is improper, and the time of soaking in alkaline water is too long.
2. The paper is too rough.
3. Poor quality ink.
4. Improper maintenance will damage the pen edge.
5. Excessive force when using the pen.
6. The quality of vellus hair is too poor.
7. The grades of brushes are different.
[repair method]
1. Use a good quality brush.
2. Choose better paper.
3. Choose better ink.
4, must pay attention to protection.
5. Improve the essentials of brushwork.
6. When buying a pen, carefully identify the quality selection, and don't trust the seller's rhetoric.
7. Different breeds of animal hair have different grades and prices, and the service life is different.

sharp edge bending

1. Made of inferior wool.
2. The hair selection is not fine, and the oil stains are not handled properly.
3. Poor maintenance or bending the tip of the pen.
[repair method]
1. Pay attention to the selection when buying, spread out the nib to see the sharpness, and look at the vice.
2. Cannot be repaired.
3. Rinse off the ink after use, hang it to dry, and keep it away from the tip of the pen.

nib not sharp

1. The quality of the hair is too poor, and there is no sharp bald hair.
2. The production is shoddy, and the vellus hair is not high enough.
3. The pen type is unqualified, and the owner is wrong.
[repair method]
1. Carefully select the hair quality.
2. Don't trust the seller's rhetoric.
3. Choose the right variety for your own use and find a reliable manufacturer.

Scattered tip with fork and no tip

1. The pen post is not round, and the hair of the pen is inferior.
2. The proportion of the auxiliary millet and the main millet is improper, and the amount of hard millet raw materials is too much.
3. Improper preparation of sub-millimeters.
4. The hair quality is not high enough, waste hair, bald hair.
5. The workmanship and repair of the pen are unqualified, and the process flow is not enough.
6. The service life has expired, and the pen edge is worn out.
7. If you do not rinse or rinse clean after use, there will be too much ink residue at the root of the pen tip.
8. Use too much force on the tip of the pen, or use the pen improperly.
9. Write big characters with small pens, exceeding the acceptable range.
10. The wrong type is used, such as: pig bristle pens, horse bristle pens, etc., which are easy to split or add too much.
[repair method]
1. Purchase a new pen.
2. After the brush is used, the ink must be rinsed off.
3. Pay attention to the essentials of pen operation, and lift the pen to operate.
4. The size of the brush should be selected appropriately. Write small characters with a big pen, and suddenly write big characters with a small pen. 
5. Try to choose well-made varieties.

nib tangled up
1. The hair quality is not good, such as outer hair, curved hair. 
2. The tip of the pen is improperly made, and the combing is uneven.
3. There are too few or no raw materials for sub-millimeters.
4. Improper preparation parts and cutting corners. 
[repair method]
1. Before use, absorb enough ink, and move the pen slowly to make do with it.
2. The key is to be careful when purchasing brushes, and don't be greedy for cheap.
3. The sub-hair is the main factor of the quality of the brush tip. When choosing a brush, observe the quality of the hair.
4. Cutting corners refers to the vice, and the vice should be carefully observed.

Insufficient elasticity
1. Improper selection of varieties.
2. The proportion of main cents, vice cents, and healthy cents is inappropriate, and the vice is not enough.
3. The raw material quality of the nib is not good.
4. The tip of the pen is not enough. The vice is not enough, not round, not full. To sum up experience, we must choose the right variety.

too elastic
5. The proportion of ingredients is improper, and the production is unqualified.
6. The wool quality is too poor, and the animal hair is not of high grade.
7. Excessive amount of hard hair. Pay attention to carefully select varieties that meet the standards, and look for reliable manufacturers.

Ejecting ink too quickly
1. The tip of the pen is too thin, and the vices are not enough.
2. There is no sub-hair, and it is made of low-quality wool.
3. Too much synthetic fiber (artificial hair) is mixed with the tip of the pen. Choose the right variety carefully and pay attention to the pros and cons of the vice cents.

The pen absorbs too little ink

1. The tip of the pen is too thin and the shape of the pen is too thin.
2. There are too many synthetic fibers (artificial hair) mixed in the nib.
3. The ink immersion time is too short, and the ink absorption is insufficient. Be cautious when purchasing brushes, cheap ones are not good ones.

Slanted tip

1. The pair is not round enough, and the pair is not enough.
2. The repairer failed to repair the brush.
3. Improper proportion of the tip of the pen.