1. Preliminary study on lower case

1. When studying the "Declaration Form", we should grasp its artistic characteristics such as its large and clumsy style of writing, its quaint and simple stippling, and its clear and simple charm. The key is to grasp the overall characteristics of lower case letters "sparse and even, more than enough".

Figure/Zhong Yao's announcement table, partial

2. Xiaokai generally belongs to calligraphy. If you can refer to the style of writing in Han and Wei Dynasties and the straightforwardness of writing scriptures in Dunhuang, it will increase the implication and timeless style of writing.

3. The use of writing in lower case is particularly clever when it can be seen sharply, which requires a good handling of the contradiction and unity of "clear" and "soft". "Qing" means that the ink is not loose and has sharp hair; It is also clear and plump, so the bones and blood are warm and moist, mellow, elegant and harmonious, which can be entered into the halls of the ancients. If you want small characters to have a grand atmosphere, you must emphasize the ink, not only must the brushstrokes be heavy, but also have clear stippling and new ideas.

4. To achieve "small characters should be like big characters", in addition to writing sparsely and evenly, with ample room, you must also have more ink in the small characters as Mr. Gao Ershi said, and the handwriting must be clear and clear. All ink force.

5. The lower case is quite different from the upper case. The lower case starts with the stippling requirements, while the lower case focuses on the knotting. Due to its small size, the direction of each stroke, the distance between strokes, and some space cannot be given. It is not easy to require each stroke to have a posture. If you want to change your strokes more, wrist movement is the most important thing. Mr. Gao Ershi said: "Xiaokai is purely about wrist movement, and it can't be done if it involves pointing." Therefore, during the pre-practice, one should strive to improve the skill of wrist movement, make the ups and downs clear, and try to control the skill of not false fingering.

6. Small characters and big characters are quite different, and cannot be viewed as enlarged or reduced. Large characters are easy to be unrestrained and unrestrained. If they are too much or blindly indulged, they will become rash and loose without deep and calm interest. Therefore, large characters should be restrained in a moderate way; small characters should be restrained. It will also be lost in lightness, so small characters should be restrained and moderate. It can be seen that the two are qualitatively different, and should be carefully considered when writing.

2. Temporary writing of official script and official script

1. If you like big-character official scripts, you can learn Yan style, such as "Yan Qinli Stele"; or Wei stele, such as "Zhang Menglong Stele", "Yang Dayan Stele", "Zheng Wengong Stele" and so on.

Photo/Stele of Zhang Qian, partial

2. When studying "Zhang Qianbei", you should pay attention to the natural flow of the brush (stippling), and try to avoid shaking and artificiality. To see the edge of the brush through the edge of the blade, there is no need to deliberately pursue the effect that occurs due to the age and the erosion of the edge of the line.

3. Zhiyong's regular script "Thousand-Character Essay" has always been regarded as a unique and better copying model. In practice, you can not only be familiar with regular script, but also be involved in cursive. Kill two birds with one stone.

4. When studying "Cao Quan", it is not easy to be able to write the feminine beauty characterized by mellowness, ease, elegance and elegance. The folding method of this post is mainly the round transfer pen, some of which are broken but connected. Specifically speaking, most of the brushes are used to tuck in and turn secretly, and the wave painting is to rise up and down and drag in the middle to make an arc-shaped front, not to fold the pen sideways.

3. Temporary practice on running script

1. It is advisable to learn running script by copying "Shengjiao Preface". It is necessary to grasp the artistic style and characteristics of this post, such as elegant brushwork, handsome and elegant style, neutral and pleasant breath, etc., its use of brushes is restrained, the lines are thin, hard and straight, the combination of stippling, the bowing of the radicals, The drawing of silk and the reflection of the belt, the gestures of the brushstrokes, etc. are pure and natural. Attention should be paid to correcting procrastinated and weak lines temporarily, that is, common problems such as poor bones, poor Qi, and ink not sinking. On the basis of Tonglin, it is necessary to fight a tough battle, and pass the test word by word in terms of font type, font style, brush shape, stroke and stroke thickness contrast, ink color change (refer to Lanting ink marks), etc. It is necessary to work hard on the memorization of fonts to achieve the proficiency of finding things in a bag when creating works. The true level of a piece of work, or even the difference between an expert and an amateur in calligraphy, often depends on a small point. The so-called "fibers are backed up, and no hair is dead or alive". Therefore, you must pay special attention to the details when writing, including the position of the strokes, the combination of thickness and length, the size of the font, the thickness of the ink, the contrast of the strokes and the font, and the echo relationship. own eyesight. With the foundation of "Shengjiao Preface", it is much easier to study "Lanting Preface", and focus on learning the rules, qi and subtleties; Conspiracy and so on.

Picture/Huiren Jizi Shengjiao Preface

2. In a sense, Lintie is the sum of the comprehension and skill of the person who is facing the book. For copying posts, you must insist on the combination of reading, imitating, and copying, and read to get the fun. Through reading, the characteristics of points, paintings, structures, gestures, and structures in the templates will be deeply imprinted in your mind; The charm cannot be separated from the structure. On the basis of reading, one must concentrate on the handwriting and memorize the various fonts; to get the meaning, after two steps of hard work, this step will be like a fish in water, and then a little bit of self-consciousness, toughness Own accumulation, enter quasi-creation.

3. The study of the penetration of "qi" and the growth of "momentum" is of course related to proficiency, but the key is to have this concept, whether it is "reading", "prompt" or "creation", whether there is this concept is important If it is quite different, you can find discussions on this aspect from ancient and modern book treatises, and read carefully to experience it.

4. The strokes of Huang Tingjian's running script are vertical and horizontal, and the stippling is open. Although it is a radial structure, it is not loose; the body is inclined, but not toppled. "Songfengge Poetry Volume" is his masterpiece in his later years, which fully embodies the above characteristics. When writing, you should pay attention to the beauty of the connotation of "there is something in the brush" pursued by Huang, or the "spirit and charm" wins each other.

Picture/Shu Sutie, partial

5. The choice of Mi Fu's "Shu Su Tie" for learning running script is relatively high. To prepare this post well, one must first understand the overall characteristics of Mi Fu's calligraphy, firmly grasp the artistic features of this post, and then carefully study its brushwork, structure, composition and ink techniques, etc. In particular, the characteristics of pen use should be carefully studied, mastered, memorized, and used to change one's habit of using pens; the fonts should be memorized to the extent that they can be used proficiently in creation, and don't just draw a rough idea. Mi Fu has abundant wrist strength, strange strokes, moist and gorgeous brush strokes, and pays great attention to brush strength and gestures. Power is born of power, and power is manifested because of power, so the bones are strong and graceful, and the strokes are smooth.

4. Temporary practice on cursive script

1. Cursive script is divided into two categories: one is Zhangcao, that is, the grass of Li; the other is Jincao, that is, the grass of regular script, which should belong to the same level as running script. Kuangcao belongs to the current grass, if running script means "walking", small grass means "running", and Kuangcao means "running wildly". The current fashion of walking and running is also a style. Learning cursive must have a certain foundation of orthodox style, because cursive is derived from orthodox (seal and official) scripts, and at the same time, cursive has the aesthetic qualities of various styles. Cursive script has strict requirements from the calligraphy to the structure of the brushwork. Only by going from shallow to deep, from easy to difficult, from plain to dangerous, step by step, and after long-term calligraphy and technical training, can we truly master and learn this art well. If you want to focus on big grass, you should start with small grass. You can first study Wang Xizhi's "Seventeen Posts", Zhiyong or Huai Su's "Thousand Characters", and Sun Guoting's "Book Book". Because various styles of large grass are based on small grass, with a certain foundation of small grass, you can choose large grass works that meet your own aesthetic concepts as your own practice samples. Since cursive script contains more meaning than method, and has a strong emotion-carrying nature, it is necessary to pay attention to extra-character skills when learning cursive script. Because writers often express their own aesthetics, self-cultivation, and emotions subconsciously in an instant, and the so-called "writing is like a person" is most fully expressed at this time, so it is even more necessary to improve artistic accomplishment when learning cursive.

Picture/Seventeen Posts by Wang Xizhi, part

2. Wang Xizhi's regular script was inherited from Zhong Yao, and his cursive script was traced back to Zhang Zhi. His "Seventeen Tie" is written in cursive script with the style of real calligraphy, and the cursive is as real as the real one, so the brushwork is elegant and charming, the structure is rigorous, and it seems simple, but it is difficult to know after writing. Suggestions for this: one is to use 1 to 1 or slightly larger for temporary practice, so that it is convenient to find gaps in the proofreading post, correct it in time, and not repeat mistakes; second, pay attention to the tools, pens, inks and paper, so as to achieve the effect of the original post. standard. It is advisable to use hard pens or double pens, and the paper can be Yuanshu paper or half-baked Sajinxuan; the third is to study carefully the introduction articles and materials about the artistic characteristics of this post, so that you can use pens and knots for this post. Have a deep understanding and grasp of technical and artistic characteristics such as composition, composition, and taste; Details are the life of art. In the process of analyzing and researching every detail (such as the starting, running, and closing of the pen), you must be good at discovering things that others have not discovered, and put them in your own pen.

Sun Guoting's book notation, part

3. "Shupu" has many words, and the cursive trajectory is clear, so it is easy to follow its principles. The "Shu Pu" should show the elegant and unrestrained strokes, the vertical and horizontal strokes, the elegant and firm strokes, especially the combination of the middle and the side of the strokes, clear lifting and pressing, and moderate setbacks. The resulting texture and rhythmic "worm effect" are particularly subtle. Focus on "Shupu" first, and let the others go first. You should concentrate on writing it seriously. You don't need to ask for the quantity for the time being. You can choose a few words or words that are representative and wonderful. A few lines of characters can be thoroughly analyzed and understood from the shape of the pen, the style of the font, the style of the font, etc., and can express the recognized style characteristics vividly with one's own pen. In this way, draw inferences from one instance, comprehend by analogy, expand the accumulation of quantity, until the whole post is proficient, and you can choose the text to write at will, you can get eight or nine of the original post, and you will definitely have a great improvement in calligraphy. Don't worry about your lack of personality at this time. As long as you have this foundation, you will choose other classics purposefully, and selectively absorb nutrients that can perfect and enrich this style. Show your personality more clearly.

4. After getting started with "Shupu", I will study "Seventeen Posts". This post is intended to be convenient throughout, with few redundant strokes and bloated paintings, clean and concise. vertical and horizontal play. On this basis, I will come to Huai Su's "Self-reporting Posts" and Huang Tingjian's "Taibai Recalling the Old Poems". Huai Su's cursive script is extremely unrestrained without losing the rules, while Huang's cursive script adds "dot" method. With these foundations, before dabbling in various companies, you might as well experience them all, and take their strengths into your hands to lay the foundation for future creations.

Picture/Huai Su's self-narrative post, partial

5. Lin Xi Huai Su's "Self-reporting Posts", which should reflect the clean and vigorous brushwork, the round and vigorous lines shown in the thin and vigorous style of writing, as well as the unrestrained and smooth posture and the unrestrained layout. From the beginning to the end of this post, the center is used, and the force runs through the whole time. The solid and strong line power produced by the degree of stagnation and the precise lifting and pressing must also be expressed.

6. Zhang Xu's "Four Posts of Ancient Poems" and "Tie of Stomach Pain" are both his masterpieces. Compared with Huai Su's "Self-narrative Posts", the stippling is thicker, and there are turns and folds, lifting and pressing, and the middle and side are applied together. The strokes are powerful Long and free, the sense of rhythm of cloth, white, fiction and reality is strong. Some students have deficiencies in calligraphy, brushwork, composition, etc. in the pre-study. Some of the brushwork are not clear, some are not in place, and some are overdone. Smooth, there are phenomena of pushing the cow and breaking the breath, the relationship between the bow and the row is not handled well, and so on.

7. The creation of cursive script must have a certain momentum, accurate calligraphy, bold brushwork, dare to let go of writing, and pay attention to the change of ink color, the transition is natural, and there is a sense of rhythm. Pay attention to prevent the pen from being sloppy and not solid, the strokes are not clear, the pen delivery is "over" or not in place, and the pen is stagnant, especially when the pen is picked up at the turning point. It is necessary to strengthen the copying of classic scriptures, strengthen the training of calligraphy and techniques, strive for perfection in the atmosphere, and follow the path of from birth to familiarity, from familiarity to ingenuity, back to life, and from method to meaning.

8. To study Wang Xizhi's cursive handwriting, whether it is the font, the style of the word, or the shape and style of the strokes, you must have insight into the subtleties and be able to express them accurately. Especially for the expressive and "metaphysical" aspects of the posts, it is even more rare to have some insights and put them into writing. For example, in the first three lines of "Kong Shi Zhong Tie", the pen shape and mood and the rhythm of one word and one pause show a relatively gentle state of mind, while the strokes in the last two lines are obviously accelerated, and there is a writing rhythm of two characters connected, which adds to the author's anxiety and suspense. Deepening, forming a unique emotional rhythm throughout this post, should be observed in the eyes and reflected in the pen.

9. If you are interested in big grass, you should also dabble in seal script, official script, and regular script to lay a certain foundation for official script, from shallow to deep, from easy to difficult, from plain to dangerous, step by step.

5. About the path of learning books

1. Calligraphy creation requires a long-term process of accumulating, choosing and refining, and refining and sublimating. What to learn, what to take, what to give up, how to refine and sublimate what you have learned, and finally how to forge your own calligraphy language, all need to be carefully considered and studied, and explored in practice. The most taboo thing is that there is no backbone, and you can't figure it out. In the end, you can only wander outside the calligraphy hall. The general experience is to first find out a classic book (no matter what the book style) that suits your personality characteristics and you like very much, study it carefully, and master the family's method, which is the so-called "rooting". With this foundation, when you dabble in hundreds of schools in the future, you will have a clear direction for choosing and choosing. It can only be refined if you can take what you can give up, and only after this process can you gradually mature.

2. The copying purpose of "the one who observes is more refined, and the one who imitates is more expensive" is to completely change one's writing habits (some have become habits), and develop a good habit of "doing nothing in vain, and writing freely". Really learn the good things in the ancient posts. In this way, with the accumulation of temporary practice, learn the techniques and connotations contained in many classic copybooks to enrich yourself, and you will have the "internal strength" necessary to step into the art of calligraphy.

3. To learn the classic works of classic authors, learn good things that have been tested by history and recognized as desirable. For a good template, you should imitate your heart and understand it, and you should be thoughtful, and you will truly get the wonderful way. You will naturally know the quality of other posts and even fake ones, and then choose the good ones. It is also necessary to read more books and articles on the basic theory of calligraphy, and study more ancient posts and fine works of modern masters. There will be a lot of benefits, and you will be able to improve quickly.

4. To combine the study of calligraphy history, you can refer to "Selected Essays on Calligraphy of Past Dynasties" published by Shanghai Painting and Calligraphy Publishing House.