100 questions on calligraphy knowledge

1. Book style
 1. What is Oracle?
Oracle bone inscriptions refer to the characters carved on tortoise shells and animal bones during the Yin and Shang Dynasties.
2. What is gold inscriptions?
Bronze inscriptions refer to the characters engraved on bronze vessels during the Yin and Zhou dynasties.
3. What are the representative works of Jin Wen?
In the Western Zhou Dynasty, bronze inscriptions were relatively popular, mainly including "Maogong Tripod" and "Sanshi Pan".
4. What is Shiguwen?
Shiguwen is a text carved on ten drum-shaped stone tablets, also known as "hunting tablets".
5. What is Dazhuan?
 All writings written before Qin Shihuang unified the six kingdoms are collectively called Dazhuan, including oracle bone inscriptions, bronze inscriptions (Zhongding inscriptions), Zhou inscriptions, ancient inscriptions, etc.
6. What is Xiaozhuan?
Small seal script is opposite to big seal script. The Qin seal script revised and organized by Qin Prime Minister Li Si is called Xiaozhuan script.
7. What are the representative works of Xiaozhuan of the Qin Dynasty?
"Taishan Carved Stones", "Kaiji Carved Stones", etc. It is said that most of them were written by Li Si, with a rigorous and well-proportioned calligraphy style, dignified and beautiful.
8. What is Wadangwen?
Wadang script is the text engraved on tiles during the Qin and Han Dynasties. The content is mostly auspicious.
9. How did official script come into being?
Official script was gradually formed during the long-term writing process of cursive seal script.
10. What is Han Li?
Han Li refers to the official script of the Han Dynasty, especially the official script of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Later generations called the official script of the Eastern Han Dynasty "Han Li".
11. What are the representative works of Han Li?
"Zhang Qian Monument", "Yi Ying Monument", "Cao Quan Monument", etc.
12. What is Zhangcao?
Zhangcao is a kind of cursive script that was formed in the middle and late Western Han Dynasty, gradually matured, and became popular in the Eastern Han Dynasty. It is the result of fast writing in official script. Famous works of Zhangcao handed down from ancient times include "Jijiu Zhang" by Huang Xiang and Shi You, "Pingfu Tie" by Lu Ji, and "Yueyi Tie" by Suo Jing, etc.
13. What is imago?
Jincao, also known as "Xiaocao", is one of the most popular fonts in cursive script. Jincao matured during the Eastern Jin Dynasty. The father and son Wang Xizhi and Wang Xianzhi of the Eastern Jin Dynasty inherited and developed the cursive script originated by Zhang Zhi, giving it a new style. In order to distinguish it from Zhangcao, people call it Jincao.
14. What is grass?
Dacao, also known as "crazy grass", is a type of cursive script. The two calligraphers Zhang Xu and Huai Su of the Tang Dynasty further developed cursive scripts that were more indulgent than Jin Cao in the Jin Dynasty.
15. What is regular script?
Regular script is also called Zhengshu, Zhengkai, Zhenshu. The earliest calligrapher in regular script is Zhong Yao, and the oldest regular script is "Declaration Table" and "Ji Ji Zhi Biao" written by Zhong Yao. The regular script of Wang Xizhi and Wang Xianzhi of the Eastern Jin Dynasty developed further on the basis of Zhong Yao's regular script, making it more beautiful. Regular script can be divided into three types: Jin Kai, Wei Kai and Tang Kai.
16. What are Northern Wei Dynasty stone carvings?
The Northern Wei Dynasty stone carvings are a general term for the Northern Wei Dynasty stone tablets and the Wei stone carvings and calligraphy with similar calligraphy styles before and after the Northern Wei Dynasty, including epitaphs, statues, tablets and cliff carvings, etc. Some people also call the stone carvings of the Northern Wei Dynasty "Wei Kai".
17. What is running script?
Running script is a calligraphy style between regular script and cursive script. The fast writing of regular script and some cursive techniques form the characteristics of running script. Early running script emerged around the late Eastern Han Dynasty, which was later than regular script. According to legend, it was created by Liu Desheng in the late Han Dynasty.
18. What is Lean Overall?
The thin gold body was developed by Zhao Ji, Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty, on the basis of his predecessors, and has a strong personal style. His strokes are as thin and strong as iron, and he calls himself "thin gold body".
19. What is lacquer book?
Lacquer calligraphy generally refers to a style of calligraphy written by Jin Nong, one of the Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou in the Qing Dynasty.
2. Calligraphers
 20. What are the stylistic characteristics of Zhong Yao’s calligraphy works?
The brushwork is fresh, elegant and simple, sparse, thin and round, and the characters are flat and broad with an official meaning. Together with Wang Xizhi, he is known as the "Zhongwang".
twenty one. What are Zhong Yao’s handed down works?
There are no authentic copies of Zhong Yao's calligraphy handed down to the world. Among the famous engraved posts, there are "Declaration Form", "Congratulation Form" and so on.
twenty two. What are the characteristics of Zhang Zhi’s calligraphy and his representative works?
Zhang Zhi was a famous calligrapher in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. He was good at Li, Xing, Cao and Feibai calligraphy. He learned the methods of Cui Yuan and Du Du, and changed Zhang Cao calligraphy into one-stroke calligraphy, which made his Qi veins smooth. His handed down works include "August Post", "Champion Post", etc.
twenty three. What are Suo Jing's handed down calligraphy works and their characteristics?
Suo Jing's handed down works include "Yue Yi Tie", "Ode to Become a Teacher", "Emergency Chapter" and so on. His calligraphy is vigorous and courageous.
twenty four. What are the stylistic characteristics of Wei Shuo’s calligraphy works?
"Mrs. Wei" was described by people in the Tang Dynasty as her book as a flower-arranging dancer, with her lowered head and beauty, like a beautiful lady on stage, with fairies making shadows, red lotuses reflecting in the water, and clouds floating on the blue sea. She was Wang Xizhi’s calligraphy teacher when he was a boy.
25. What is Wang Xizhi's calligraphy style?
Wang Xizhi was revered as the "Sage of Calligraphy" and had a great influence on later generations. Use the "pout inside" technique.
26. What are the handed down works of Wang Xizhi in running script?
Running script: "Lanting Preface", "Two Thank You Notes", etc.
27. What are the stylistic characteristics of Wang Xianzhi’s calligraphy works?
Wang Xianzhi created a new body of walking grass with high spirits and graceful movement. Later generations called him and his father "Little King" and "Big King", and they were also called "Two Kings", which have become calligraphy classics for thousands of years.
28. What are Wang Xianzhi’s cursive works handed down from generation to generation?
Cursive writing: "Mid-Autumn Tie", "Yatouwan", etc.
29. What are the stylistic characteristics of Wang Shi’s calligraphy works?
His calligraphy is vigorous and elegant, chic and ancient. His handed down work "Bo Yuan Tie".
30. What are the stylistic characteristics of Zhiyong’s calligraphy?
Jiyong's "Thousand-Character Essay on Zhencao" uses a smooth and round style, which is clear and handsome; the structure is upright and elegant, and the wind and hair are bright, just like the temperament of a handsome young man from a wealthy family.
31. Which four calligraphers do the "Four Calligraphers of the Early Tang Dynasty" refer to?
Ouyang Xun, Yu Shinan, Chu Suiliang, Xue Ji.
32. What are the stylistic characteristics of Ouyang Xun's calligraphy?
The regular script works are concise and reserved, strong and elegant; the structure is tight inside and loose outside, gathered on the left and left on the right, square and dignified, dangerous in the ordinary, elegant in the simplicity, it is an outstanding example of the essence of calligraphy from the north and the south. model
33. What are the handed down regular script works of Ouyang Xun?
"Jiucheng Palace Liquan Inscription", "Huadu Temple Stele", "Yu Gonggong Stele", etc.
34. What are the stylistic characteristics of Yu Shinan's calligraphy?
His representative work "Confucius Temple Monument" in regular script has a beautiful and round style, calmness and stability; the structure is broad and sparse, dignified and elegant, and full of wind and spirit.
35. What are Yu Shinan's regular script works handed down from generation to generation?
"Confucius Temple Stele" and so on.
36. What are the stylistic characteristics of Chu Suiliang’s regular script calligraphy works?
His representative work "Master Meng's Monument" in regular script is written in Qingyuan Xiaosan, which is powerful and elegant;
37. What are Chu Suiliang's handed down works?
Regular script: "Master Meng's Monument", "Yanta Sacred Preface", etc.
38. What are the stylistic characteristics of Xue Ji’s calligraphy works?
The brush is thin and hard, and the stippling is exquisite; the structure is mainly vertical, sparse and open, with a gorgeous and beautiful beauty.
39. What are the stylistic characteristics of Li Yong's calligraphy works?
The style of his writing is thin and stiff, with strong bones. The structure is in an opposite direction and towering to the right, with a strong contrast between density and density.
40. What are the handed down works of Li Yong?
"Li Sixun Monument", "Lushan Temple Monument", etc.
41. What are the stylistic characteristics of Sun Guoting’s calligraphy works?
His cursive calligraphy work "Shupu" is highly praised by Erwang's brushwork, with sharp brushstrokes, jumping stippling, and implicit meaning.
42. What are the stylistic characteristics of Zhang Xu’s calligraphy?
Zhang Xu's cursive calligraphy is the most famous. He often screams and throws hair on the wall when he is drunk, so he is known as "Zhang Dian".
43. What are Zhang Xu’s masterpieces handed down from generation to generation?
"Tie of Belly Pain", "Four Posts of Ancient Poems", etc.
44. What are the stylistic characteristics of Yan Zhenqing’s regular script works?
 "Duobao Pagoda Stele" has a clear and graceful writing style; its structure is square and steady, dignified and precise.
45. What are the stylistic characteristics of Yan Zhenqing’s running script works?
His calligraphy style is romantic and majestic, and his pen is mostly centered, round and powerful, with a seal-like style, changing the sharpness of Er Wang's "broken hairpin" into the hairy and astringent "house leak mark".
46. What are the stylistic characteristics of Huaisu's calligraphy works?
Huaisu's cursive script mostly uses a center stroke, tossing and turning, continuously, and has the potential to be as fast as lightning.
47. What are Huaisu's Dacao works handed down from generation to generation?
"Self-narrative Post", "Bitter Bamboo Shoot Post", etc.
48.What are the stylistic characteristics of Liu Gongquan’s calligraphy and regular script works?
The pen is strong and thin, and the strokes at the starting and closing points and turning points are emphasized, creating an obvious decorative phenomenon of raised nodules; the palace in the structure is tightened and the four sides are opened.
49. What are Liu Gongquan’s regular script works handed down from generation to generation?
Regular script: "Mysterious Tower Stele", "Shence Army Stele", etc.
50. What is "Yan Jin Liu Gu"?
"Yan Jin Liu Gu" is an evaluation of the calligraphy style characteristics of Yan Zhenqing and Liu Gongquan, which means that Yan Zhenqing's calligraphy has more flesh and less bones, and wins with sinews, while Liu Gongquan's calligraphy has more bones and less flesh, and wins with bones.
51. What are the stylistic characteristics of Yang Ningshi’s calligraphy works?
The characters are well moved and the posture is vivid. The lines of the characters are very sparse, forming a sparse and leisurely layout, which is unconventional and refreshing. He is an important inheritor of calligraphy style in the late Tang Dynasty.
52. What are the handed down regular script works of Yang Ningshi?
"Leek Flower Tie".
53. Which four calligraphers do the "Four Calligraphers of the Song Dynasty" refer to?
 Cai Xiang, Su Shi, Huang Tingjian, Mi Fu.
54. What are the stylistic characteristics of Cai Xiang’s calligraphy works?
His calligraphy is elegant, vigorous, concise and full of variety. His representative works include "Reservation Post", "Beriberi Post", etc.
55. What are the stylistic characteristics of Su Shi's calligraphy works?
The strokes are rich in strokes, the shapes are plump and flattened, the composition is dense and dense, seeking emptiness in the denseness, and hiding skill in clumsiness.
56. What are Su Shi's representative works in running script?
"Huangzhou Cold Food Poems", "Red Cliff Ode", "Dongting Spring Scenery Ode", etc.
57. What are the stylistic characteristics of Huang Tingjian’s calligraphy works?
His calligraphy brush is jerky, his strokes are round and strong, sharp and hard yet tough, his body posture is tight in the middle, and he has long strokes and broad strokes.
58. What are Huang Tingjian’s representative works in running script?
Running script: "Dongpo Huangzhou Cold Food Poems and Postscripts", "Jing Fubo Shenci Poems", "Songfeng Pavilion Tie", etc.
59. What are the stylistic characteristics of Mi Fu’s calligraphy works?
The pen is flexible and changeable, with sharpness and strength. Feibai is vigorous and calm. He can lift and close the pen, lift and press, and pause as he pleases. His posture is flying, and he uses both the center and the side, which is unpredictable. "The wind and the horses are composed and happy." , claims to be "attacking from all sides", with multiple postures and side movements, and alternately dense and dense compositions.
60. What are Mi Fu's representative works in running script?
Running script: "Shu Su Tie", "Tiaoxi Poetry Tie", etc.
61. What are the stylistic characteristics of Zhao Mengfu’s calligraphy works?
Zhao Mengfu's calligraphy is neither exciting nor violent, gentle and subtle, with skillful brushwork, smooth and beautiful knots, and an ancient atmosphere. Zhao Mengfu was a retrotist in calligraphy. He advocated following the example of "King Zhong" and traveled frequently in the Jin and Tang Dynasties. Influenced the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. Zhao Mengfu's regular script was listed by later generations as one of the four major regular scripts of Ou, Yan, Liu and Zhao, and was called "Zhao style".
62. What are the representative works of Zhao Mengfu’s regular script handed down from generation to generation?
"Dengba Stele", "Xuanmiao Temple Rebuilding the Three Gates", etc.
63. Who were the famous calligraphers in the Yuan Dynasty?
Zhao Mengfu, Kang Liyuyu, Yang Weizhen, Ni Zan, etc.
64. What are the stylistic characteristics of Kang Liyuyu’s calligraphy works?
The strokes are powerful and beautiful, with round turns. The handwritten writings handed down from ancient times include "Fisher Father's Ci" and so on.
65. What are the stylistic characteristics of Yang Weizhen’s calligraphy works?
The writing style is clear and energetic, and the character shapes break away from the sweet and vulgar style, and are full of ups and downs. His representative works include "Zhen Jing'an Recruiting Yuan Shu Scroll" and so on.
66. What are the stylistic characteristics of Ni Zan’s calligraphy works?
He is good at small regular script, but his characters are flat in shape. Because he writes regular script using the official method, he has won the favor of the people of Wei and Jin Dynasties.
67. What are the "Four Families of Wu Clan"?
Zhu Yunming, Wen Zhengming, Chen Chun, Wang Chong.
68. What are the stylistic characteristics of Zhu Yunming’s small regular script calligraphy works?
His regular script is exquisite and elegant, which has won the favor of Jin people and has his own ideas. The handed down regular script works include "Chibi Fu", "Luo Shen Fu", etc.
69. What are the stylistic characteristics of Wen Zhengming’s small regular script calligraphy works?
The method of taking "Two Kings" is warm, pure and exquisite. His handed down works include "Return and Come Back", "Li Sao Jing" and so on.
70. What are the stylistic characteristics of Chen Chun’s cursive calligraphy works?
The momentum is vertical and horizontal, unrestrained and unrestrained, free and easy. The representative works of cursive script handed down from generation to generation include "Eight Poems of Autumn Xing".
71. What are the stylistic characteristics of Wang Chong’s small regular script calligraphy works?
His small regular script has the charm of Jin people, with rich and varied brushwork, unusual structure, and clear and elegant composition. His handed down small regular script works include "Preface to the Pavilion of Prince Teng" and "Biography of the Assassin".
72. What are the stylistic characteristics of Dong Qichang’s calligraphy works?
Use empty brushes, sparse compositions, and moist ink to pursue a calligraphy style that is elegant, quiet, innocent, and plain.
73. What are the stylistic characteristics of Fu Shan’s calligraphy works?
He is honest and simple, seemingly wild and unrestrained, but in fact he has a deep understanding of ancient methods.
74. What are the Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou?
Refers to Wang Shishen, Jin Nong, Li Fangying, Li Xian, Huang Shen, Gao Xiang, Zheng Xie and Luo Pin.
75. What are the stylistic characteristics of Liu Yong’s calligraphy works?
The calligraphy style is rich and vigorous, the appearance is plump and ancient, and the needles are hidden in the cotton. It is known as the "Prime Minister of Thick Ink".
76. Who are the representative calligraphers who were good at seal script in the Qing Dynasty?
Deng Shiru, Wu Xizai, Xu Sangeng, Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Changshuo, etc.
3. Tablets and inscriptions
 77. What is a monument?
Stele originally refers to a stone erected on the ground. At first, the stele had no text, but later it was engraved with text, which is what is called "stele" or "stele inscription" in the art of calligraphy.
78. What is a post?
The original meaning of Tie refers to the words written on silk. The Tie in calligraphy refers to the characters written in Zhen, Xing and Cursive scripts by people of the Jin, Tang and Song Dynasties and expressed in wood carvings and stone carvings. They are all called Tie.
79. What is the Monument School?
The Bei School is a new calligraphy art school that emerged in the Qing Dynasty.
80. What is Tiepai?
Tiepai is a concept proposed with the emergence of tablet learning. It refers to the calligraphy school that took Fa Tie as the object of study and research after the Wei and Jin Dynasties, and Zhong Yao and Wang Xizhi as its sects. The rise of the style of engraving calligraphy in the Northern Song Dynasty played a great role in promoting the popularity of calligraphy style.
81. What is engraving?
Carving famous calligraphy works from past dynasties on wooden boards or stone slabs is called engraving. In ancient times, engraving made calligraphy masterpieces from past dynasties widely circulated.
82. What is "Chunhua Pavilion Tie"?
In the third year of Chunhua in the Northern Song Dynasty (992), Emperor Taizong of the Song Dynasty ordered Shi Shu Wang to compile the works of emperors, famous ministers and famous calligraphers of all dynasties into ten volumes. They were copied on jujube wood and used Chengxintang paper and Li Tingsi. Ink rubbings were made to make posts.
83. What is "Sanxitang Dharma Tie"?
 In the twelfth year of Qianlong's reign in the Qing Dynasty (1747), Qianlong ordered Liang Shizheng to compile and copy the Dharma books of the past dynasties collected in the palace of the Qing Dynasty, which took three years to complete. There are thirty-two volumes in total from the Wei and Jin Dynasties to the late Ming Dynasty. Because Qianlong received three types of ink inscriptions: Wang Xizhi's "Kuaixue Shiqing Tie", Wang Xianzhi's "Mid-Autumn Tie", and Wang Shi's "Bai Yuan Tie". These three kinds of ink were also included in the carved ink, so the carved ink was called "Three Ink Calligraphy". "Xitang Dharma Tie".
84. What is Chuantuo?
Chuan Tuo is also called Vertebra Tuo. The calligraphy and painting on gold, stone, bamboo and wooden vessels are beaten out with paper and ink to facilitate widespread dissemination, which is called vertebra rubbing.
85. What is a rubbing?
The calligraphy and paintings that have been rubbed out from the stone tablets are called rubbings.
86. Whose calligraphy work is "Lanting Preface"? What are its stylistic characteristics?
"Lanting Preface" is also known as "Men Linhe Preface", "Ye Tie" and so on. The preface describes the grand occasion of drinking water at the Lanting gathering in Shaoxing and the emotion of the author Wang Xizhi. The calligraphy and writing of this post are both excellent, fully embodying Wang Xizhi's free and elegant calligraphy style, which is known as "the best running script in the world".
87. When was "Huairen's Collection of Wang Xizhi's Preface to the Sacred Teachings" collected?
"Huairen Ji Wang Xizhi's Preface to the Book of Holy Religion" is a running script engraved in the Tang Dynasty.
88. Whose calligraphy work is "Manuscript for Nephew Memorial"? What are its stylistic characteristics?
"Manuscript for the Sacrifice of My Nephew" is a memorial text written by Yan Zhenqing, a calligrapher of the Tang Dynasty, for his nephew Ji Ming who was brutally killed during the "An-Shi Rebellion". His writing style is vigorous and thick, and his characters are of varying sizes and variations without any reason. Use dry and moist ink alternately, innocent and innocent. Later generations praised "The Manuscript of Memorial to My Nephew" as "the second running script in the world".
89. Whose calligraphy work is "Huangzhou Cold Food Poems"? What are the stylistic characteristics?
"Huangzhou Cold Food Poems" are two self-composed poems written in running script by the calligrapher Su Shi of the Song Dynasty. This work expresses his depression after being demoted to Huangzhou. The stippling of this post is solid and affirmative, vigorous and vigorous, calm and solemn, and the brushwork is unrestrained, like the tide and the sea, with ups and downs. It is the best work of Su Shu handed down from generation to generation, and is praised by later generations as "the third running script in the world".
4. Comprehensive category
 90. What is the meaning of calligraphy?
Simply put, calligraphy refers to the art of writing Chinese characters with a brush. It includes four basic elements: brushwork, structure, composition, and inkwork. Specifically, it means that calligraphers use ink and brushes as writing tools, Chinese characters as writing objects, rice paper, silk and other suitable writing materials as carriers, and use correct writing techniques, reasonable structures, perfect compositions, and harmonious ink techniques to write. It is a traditional Chinese art that expresses temperament and expresses rich connotations.
91. What are the "Eight Methods of Yongzi"?
Refers to the eight basic strokes that make up the character "Yong". First, the dot is "side", the second is the horizontal stroke is "le", the third is the vertical stroke is "nu", the fourth is the hook is "误", the fifth is the upper left stroke is "ce", the sixth is the lower left stroke is "plunder", Seventh, the upper right hand is called "peck", and the eighth is the lower right hand, which is "甔".
92. What is post reading?
To read a post is to read a post, which means to carefully figure out, analyze, and understand the writing methods, structural features, and layout of the inscription, just like reading and analyzing the main points and principles of the article, so that you have a clear understanding of it.
93. What is a temporary post?
Lin Tie is to put the copybook next to it and practice writing by imitating the writing techniques, structural features, turning, pressing, pausing, rising and closing, hiding and the layout of the calligraphy. People often use facing, backing, and meaning coming.
94. What is imitation?
The imitation calligraphy is made of transparent tissue paper covering the stele calligraphy, and is written according to the original calligraphy.
95. What is backing?
Back copying is a method of learning calligraphy. On the basis of proficiency in copying, one does not look at the model copybook and writes from memory, striving to be similar and realistic to the style and charm of the original calligraphy.
96. What are the "Four Treasures of the Study"?
The "Four Treasures of the Study" refer to the pen, ink, paper and inkstone used in traditional Chinese calligraphy and painting. Rice paper, Hu brush, Hui ink, and Duan inkstone are the four treasures of the study.
97. What is rice paper?
Rice paper is made from the bark of the green sandalwood tree and has the special property of "expressing the wonderful taste of art" when used in calligraphy and painting. Xiaoling in Jing County, Anhui Province is the hometown of rice paper. Jiajiang, Sichuan also produces calligraphy and painting paper, called "Jiajiang Xuan".
 Rice paper is divided into two categories: raw Xuan and cooked Xuan. Raw Xuan can absorb water and infiltrate, while cooked Xuan does not absorb water and infiltrate.
98. What is ink?
Ink is divided into two categories: pine smoke and oil smoke. Hui ink is the most famous, and its origin is She County, Anhui. Nowadays, most calligraphers use ink, including Li Tingsi ink and Hu Kaiwen ink produced in She County, Anhui Province, Cao Sugong ink produced in Shanghai, Yidege ink produced in Beijing, etc.
99. What is a pen?
A pen refers to a brush used for calligraphy and painting. The most famous one is Hubi, which is produced in Huzhou, Zhejiang.
Brushes can be divided into three categories: soft brush, combined brush and hard brush.
100. What is an inkstone?
 Inkstone refers to the grinding tool for ink. The main famous inkstones include Duan inkstone and She inkstone. Duan inkstones are produced in Zhaoqing, Guangdong, and She inkstones are produced in Sheshan, Shexian County, Anhui and Longweishan, Wuyuan County, Jiangxi.