These calligraphers turned out to be a family!

Editing | Calligrapher

For us, it only takes one click to forward the circle of friends to connect the two people who are farthest away. But in ancient times, it took two or three years to take the college entrance examination, and when the lover misses you, you can’t check Moments, what should you do? I can only look at the moon quietly, and the bright moon will send lovesickness, and we will share the beauty of thousands of miles. In an environment where the transportation and information are extremely underdeveloped, the circle of friends is closed, and the relationship chain is extremely short, it is very intimate to be in the same hometown. Can you still have a name? That's almost like a family!

I used to be very curious about the relationship between ancient calligraphers. When I talked about calligraphy in the Tang Dynasty at the Lanting Study Club, I also introduced the relationship between several great calligraphers in the Tang Dynasty. Get up today, and if you look forward, you will find that these great calligraphers in ancient times are all closely or distantly related, or they are equally famous in the same generation, or they compete with each other, or they are passed down from descendants. I like calligraphy, and it is very interesting to learn about the circle of the ancients!

Zhang Zhi's "Champion Post" (or it is said to be written by Tang Zhangxu)

Zhang Zhi, Cao Sheng, brother of Suo Jing's grandma

The date of birth is unknown, and he died in the third year of Chuping (about 192 A.D.) of Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty. He was born in Jiuquan, Dunhuang (now part of Gansu). Today's Grass", Wei Dan, a calligrapher of Wei Dynasty in the Three Kingdoms, called him "the sage of grass". It has a profound influence on the cursive scripts of Wang Xizhi and Wang Xianzhi in later generations.

Zhong Yao's "Declaration Form"

Zhong Yao (151-230), Mrs. Wei and Wang Xizhi's calligraphy benefited from Zhong

Calligraphers of Wei Dynasty in the Three Kingdoms, the characters are often. During the Ming Dynasty, he was named Marquis of Dingling and moved to Taifu, known as "Zhong Taifu". Zhong Gong's calligraphy is based on Cao Xi, Liu Desheng, and Cai Yong. It is said that Yin Fa Wei Dan's tomb got Cai Yong's pen theory, and his calligraphy art made great progress. His regular script calligraphy was unique at that time, and he had been studying calligraphy for 30 years, and his calligraphy was beautiful, elegant, and profound.

Lu Ji's "Pingfu Post"

Western Jin Dynasty, Lu Ji, brother of writer Lu Yun;

Lu Ji and Lu Jianzhi, a calligrapher in the Tang Dynasty, were both from Suzhou. The former wrote "Wen Fu" articles, and the latter left "Wen Fu" calligraphy;

In the same year that Lu Ji passed away, Suo Jing passed away, and in the same year, the great calligrapher Wang Xizhi was born.

Lu Ji (261-303), courtesy name Shiheng, was born in Wujun (now Suzhou, Jiangsu). Because it used to be an internal history of the plain, it is called Lu Pingyuan in the world. He is "rarely a genius, and his articles are world-class" ("Jin Shu Lu Ji Biography"), and his younger brother Lu Yun are both famous writers in my country's Western Jin Dynasty. In fact, Lu Ji is also an outstanding calligrapher. His "Ping Fu Tie" It is the earliest surviving authentic calligraphy of celebrities in ancient my country.

Suo Jing's "Ode to the Teacher" Volume (Biography)

Suo Jing (239-303), grandson of sister Zhang Zhi

Suo Jing was a famous calligrapher in the Western Jin Dynasty. You'an, born in Dunhuang (now Gansu), official Li Shangshulang, Jiuquan prefect, official to Zhengxi Sima, known as "Suo Zhengxi". Gong calligraphy, especially Zhangcao. He was famous for his cursive script with Shang Shuling Wei Guan, and he was called "One Two Wonderful" at that time. Jing passed on Zhang Zhicao's method and changed his appearance. The bones are strong and full of writing power. The predecessors rated it as "extremely proficient, not as good as Zhang; wonderful and graceful, not as good as Zhang". Jing also respected his book and named it "Silver Gouhewei".

Wei Guan's "Dunzhou Tie"

Wei Guan, as famous as Suo Jing, was nicknamed 'Taiwan Ermiao'

Wei Guan works in cursive script. He learned from Zhang Zhi's "Jincao" in the Han Dynasty, and also consulted his father Wei Ke's cursive script, with vertical and horizontal strokes, elegant and majestic. He was as famous as Suo Jing, another famous calligrapher at that time, and people at that time called him "Taiwan Ermiao". The so-called "Taiwan" means that both of them are officials living in Taiwan Province, Guan is Shang Shuling, and Jing is Shang Shulang. The so-called "two wonderful" means that both of them have extremely high attainments in cursive script, and each has its own excellence. Zhang Huaiguan of the Tang Dynasty commented on its Zhangcao as a "divine product" in Shuduan.

Wei Heng's Calligraphy "Four Styles of Calligraphy" (partial)

Wei Heng, son of Wei Guan

Wei Heng's calligraphy theory work "Si Ti Shu Shi" is one of the earliest and relatively reliable important calligraphy theories in the world, and has high historical value. Most of the information about the various calligraphy styles and the evolution of calligraphy history at that time, as well as the situation of some calligrapher representatives, depended on this book to be preserved.

Mrs. Wei's "Recent Post"

Wei Shuo, Mrs. Wei, Wei Heng's younger sister;

Wang Xizhi studied under his disciples

Wei Shuo, the well-known female calligrapher Mrs. Wei. Mrs. Wei was less eager to learn, but she was fond of calligraphy art. She learned calligraphy from the great calligrapher Zhong Yao very early. She wrote a volume of "Bi Zhen Tu", which comprehensively and deeply expounded the theory of calligraphy.

As for Mrs. Wei's teacher Zhong Yaoyi, the calligrapher has always been puzzled. Wei Shuo's father is as famous as Suo Jing. Suo Jing was born in 239, and Zhong Yao had been dead for 9 years. Logically speaking, when Wei Shuo's parents were born, Zhong Yao may have passed away, and it is even more impossible to worship under Zhong Yao when he came to Mrs. Wei's place. Therefore, either the rumors are wrong, or the saying of using Zhong as a teacher refers to learning his handwriting.

Wei Yu, Wei Jie, the sons of Wei Heng

The two are also famous calligraphers.

Wang Xizhi's "Distant Eunuchs"

Wang Xizhi (303-361), learned calligraphy from Mrs. Wei

A calligrapher in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, with few words. Originally from Langya people (now Linyi, Shandong), living in Shanyin, Kuaiji (Shaoxing, Zhejiang). From the official to the general of the right army, the internal history of Kuaiji, known as "Wang Youjun". He was born in a prominent family in the Jin Dynasty. When he was a child, he learned calligraphy from Mrs. Wei, a famous female calligrapher at that time. Later, he traveled to famous mountains in the north of the Yangtze River, and learned from others' strong points. Zhang Zhi, a master of cursive calligraphy, was able to learn from Zhong Yao in his official script. Observing and studying the "law of a group of people to form a family" has reached the height of "Guiyue group products, ancient and modern".

Among the four families of Wang, Xie, Xi and Yu in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the Wang family is the most prominent, and the one with the most outstanding achievements in calligraphy belongs to the Wang family. The Wang family has the most calligraphers. In this calligraphy family, there are competitions between father and son, siblings, husbands and wives, and in-laws learning from each other. This is not only extremely dazzling in the history of calligraphy, but also unique in the history of world art. In particular, the sage Wang Xizhi and his seventh son Wang Xianzhi appeared, and the father and son were called "two kings" by the world. The pride of the Wang family is here, and the pride of Eastern Jin calligraphy is also here.

Wang Xizhi's sons are all good at calligraphy. His son Xuanzhi is good at cursive script; Ningzhi is good at cursive script; Huizhi is good at Zhengzheng cursive script; Caozhi is good at Zhengxing cursive script; Huanzhi is good at cursive script;

Wang Xianzhi's "Luo Shen Fu"

Wang Xianzhi, the seventh son of Wang Xizhi

Wang Xianzhi, courtesy name Zijing, official slave in small characters, official to Zhongshu Ling, is known as "Wang Daling" in the world. His calligraphy includes Jingkai, Xing, Cao and Li styles. Xianzhi learned from his father at a young age, and showed superhuman talent since he was a child. He is full of talent and aggressive. Xianzhi is not restricted by his father.

Calligrapher, gossip here, Wang Xianzhi is the most romantic and elegant at the moment, and he and his cousin are in love with each other, just like a pair of lovers. It's a pity that being too handsome is not a good thing. Unfortunately, Xian's brother was favored by Princess Xin'an, and a pair of mandarin ducks were separated. The cousin died in depression, which made Wang Xianzhi miss and feel guilty for her even more. He was depressed all his life and died young in his forties.

Who is his first wife and cousin? Her name is Xi Daomao, and she is the granddaughter of Xi Jian (daughter of the second son). Who is Xi Jian? Remember the story of the son-in-law of the East bed, the minister of the Eastern Jin Dynasty who sent his daughter to a guy who was lying on the bed and eating with his belly exposed.

After all, it's all stories!

Wang Huizhi, New Moon Post

Wang Huizhi, fifth son of Wang Xizhi, fifth elder brother of Wang Xianzhi

"Weng Zun Body" by Wang Hui

Wang Hui (464-549), cousin of Wang Xizhi, sixth son of Wang Dao, uncle of Wang Xun

Wang Xun's "Boyuan Tie"

Wang Xun, Wang Xizhi is his cousin, he and Xianzhi are cousins

The character Yuanlin, the small character Fahu. Langya Linyi (now Linyi, Shandong) was born in the Wang family of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Grandfather Wang Dao and father Wang Qia are both proficient in calligraphy. His "Boyuan Tie" is a very rare authentic calligraphy of celebrities in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, and it is the only authentic surviving work of the Wang family in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. It has always been regarded as a rare treasure by calligraphers, collectors and connoisseurs.

"Bo Yuan Tie" written by him is the only surviving authentic work of the royal family in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Who is Bo Yuan in this letter? It is Wang Xizhi's eldest son, Wang Xuanzhi. It sounds like a distant cousin.

Wang Zhi "A Day Without Application Posts"

Wang Zhi (460-513), son of Wang Sengqian

Zidao, from Langya, Linyi. Wang Sengqian son. "Liang Shu" Volume 21 "Wang Zhi Zhuan": "Zhishan Caoli, at that time thought regular script."

Wang Ci's "Bojiu" and "Rubi" posts

Wang Ci (451-491), son of Wang Sengqian

Zi Bobao, born in Linyi (now Linyi, Shandong). Monk Qianzi. Few study books with Congdijian. Shan Li, running script. Wang Ci's cursive script is round and dignified, but his posture is very agile, with vertical and horizontal postures, reminiscent of Wang Xianzhi's calligraphy style.

Zhiyong's "Thousand Characters of True Grass"

Zhiyong, the seventh grandson of Wang Xizhi

Zhiyong, originally surnamed Wang, was a monk at Yongxin Temple in Shanyin.

Yu Shinan (558-638), with Zhiyong as his teacher and friend

Yu Shinan is Lu Jianzhi's uncle

Yu Shinan and Ouyang Xun are good friends

Yu Shinan had a close relationship with Wang Xizhi's seventh monk Sun Zhiyong. Under Zhiyong's careful teaching, he has a wonderful body, a harmonious and elegant style, soft outside and strong inside, inheriting the calligraphy tradition of the two kings (Wang Xizhi and Wang Xianzhi). Among the masters of regular script in the Tang Dynasty, he was the closest to Er Wang, especially Xiao Wang.

Chu Suiliang's Preface to the Sacred Religion of the Wild Goose Pagoda

Chu Suiliang succeeded Yu Shinan and became Tang Taizong's good pen pal

Tang Taizong once said: "After Yu Shinan's death, no one discussed calligraphy with me." Wei Zheng then recommended Chu Suiliang, saying, "Suiliang's brushwork is so strong that Wang Yi has less style."

Chu Suiliang, courtesy name Dengshan, was born in Qiantang (now Hangzhou), Zhejiang. When Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty was granted the Duke of Henan County, he was known as "Chu Henan". At that time, he was as famous as Ou and Yu, and he was one of the four great calligraphers in the early Tang Dynasty. Yan Zhenqing was also influenced by him. "Book Review of the Tang Dynasty" said that Chu Shu "is full of gold in the words, jade in the lines, gentle and elegant in rules, and beautiful in many ways."

Ouyang Xun's "Jiucheng Palace Liquan Inscription"

Ouyang Xun (557-641), friend of Yu Shinan

Ouyang Xun Dayu Yu Shinan was one year old and lived three years longer than Yu. Once when he went out with Yu Shinan, he saw a stele written by Suo Jing, a calligrapher of the Jin Dynasty. It is said that Ouyang Xun once paid a lot of money to buy the "Zhigui Tu" used by Wang Xizhi to teach his sons to practice calligraphy, and he imitated and studied it day and night.

Ouyang Tong's Stele of Master Daoyin (partial)

Ouyang Tong, son of Ouyang Xun, good at calligraphy

Lu Jian's "Wen Fu"

Lu Jianzhi, Yu Shinan's nephew

One of Lu Jian's nieces is Zhang Xu's mother (Lu family)

Lu Jian's representative calligraphy "Wen Fu" was written by Lu Ji of the Western Jin Dynasty, both of whom were from Suzhou. When Lu Jianzhi was young, he learned calligraphy from his uncle's family, and his uncle was Yu Shinan, a very famous calligrapher at that time.

"Four Ancient Poems" by Zhang Xu

Zhang Xu, whose mother is Lu Jianzhi's niece

Zhang Xu has a disciple named Wu Tong, and Wu Tong has a disciple named Huai Su

Yan Zhenqing once asked Zhang Xu for advice on brushwork

Zhang Xu is unrestrained, open-minded, outstanding, talented and knowledgeable. He was friendly with Li Bai and He Zhizhang, and Du Fu listed the three of them as "Eight Immortals in Drinking". Later Huai Su inherited and developed his brushwork, also named after cursive script, and called it "Dian Zhang Zui Su". Emperor Wenzong of the Tang Dynasty once issued an edict to regard Li Bai's poetry, Pei Min's sword dance, and Zhang Xu's cursive script as the "three musts". He is also known as the "Four Scholars of Wuzhong" together with He Zhizhang, Zhang Ruoxu and Bao Rong.

Mr. Calligrapher couldn't help admiring: These people are Chow Yun-fat, Andy Lau, Jacky Cheung and Tony Leung of the Tang Dynasty, shining like bright stars in the night sky of the Tang Dynasty.

Huai Su's "Self-narrative Post"

Huai Su is Wu Tong's disciple, and Wu Tong is Zhang Xu's disciple

Huai Su and Wu Tong are still Chinese cousins

Zhang Xu also privately said to Tong: "The solitary canopy vibrates by itself, and the sand flies by itself. The rest of the teacher writes books, so it's strange. All the grass saints have exhausted their books." Huai Su didn't respond anymore, but called dozens of times. The voice said: "I got it!"

Yan Zhenqing's "Duobao Pagoda Stele"

Yan Zhenqing (709-785), once asked Zhang Xu for his brushwork

Lu Yu of the Tang Dynasty "Shi Huai Su and Yan Zhenqing on Cursive Script" contains: Yan Zhenqing and Huai Su discussed calligraphy, and Huai Su said: "I see Xiayun with many strange peaks, and I often follow them. The joy is like a bird coming out of the forest, and a snake entering the grass. , It’s also like the road to the wall, one by one is natural.” Yan Zhenqing said: “How can it be like a leak in the house?” Huai Su got up and shook his hand and said: “I got it!”

Xu Hao "Zhu Juchuan's Confession Post"

Xu Hao (703--782), born at the same time as Yan Zhenqing, died at the same age

The two were both court officials and calligraphy masters.

Xu Hao's book title at the time was above Yan Zhenqing's. Xu Hao, styled Ji Hai, received calligraphy from his father. Less but fresh and energetic, Chu and Xue on the shoulders; Its official script can be described as ingenious and ingenious, with eight points, truth, and deeds all entering into energy. Xu Hao worked in the central government and wrote a large number of official appointment and announcement documents for the imperial court. At that time, he was highly regarded by the emperor and his book had a high title.

Of course, the above list is only a small part. In fact, there are many calligraphers in ancient times who are inextricably linked. For example, Mi Fumi, Mi Youren and his son, Su Shi's father, brother and several sons, Emperor Huizong Zhao Ji, Gaozong Zhao Gou and other emperor calligraphers, Cai Jing brothers, father and son, Zhao Mengfu and his wife Guan Sheng, son Zhao Yong, grandson Zhao Lin, grandson Wang Meng (one of the four Yuan families), brothers Shen Du and Shen Can, father and son Wen Zhengming, etc.