1. Wang Xianzhi and Thirteen Lines


   Wang Xianzhi (344-386), courtesy name Zijing, small official slave. General Jianwu of Li Gong and Taishou of Wu Xing, conscripted and worshiped Zhongshu Ling, but died young, and after his death, he was posthumously presented to his servants, especially Doctor Guanglu and Dazai. Later, he was succeeded by his younger brother Wang Min, so Wang Xianzhi was called "Da Ling" and Wang Min was called "Xiao Ling".          

   Wang Xianzhi is the seventh son of Wang Xizhi, and he was famous even when he was young. Among the seven sons, Ningzhi, Huizhi, Caozhi, etc. all have titles, and Xianzhi is the most important. Xianzhi is smart, studious, talented and talented. Zhang Huaiguan of the Tang Dynasty said: "(Wang Xian's book) if the wind blows and the rain disperses, the flow is easy to grass, and the opening is in the line. Among the rules and regulations, it is the most romantic one." According to legend, Xian was learning books when he was young. He pulled out the barrel of his pen to test his strength, but he didn't take out the pen. Xizhi sighed and said, this son will become a great tool in the future. Indeed, through his unremitting pursuit, Wang Xianzhi was finally called "Little Wang" by later generations in the history of calligraphy, and he was called "Second King" together with his father. In history, both father and son have titles, such as Ouyang Xun and Ouyang Tong, Mi Fu and Mi Youren, etc., but their achievements and influence are far inferior to those of Xi and Xian. Wang Xianzhi "learned from his father when he was a child, learned from Zhang for the second time, and changed the system later, don't create his own method" (Zhang Huaiguan's "Shu Duan"), further breaking away from the simplicity of his father's generation, and gradually moving towards a natural, elegant, and beautiful state. "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu" (the picture on the left is a part) is his representative work.   

   "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu" (referred to as "Thirteen Lines") is a masterpiece of lower script handed down by Wang Xianzhi. "Luo Shen Fu" is a famous prose of Cao Zhi in the Three Kingdoms. Wang Xianzhi liked to write this Fu, but only 13 lines from "Xi" to "Fei" were left, totaling more than 250 characters. It is said that there are two copies of its ink marks in the Song Dynasty, namely the Jin hemp paper copy and the Tang hard yellow paper copy. Among them, the hard yellow paper version of the Tang Dynasty has an inscription and postscript by Liu Gongquan, a calligrapher of the Tang Dynasty. Zhao Mengfu of the Yuan Dynasty believed that it was a copy of the Tang Dynasty, and some people believed that it was a copy of Liu Gongquan. This book was originally obtained by Zhou Yue in the Northern Song Dynasty, who mistakenly believed that it was a copy of the original, and it was handed down to the world. Later, there was a reprinted version by the Shi family of Yuezhou in the Southern Song Dynasty with the brushwork of Youjun. According to "Xuanhe Shupu", the hemp paper copy was brought into the Imperial Palace in the Northern Song Dynasty, and the last two ink copies were lost and their whereabouts are unknown. In the Southern Song Dynasty, Jia Sidao, the prime minister of power, first found 9 lines on hemp paper, and then got 4 lines, which are 13 lines in total. They were engraved on the blue stone and called "jasper", so the book was called "jasper". Edition", also known as "Thirteen Lines of Jade Edition".

  "Thirteen Lines of Jade Plate" (upper right is a part) The stone is 29 cm high and 26 cm wide. It was unearthed in Geling, West Lake, Hangzhou, the former site of Jia Sidao's Fengxiantang during the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty. Enter the palace. The word "Jin" in the first line before entering the palace is not damaged. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, the Eight-Power Allied Forces burned the Old Summer Palace, and this stone was lost to the people. Fortunately, it was not destroyed. It is now in the Capital Museum. The calligraphy of the original stone is straight and vigorous. Today, it is based on the single edition of "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu Presented by the King of Jin" published by the Cultural Relics Publishing House and the "Thirteen Lines of Jade Plates" in "Calligraphy Self-study Cong Tie" published by Shanghai Painting and Calligraphy Publishing House. " is better, it is said that the original is the first rubbing of the "Jasper Edition" published in the Ming Dynasty.         

  The artistic value of "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu" has been highly evaluated in the past dynasties. For example, Liu Xizai's "Artistic General, Book General" says: "The wind of the Ming dynasty is not only won by beauty and beauty." Zhang Tingji's "Qingyi Pavilion Inscription" said: "The wind is turbulent, the spirit is strong, and the spirit is strong. There is no beauty in it.” Yang Bin also said: “The characters are beautiful, strong and round, and the lower script in the world is unrivaled.” Liu He said: “The present changes the military law of the right into the present style, the painting is beautiful, and it is wonderful. From this we can see the historical status and artistic value of "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu".        

  From the perspective of the development history of regular script, "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu" has a historical status as a link between the past and the future. It can be said that it is not only the end of Jin Kai, but also the beginning of Tang Kai. If we compare Zhong Yao's "Xuan Shi Biao", "Ji Ji Zhi Biao", Wang Xizhi's "Huang Ting Jing", "Yue Yi Lun" and Wang Xianzhi's "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu", we can see that in just 200 years, calligraphy The speed of development is astonishing. The innovative consciousness of "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu" is also obvious, and it is not as simple and simple as Zhong Yao. Although Xizhi has inherited Zhong Yao's ancient style and added the unrestrained beauty of Jin people, he is still not as elegant and charming as Xianzhi. At the same time, its external extension of brushwork enriched the original method of internal medicine, and opened up the way for Yan Zhenqing and Liu Gongquan in Tang Dynasty. Wang Xianzhi's "persuading his father to change his body" is reasonable from the perspective of historical development, and we cannot follow some people who maintain feudal morality and etiquette and blame them.

2. The Aesthetic Features of "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu"          

1. Use a pen. The most prominent feature of the brushwork in "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu" is the outward extension, which can be freely restrained and released in the movement, making the stippling more powerful and calm, vigorous, healthy and lively. Kang Youwei said: "Pick up the pen to contain the content, and suddenly the pen will expand the outside. The content in the pen is vigorous, and the one that expands the outside is strong." "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu" has achieved this. It departs from Zhong and Wang Kaishu's frowned and locked eyes, thick and simple mood, and gives people a refreshing, healthy, elegant and elegant aesthetic feeling. From the point of view of lines, "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu" is more beautiful than Zhong and Wang. "Superbly beautiful", it is true.

   During the temporary practice, we must fully appreciate its vivid and natural, relaxed and elegant, crisp and vigorous aesthetic characteristics when it comes to different stippling.          

(1) Horizontal.The most characteristic of the horizontal paintings in this post is the long horizontal. Its momentum is inclined to the right side, like a straight line, with a certain upward arc; the pen enters the paper lightly with the front, the strokes are evenly applied, and the end of the pen is naturally light. As shown in the picture above, there are four characters "Jin", "Fu", "Book", and "Cui".        

(2) vertical. The vertical in this post is the most typical of the long vertical. Start the pen to the right and down lightly, then move downward. As shown in the picture above, there are four characters of "God", "Light", "Jiao", and "Pei".         

(3) Skimming and pressing.Skimming and pressing are stretched and elegant, elegant, elegant and beautiful in this post. The ancients said that skimming and teasing are the wings of words, and this post can be a testimony. As shown in the picture above, there are four characters "Yu", "Yin", "Chang" and "Zuo".

(4 o'clock.The dots in this post are the most lively and agile, with a strong running script (not all dots, of course), which can be reflected freely and with a radiant look. As shown in the picture above, there are four characters "He", "Gan", "Han" and "Wu".

(5) Ge Hook.The Ge hook in this post is sharp and straight, and the brushwork is vigorous. Looking at it, the spirit of freshness rushes to the face. As shown in the picture below, there are four characters "cheng", "or", "I", and "fei".

(6 fold.The folding in this post is round and natural, tactful and charming, without a sense of bluntness, very emotional, and the external extension is obvious. In the picture below, there are four characters "turbulence", "quietness", "south" and "yang".          

2. body.The conclusion of "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu" has two main characteristics. —It is spacious and stretched, elegant and generous. Su Shi said: "Large characters are difficult to be dense and seamless, and small characters are difficult to be generous and plentiful." Wen Zhengming, who is good at writing lower case letters, also said: "Small characters are expensive and open, and the internal frames of characters should be clear and neat." Throughout this post, there are no inconsistencies. Yu once magnified its characters several times, and saw that it is spacious, clear and tidy, with the tendency of looking up, open and grand, stretched and clean, which is quite shocking. At the same time, "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu" got rid of Zhong Yao's ancient clumsy official style, absorbed Xizhi's knotting method of changing horizontal to vertical, and added its own characteristics of stretching and cleanliness, all of which give people a sense of elegance and generosity. The second is flexible and changeable, according to the shape, and the size is scattered. Some characters in "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu" draw on the meaning of running cursive brushstrokes to simplify the complex and make the structure flexible and colorful, such as the four characters "Jin", "Book", "Gan" and "Han" in the picture below. Furthermore, the structure is random and natural, the complex is large, the simple is small, the relationship between length, pitch, straightness, straightness, bowing, stretching, and backing is achieved in appropriate size and length, decent density, avoiding the real and emptiness, and making the bow and back clear. , Straight and vertical pitch freely, adding business to the whole chapter.          

3. rules.The composition of "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu" absorbs the characteristics of bells and kings with vertical lines and horizontal lines without columns, and adds new connotations. Its outstanding feature is that it is well-proportioned; , The character spacing is also large and small, but the whole line is complete and closely linked; between the lines, the distance is also large and small, elastic and free, and the characters between the lines are orderly and looking forward.          

4. verve.Throughout "Thirteen Lines of Luoshen Fu", its stippling is beautiful, vigorous and elegant, the brushwork is smooth and ethereal, the mood is lively and lively, the spirit is full of energy, and the wind and shadow are graceful. Beautiful rhyme. At the same time, the well-proportioned and well-defined arrangement of characters and lines gives people a kind of exquisite beauty of "big pearls and small pearls falling on a jade plate".


3. Matters needing attention in the specific temporary study of "Thirteen Lines"

1. Use a small regular script pen with a hard mark, generally those whose hardness is above Qizi Sanyang can be used.

2. In terms of paper and ink, it is advisable to choose half-cooked rice paper, cooked rice paper or rough-edged paper, and use light ink. Generally, "Yidege" can be mixed with ground ink or pure ground ink ingots.

3. The trainees must have a certain skill in Chinese and capital letters, especially in Chinese letters, which can be transitioned, otherwise, it will be difficult to arrange the structure and master the writing power.

4. The ancients said: "The finger is used to hold the brush, and the wrist is used to move the brush." ​​When practicing "Thirteen Lines", it should be the same, use more wrist power and less finger power.

5. Comprehensively grasp the characteristics of brush use, structure, and composition mentioned above, deeply understand its connotation and essence, and grasp it accurately.         

6. Follow the source and see the flow. It is advisable to learn all kinds of things when learning this post, so the post only has more than 250 characters, so it is necessary to study the teachings of Zhong and Wang, etc. that Wang Xianzhi learned from. In addition, this post is very powerful, and it may be difficult to grasp it with direct hands. If you have a temporary study of Zhong and Wang Xiaokai before entering this post, the effect may be even better. At the same time, in the temporary study, it is also advisable to have a better understanding of the regular scripts of calligraphers who have been greatly influenced by them in later generations. Only in this way can luck be successful.