"Seventeen Tie" is one of Wang Xizhi's masterpieces of cursive script. It is named after the word "Seventeen" at the beginning of the volume. The original ink marks were lost long ago, and the handed down "Seventeen Tie" is a block edition. Tang Zhang Yanyuan’s "Fashu Yaolu" recorded the original ink stains of "Seventeen Tie": "The "Seventeen Tie" is one zhang two feet long, which is also the internal version of Zhenguan, with 17 lines and 943 characters. It is also a famous post of Xuanhe. Emperor Taizong bought the Erwang Shu, the Dawang Shu has three thousand papers, and the rate is one zhang two chi for the volume, and the handwriting and words are used to form the volume."
This post is a set of letters, according to textual research, it was written to his friend Zhou Fu, governor of Yizhou. It was written for 14 years from the third year of Yonghe to the fifth year of Shengping (347-361 A.D.), and it is an important material for studying Wang Xizhi's life and calligraphy development. Bao Shichen of the Qing Dynasty has an article "Seventeen Tie Shu Zheng" for reference.
"Seventeen Posts" is a collection of posts, named after the first two characters "Seventeen" in the first post. There are 27 posts, 134 lines, and 1166 characters. Some of them still have copies handed down in ink, such as "Yuanhuan Tie", "Youmu Tie" and so on. According to records: Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty was fond of Youjun books. He collected 3,000 papers from Wang Shufan. Tang Zhang Yanyuan's "Fashu Yaolu" said: ""Seventeen Posts" is one zhang and two chi long, which is the inner version of Zhenguan Zhongnei, with 17 lines and 943 characters. It is also a famous post." Biography is different. There are many imitations and engravings, among which the most famous rubbings handed down from generation to generation are Ming Xingdong edition, Wen Zhengming Zhushi edition, Wu Kuan edition, Jiang Chenying edition and so on. Tang Cai Xizong's "Fashu Lun" said: "The right army in the Jin Dynasty was outstanding and out of the ordinary, and they were wise and enlightened. They eliminated the complexity and saved the province, and created a system, which is called a new grass. This is also the "Seventeen Tie" passed down today." Since the Song Dynasty, "Seventeen Tie" has been regarded as the supreme model for learning cursive script, and is regarded as "the dragon and elephant in the book" by calligraphers. Its status in cursive script can be equivalent to "Huairen Ji Wang Xizhi Shu Shengjiao Preface" in running script.
The style of "Seventeen Posts" is aggressive and elegant, neither aggressive nor harsh, and its style is far away. It is absolutely free of the usual cursive script's madness and anger, revealing a kind of neutral and peaceful atmosphere. Zhu Xi of the Southern Song Dynasty said: "Playing with his brushwork, calm and generous, and detached, not bound by the law, not seeking to escape from the law, the so-called one flows from his own chest." ;There are occasional links between characters, but the main ones are broken, the shape is broken and the spirit is continuous, and the flow of energy is connected; .
"Seventeen Posts" uses both the square and the circle, the square is contained in the circle, the fold is hidden in the turn, and the circle is full of vigor and gracefulness, and the lines are strong and graceful, and the outer standard blends with the inner purity. Concise and concise, with appropriate movement and stillness, these can be said to be the realm and method that grass-lovers must understand.
The French style of the "Seventeen Posts":
1. stand alone.The single point is generally the upper point of the word, or the outline of the word. Start the pen with a sharp-pointed paper, and press down to the lower right to close the pen. Or close it empty, such as the word "show"; or press down and turn to the lower left, taking advantage of the trend to close the front, such as the word "wai".
2. two o'clock.This kind of point is like the two points on the right part of the word "Sun" horizontally, echoing left and right. The closing stroke of the previous point should be consistent with the starting stroke of the latter point; Emphasize the echoing relationship, but the independent mood, but avoid repetition, or too much difference.
3. More.Some characters in cursive script have more than three dots. The upper dot of "不" is independent, and the lower two dots form a corresponding relationship. The writing requirements are consistent with the above-mentioned horizontal two dots.
4. Long and horizontal.There are relatively few long and horizontal lines in cursive script. The long and horizontal lines are very eye-catching, but if they are used more often, they will conflict with the flow and harmony of the entire cursive script. The long horizontal strokes in Wang Xizhi's cursive script are generally exposed, and the strokes change from thick to thin, or from thin to thick, with a natural transition. To close the pen or to close it empty, or to press down when changing the front, and then close the pen to the lower left. Such as "twenty", "one" two characters.
5. Dash. There are many short and horizontal strokes in "Seventeen Posts", and the writing method should be determined according to the needs of the font.
6. How horizontal.If multiple horizontal lines are connected together, the general posture and length will vary, and some horizontal lines have a joint relationship, such as the character "Wei".
7. short vertical. The short and vertical writing methods in "Seventeen Posts" are also varied. For example, the lengths of the three vertical lines of the word "Shun" differ very little, but the starting stroke of the middle vertical line is square, forming a difference from the left and right vertical lines. Short vertical strokes start in different ways, and sometimes there are curved strokes, such as the word "earth".
8. To stand upright.This kind of vertical painting is not a uniform form. For example, the vertical painting of the character "Yang" forms a curved head, and the vertical painting of the character "Chu" is written vigorously, with a square in the middle of the closing stroke.
9. Hanging needle vertical. The vertical paintings in "Seventeen Posts" are also in various poses and expressions. For example, the long vertical line on the left side of the word "love" is arc-shaped, the upper circle is round and the lower part is gradually thickened, and the vertical middle section of the "ear" character begins to tilt to the left, and the closing pen is like a needle. shape.
10. short prime. In "Seventeen Posts", there are two forms of short strokes: one starts with a square cut, and ends with a sharp end, such as the word "Nian"; "Character. Short cursive writing should be neat, without hesitation.
11. long skim. The long strokes in "Seventeen Posts" have different forms. For example, the stroke of the character "But" starts from the side and enters the paper, and the stroke is in the center, and the stroke is reserved; the stroke of the character "Bi" is arc-shaped, from thin to thick, light and flowing.
12. Straight. Straight writing often appears in Wang Xizhi's cursive script, and the shape is generally the same, but there are some differences. Some are vigor, like the word "Province"; some are tall and straight, like the word "Ji";
13. Short strokes.Its shape is like a long point, and the starting and closing of the brush must be sharp, forming the characteristics of sharp ends. In the attached picture, the upper side of the short stroke of the character "Bi" is curved, and the lower side is smaller; the stroke of the stroke of the character "Lai" is gradually strengthened; Thin, shaped like a spindle.
14. Waves.For example, the character "Cheng" has the characteristics of Zhangcao Na painting, that is, there are certain waves.
15. with hook. Some of the Na paintings in "Seventeen Posts" show the hook method brought out by the turning point, and form a joint relationship with the stroke of the next character. For example, for the character "Huo", wrap the brush stroke at the turning point, and then bring it out to the left; for the character "人", pause and press it at the turning point, and then bring it out to the left.
16. short hook.The turning points of these hooks are light and flexible, like the word "Lai". When turning, raise the pen and draw the tip, and then gently draw it to the left. Don't write thick hooks like regular script. The hook of the word "er" does not need to lift the pen when turning, but wraps it with the tip of the pen, and then takes advantage of the momentum to draw it out to the left.
17. Pick the hook.These hooks are traces left by the zhangcao glyphs. When the word "武" is written with a hook, there is a movement of pausing, pressing down, and then picking up the hook, which looks thick and calm. The hook of the word "foot" does not need to stop, but lifts up when changing direction.
18. Curved hook.The arc of the arc hook is larger. For example, the word "I" has a certain turning point when writing the hook, that is, it stays for a while when writing, and gradually changes the direction of the stroke. The word "Yuan" only turns, not folds. At the turning, the strokes of the strokes should be held together, and the strokes should not be scattered.
19. circle around.Shizhuan is the most common brushwork in cursive script, which can be divided into two types: circular turning and square folding. The first bend in the word "eyebrow" is a round turn. When writing, you should hold the tip of the brush and slow down when turning. The Ping Baogai in the word "An" is also a pen for round turning, but the angle is larger when turning.
20. Square fold.The ancient cursive script Yuanzhuan and Fang Xin were used together. For example, the two turns at the beginning of "Chi" Yu are typical square turns. This kind of brushwork requires changing the direction of the pen at the corner to start the pen again, and press it down before proceeding. Pay attention to the connection of strokes when turning to prevent disconnection.
twenty one. turning point.Turning and folding are not completely separated, and some characters have both turning and folding at the turning point. For example, the upper right corner of the character "Tong" is square and round; the character "Shi" has many turns without revealing the corner; the corner of the character "Zhou" is also square in the circle.
Calligraphic structure of "Seventeen Posts":
For dot-based cursive characters, attention should be paid to the corresponding relationship between dots. Sun Guoting said: "All the points are listed together, and the body is good for each other." This is to say a lot of words, don't write these points in the same way. For example, the two characters "no" and "sorrow" have better dealt with the relationship between points. Sometimes, dots need to form a certain relationship with other strokes. For example, the dots of the characters "fen" and "qi" are the eyebrows of the characters, which play a role of vivid portrayal; the dots of the character "fen" are the weights to ensure the balance of the characters; the dots of the characters "odd" are like the brain of the characters , whose direction determines the gesture of the character. The midpoints of some cursive characters echo each other with other strokes, making the layout of the characters come alive. For example, the dots and strokes in the word "Yi" are very sparsely spaced, not emphasizing connection, but very natural; the two dots below the word "Xiang" seem to be disconnected from the strokes above, which is very interesting.
2. well balanced
In "Seventeen Posts", characters such as "number" and "li" are compact and upright. Zhongzheng is only a relative concept. If it is completely fair, it will inevitably appear dull. The characters of "Yu" and "Lin" with a left-right structure appear relatively balanced overall. The characters on the left side of the word "语" are written heavily, evenly matched with the characters on the right; the characters on the left side of the word "I Lin" are widened and the right side is narrowed. The horizontal lines of some characters with upper and lower structures are often inclined, but they must be drawn vertically to achieve a neutral effect, such as the character "Sheng"; or to achieve balance through partial collocation, such as the character "Position".
3. Positive combination
Characters such as "Gao" and "Yes" in "Seventeen Posts" all have a common feature, that is, the upper part of the characters is relatively correct, while the lower part is very flexible. There is no lack of agility, reaching the state of combining positive and negative. On the other hand, characters such as "wu", "hua" and "yuan" appear graceful and full of twists and turns. This is an artistic effect obtained by moving the middle part. For example, the middle part of the character "wu" is biased to the left; the character "hua" is just the opposite ; the middle part of the word "Yuan" swings left and right, which is very vivid. Some characters combine the above methods, such as the upper part of the word "Chang" is slightly straight, and the lower part is oblique; the middle part of the character "Qin" swings left and right; the character "Du" The top is relatively straight, and the bottom is left and right.
4. Harmonious left and right
For example, the left and right parts of the character "徐" in the post both have outward gestures, and the two parts are connected together through continuous strokes; narrow, and the opposite on the right. However, characters such as "dragon" and "xiong" are long on the left and short on the right, or heavy on the left and light on the right, forming a layout with a large collar and a small one, which is their unity. However, the processing method of each character is different, which shows Wang Xizhi's superb skills in processing fonts. The treatment of words such as "zhi" and "guan" is mainly due to the random placement. The opposite position on the right side of the word "Zhi" is very low; the word "Guan" puts the right part to the lower right, almost forming an up-down structure.
5. Zoom fit
The words "Wei" and "Yi" in the post are typical examples of the upward and downward closing style. The "mouth" part on the left and the upper part on the right of the word "Wei" are very open, while the lower part on the right is very narrow and the strokes are thinner. The word "Yi" is also opened at the top and tightened at the bottom, which looks very majestic and straight. Some characters make the glyphs look very compact through some local contractions. For example, the "日" part on the left side of the character "时" is very tight, and the strokes in the middle part of the character "avoid" are very light, creating a pattern of zooming and zooming visually. The exaggeration of certain strokes and the contraction of some parts of characters such as "marriage" and "an" give meaning to characters that are not easy to handle. At this time, we should pay attention to the position of the exaggerated strokes, and also appreciate the ingenuity of the contracted parts.
6. opening and closing
The post is like the word "Xin", there is no continuous stroke between the left and the right, and it seems that the distance is too large when viewed individually, but the structure of "Seventeen Posts" is actually very harmonious when placed in the whole article. When writing such characters, pay attention to the positional relationship between the left and right characters and the ratio of length to length. - Some words win with scattered. For example, the two parts below the character "起" are arranged very apart; the four parts of the character "粉" are inseparable. Words that form a surrounding shape should pay attention to the treatment of inner and outer spaces. For example, the middle part of the word "目" is very small, and it appears that there is a lot of space in the word; the dots under the word "Wei" are close to the edge, leaving a blank space in the middle; the winding part on the right side of the word "Jie" is processed lower, and the lines are very thin.
The upper and lower parts of the words "Tang" and "Gao" in the post are inclined, and the whole font looks dangerous. Some words with a left-right structure in the post are not balanced between left and right. For example, the character "Han" not only has a difference in height, but also tilts to the left, and the right side is wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, which is very dynamic. Cursive calligraphy is the most taboo to be rigid. If it is written in a smooth and steady manner, it will bring difficulties to the composition of the entire article, so a certain degree of inclination is necessary.
8. video with section
The associated strokes in "Seventeen Posts" fluctuate and change, full of rhythm. There are many links between some characters and stippling, and there are mentions and presses between the links, and sometimes they seem to be connected and broken. Pay attention to the changes in the thickness of the continuous strokes and the change of the direction of the strokes. Some characters have large arcs of consecutive strokes, forming a circular shape. For such characters, you need to pay special attention to the ups and downs of the lines. Do not write too fast, and it is easy to draw circles if you write fast. However, there are more reflections in characters such as "Xian" and "Xing", especially some parts. Its circle contains lifting and pressing, and the word momentum is strong and smooth.
Analysis of the "Seventeen Posts":
"Seventeen Tie" is a representative work of Xiaocao script, and its composition is also typical. According to Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, the method of composition is "smoky clouds and thunderbolt knots, the shape is still connected if it is broken; the phoenix and the dragon are coiled, and the momentum is like a slant but reversed straight." Analysis of the composition of "Seventeen Posts" Usually, the composition of cursive script refers to the layout of the work, which is the final result of gathering points, lines to form characters, and combining characters to form rows and columns. Regarding the collection of dots and lines into characters, we have already given a preliminary explanation of some typical glyphs. Here we will focus on the problem of combining characters into rows and columns into chapters in "Seventeen Posts".
The method of collecting characters into lines in "Seventeen Posts" is not like the later big cursive and wild cursive calligraphy, which relies on the connection between characters to strengthen the overall sense, but relies on the size of characters, the oblique alignment of single characters, and the thickness of strokes Changes to achieve Qimai penetration. For example, the picture on the far left is the first post in "Seventeen Posts". However, Wang Xizhi modified this pattern, so it is more flexible. The word "Seventeen" in the first line of this post is very thick and thick, which sets the tone for the whole work. Other characters are either upright or sideways. For example, the character "Xi" is sideways, the character "Si" is straight again, the word "Ma" is inclined, and the word "Wei" is straight again, and the last character "Go" is oblique again. , Therefore, although the whole line seems to be independent, the strokes are consistent. In addition to this conception, the other two lines also have changes in the width of the characters.
Another way to set characters into lines is to connect upper and lower characters. As shown in the picture, the first line is still independent, and the strokes of the word "Xianfu" in the second line are connected. This is a way to strengthen the relationship between characters, but it still does not play a major role in "Seventeen Posts". ingredients, and the involvement must be reasonable. "Seventeen Posts" handles this aspect very well, and the implicated characters play a refreshing role in the whole composition, without the disease of left and right winding. Some characters pay more attention to the meaning connection, that is, the relationship in the gestures. For example, the word "Yi Yang" at the beginning of the third line, the ending of the upper character and the starting shape of the lower character break the meaning connection, which also has the effect of involvement.
The method of "Seventeen Posts" is to keep each line at a certain distance, but the attitude between the left and the right should take care of each other. Since the size, width, and front side of each line of glyphs are different, they are very harmonious when put together. Add some implicated combinations to make the composition more flexible. It should be noted that "Seventeen Posts" is a small collection of postings, and was not written at one time, so the composition of each post has its own characteristics.
Calligraphic status of "Seventeen Posts":
This post has been highly rated by previous people. For example, Huang Bosi of the Song Dynasty said: "This post is also a dragon in the book of Yi Shao". Zhu Xi said, "playing with the meaning of his brushstrokes, calmly and freely, but with a detached atmosphere, not bound by the law, not seeking to escape from the law. The so-called flow out of one's own mind." Some people think that this post is "the ancient quality of the brushwork is complete, and there are seals and seals. meaning". These evaluations are very fair. In particular, they are written calmly, without being bound by the law, as if they flowed naturally from one's own chest, and are the most profound and accurate. Sun Guoting once said: "Zijing (Wang Xianzhi) has already passed away, so he must work hard to mark it into a body." On the contrary, the natural beauty of writing will be lost. This kind of comparative comment is very enlightening for calligraphy appreciation.
Cursive script is one of the calligraphy styles that Wang Xizhi is good at. Before Wang Xizhi, Zhangcao was already very mature. Judging from some unearthed materials handed down from the Wei and Jin Dynasties, Jincao had developed to a certain extent during this period, and of course it had not been completely separated from Zhangcao. Wang Xizhi summed up the achievements of his predecessors. On the basis of learning from Zhang Zhi and other calligraphers before the Eastern Jin Dynasty, he changed the simple calligraphy style of the Han and Wei Dynasties, and created the cursive script of Yanmei Reuben, which established a basic standard for today's cursive. Make the boundary between Jincao and Zhangcao become clear, and become two kinds of calligraphy styles. The structure of the cursive in his works becomes free and flexible with the strokes, which fully embodies the characteristics of cursive script "difficult to delete, simple to restore". From a practical point of view, it is more convenient to increase the speed of writing, and the artistic quality of writing is also enhanced. Its shape is vertically and horizontally drawn, with hooks, rings, and pans. strokes.
Because Wang Xizhi made great contributions to calligraphy, after his death, all dynasties regarded his handwriting as treasures. Therefore, among the calligraphers in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, he left the most works. The ink cursive scripts we can see now include "July 1st Tie", "Hanqie Tie", "Chuyue Tie", "Yuanhuan Tie", "Shangyu Tie", "Changfeng Tie", "You Tie "Mu Tie", "This Matter Tie", "Da Dao Tie", "Xing Rang Tie", etc., are all copies of the Tang and Song Dynasties. Judging from these closest copies to the authenticity, the styles vary. Among them, "Hanqietie" and "Yuanhuantie" still have the meaning of chapters and grasses, and the stippling is ancient and clumsy, and most of them are not involved; , flowing beauty and nature; while "Da Dao Tie" gallops unrestrainedly, dragging like the wind. Most of Wang Xizhi's cursive script handed down from generation to generation have been passed down to the present in the form of engraved posts, among which the cursive script in "Seventeen Tie" and "Chunhua Pavilion Tie" has a greater influence.