1. Wang Xianzhi and "Thirteen Lines"


   Wang Xianzhi (344-386), also known as Zijing, also known as Guannu. General Jianwu of Li Palace and Grand Administrator of Wuxing paid homage to Zhongshu Ling. However, he died young and was given posthumously to his attendants, including Doctor Guanglu and Dazai. Later, he was succeeded by his younger brother Wang Min, so Wang Xianzhi was also called "Da Ling" and Wang Min was called "Xiao Ling".          

   Wang Xianzhi is the seventh son of Wang Xizhi, and he became famous at a young age. Among the seven, Ningzhi, Huizhi, Caozhi, etc. all have book titles, among which Xianzhi is the most famous. Xian is smart, studious, talented, and talented. Zhang Huaiguan of the Tang Dynasty said: "(Wang Xian's calligraphy) if the wind and rain disperse it, it will flow to the grass, open to the line, and the composition and posture will be the most elegant." According to legend, Xianzhi was studying calligraphy when he was young. One day, his father Xizhi followed him. He pulled out the barrel of his pen to test its strength, but failed to pull out his pen. Xizhi sighed and said, "This boy will become a great writer in the future." Indeed, through his unremitting pursuit, Wang Xianzhi was finally called the "little king" by later generations in the history of calligraphy, and was called the "two kings" together with his father. Historically, there were fathers and sons with book titles, such as Ouyang Xun and Ouyang Tong, Mi Fu and Mi Youren, etc., but their achievements and influence were far less than that of Xi and Xian father and son. Wang Xianzhi "learned from his father when he was young, then learned from Zhang, and later changed the system and created his own method" (Zhang Huaiguan's "Shujuan"), further breaking out of the simplicity of his father's generation, and gradually moving towards a natural, transcendent and beautiful realm, with lower regular script "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu" (part of the picture on the left) is his representative work.   

   "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu" (referred to as "Thirteen Lines") is Wang Xianzhi's masterpiece in regular script handed down from generation to generation. "Luo Shen Fu" is a famous prose piece by Cao Zhi of the Three Kingdoms. Wang Xianzhi liked to write this poem, but he only left 13 lines from the word "Xi" to the word "Fei", totaling more than 250 words. It is said that there are two copies of his ink marks in the Song Dynasty, namely, the Jin Ma Jian edition and the Tang hard yellow paper edition. Among them, the Tang hard yellow paper version has an inscription and postscript by Liu Gongquan, a calligrapher of the Tang Dynasty. In the Yuan Dynasty, Zhao Mengfu thought it was a Tang copy, and some people thought it was a copy by Liu Gongquan. This copy was originally obtained by Zhou Yue in the Northern Song Dynasty. It was mistakenly believed to be a copy of the original work and passed down to the world. Later, there was a reprinted version by Shi Shi of Yuezhou in the Southern Song Dynasty, which incorporated Youjun's writing style. "Xuanhe Shupu" records that the hemp paper version entered the imperial palace during the Northern Song Dynasty, and the two later ink copies were lost and their whereabouts are unknown. Only the printed version has been handed down to the world, but it has been turned over and over frequently, so it is no longer available. In the Southern Song Dynasty, Quan Xiang Jia Sidao first found 9 lines in the hemp paper, and then found 4 lines, which combined into 13 lines. He carved it on a pale stone and euphemistically named it "Jasper", so the edition was called "Jasper". Version", also known as "The Thirteen Lines of the Jade Version".

  "Thirteen Lines of Jade Edition" (top right is part) The stone is 29 cm high and 26 cm wide. It was unearthed in Geling, West Lake, Hangzhou, at the site of Fengxiantang, Jia Sidao, during the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty. It was once owned by Lu Menghe and Weng Hao, and during the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty. Enter the inner palace. The word "Jin" on the first line before entering the inner palace is intact. When the Eight-Power Allied Forces burned the Old Summer Palace in the late Qing Dynasty, the stone was lost to the people. Fortunately, it was not destroyed and is now in the Capital Museum. The calligraphy on the original stone is straight and vigorous. Today, the single version of the "Thirteen Lines of the Luo Shen Fu Presented by the King of Jin", a selection of ancient inscriptions and inscriptions published by the Cultural Relics Publishing House, and the "Thirteen Lines on the Jade Edition" from "Self-Study of Calligraphy and Tie" published by the Shanghai Calligraphy and Painting Publishing House "It is better. It is said that the original is the first rubbing of the "Jasper Edition" on Mingchu.         

  The artistic value of "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu" has been highly evaluated in the past dynasties. For example, Liu Xizai's "Yi Gai, Shu Gai" says: "The style of the Ming Dynasty is not only won by beauty." Zhang Tingji's "Qingyi Pavilion Inscription and Postscript" says: "The wind and spirit are bold, the spirit and bones are majestic, and solid There is nothing more beautiful than perfect." Yang Bin also said: "The characters are elegant, vigorous and rounded, and there is nothing better than you in small regular script in the world." Liu He said: "Xianzhi changed Youjunfa into the modern style, and the paintings are beautiful and wonderful. ." This shows the historical status and artistic value of "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu".        

  From the perspective of the development history of regular script, "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu" has a historical status as a link between the past and the future. It can be said that it is the end of Jin Kai script and the beginning of Tang Kai script. If we compare Zhong Yao's "Declaration Table" and "Jian Ji Zhi Table", Wang Xizhi's "Huang Ting Jing", "Le Yi Lun" and Wang Xianzhi's "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu", we can see that in just 200 years, calligraphy has It’s amazing how fast things are developing. The innovative consciousness of "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu" is also obvious. It does not have Zhong Yao's simplicity and simplicity. Although Xizhi inherited Zhong Yao's ancient ideas and incorporated the unrestrained beauty of Jin people, he was still not as elegant and charming as Xianzhi. At the same time, its external expansion in brushwork enriched the original internal method and opened the way for Yan Zhenqing, Liu Gongquan and others in the Tang Dynasty. Wang Xianzhi's "persuading his father to change his social status" is reasonable from the perspective of historical development. We cannot blame some people who uphold feudal ethics and ethics.

2. The aesthetic characteristics of "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu"          

1. Use a pen. The most prominent feature of the strokes in "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu" is the outward extension, which can be gathered and released freely in the movement of the strokes, and there is a release in the convergence, which makes the stipple painting more powerful, calm, vigorous, vigorous, and moving. Kang Youwei said: "The inner part of the pen is contained, the pen is extended outward, the inner part is vigorous, the outer part is powerful." "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu" achieves this. It leaves behind the frowning, heavy and simple mood of Zhong and Wang's regular scripts, and gives people a fresh, healthy, elegant and graceful beauty. From the perspective of lines, "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu" is more beautiful and beautiful than Zhong and Wang Yixian. Its even and slender stipples contain a strong sense of texture, elegant and beautiful, neither bloated nor slippery. Later commentators commented on its "Exquisite and exquisite" is really not enough.

   When practicing, we must fully appreciate the vivid and natural, relaxed and elegant, refreshing and vigorous aesthetic characteristics of different stipple paintings.          

(1)Horizontal.The most distinctive feature of the horizontal paintings in this post is the long horizontal one. The posture is tilted to the right, like a stick, with a certain upward curvature. When the pen is used, the pen is pressed lightly into the paper, the strokes are applied evenly, and the strokes are closed naturally and lightly. As shown in the picture above, there are four characters: "Jin", "Fu", "Book" and "Cui".        

(2) vertical. The vertical strokes in this post are the most typical ones. The long vertical strokes are the most typical ones. When you start the pen, pause lightly to the right and then move downwards. When you close the pen, you may hang the pen or hang the needle. If you hang the pen, it will be round and free. If you hang the needle, it will be straight and relaxed. As shown in the picture above, there are four characters: "神", "Qing", "Jiao", and "珮".         

(3) Skip, suppress.The words "Bi" and "Nu" in this post are relaxed and elegant, elegant, generous, beautiful and beautiful. The ancients said that "skimming" and "flirting" are the wings of the word, and this post can bear witness to it. As shown in the picture above, there are four characters: "Yu", "Yin", "Chang" and "Zuo".

(4 o'clock.The dots in this post are the most lively and agile, with a strong cursive writing style (of course not all dots), with ease and radiance. As shown in the picture above, there are four characters: "合", "gan" , "汉" and "无".

(5) Gou Gou.The hooks in this post are sharp and straight, and the writing force is vigorous. When you look at it, you will feel refreshed. As shown in the picture below, there are four characters: "sincerity", "or", "I " and "fei".

(6 fold.The twists and turns in this post are smooth and natural, gentle and charming, without any harshness, full of emotion, and the external extension of the brush is obvious. As shown in the picture below, the four characters are "turbulent", " quiet", "nan" and "yang".          

2. Structure.The knotting characters of "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu" mainly have two characteristics. - It is spacious, elegant and generous. Su Shi said: "It is difficult for large characters to be dense and seamless, and it is difficult for small characters to be broad and generous." Wen Zhengming, who is good at writing small regular script, also said: "Small characters are more open, and the spaces within the characters should be clear and neat." Looking at this post, there are no inconsistencies. Yu once enlarged the characters several times and saw that they are broad, clear and neat, with the potential to reach hundreds of feet, broad and grand, stretched and healthy, which is quite shocking. At the same time, "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu" got rid of Zhong Yao's ancient clumsy style, absorbed Xizhi's horizontal-to-vertical knotting method, and added its own characteristics of stretch and health, all giving people a sense of elegance and generosity. The second is that it is flexible and changeable, arranged according to the situation, and scattered in different sizes. Some characters in "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu" borrowed the meaning of cursive writing and simplified the complex, making the structure flexible and colorful, such as the four characters "Jin", "Shu", "Gan" and "Han" in the picture below. Furthermore, its structure is random and natural, complex makes it big, simple makes it small, and the relationships between length, pitch, straightness, straightness , yielding, telescopicity, and back are achieved in such a way that the size and length are appropriate, the density is appropriate, the real is avoided while the empty is empty, and the bow is clear and the back is clear. , up and down freely, adding business to the whole chapter.          

3. Rules and regulations.The composition of "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu" absorbs the characteristics of Zhong and Wang with vertical rows and horizontal rows, and adds new connotations. Its outstanding feature is that it is well-proportioned; in terms of glyphs, they are of different sizes and shapes. , the word spacing is also sometimes large and sometimes small, but the whole line is complete and tightly connected; between the lines, the distance is sometimes large and sometimes small, and the words are tight and tight. the lines are orderly and looking forward.          

4. Verve.Throughout "Thirteen Lines of Luo Shen Fu", its pointillism is vigorous and beautiful, the brushwork is smooth and ethereal, the mood is lively and lively, the spirit is full of vitality, and the wind and shadow are graceful. The charm is beautiful . At the same time, the well-proportioned and clear arrangement of characters and lines gives people the exquisite beauty of "big beads and small beads falling on a jade plate".


3. Specific precautions when studying "The Thirteen Lines"

1. Use a hard regular script pen, generally those with a hardness of seven purple three sheep or above can be used.

2. In terms of paper and ink, it is advisable to use half-cooked rice paper, cooked rice paper or paper with rough edges, and use light ink. Generally, "Yidege" mixed with ground ink or pure ground ink can be used .

3. The temporary practitioner must have certain skills in medium and large regular script, especially in medium and large script, and can transition. Otherwise, the structure will be difficult to arrange and the writing power will not be easy to master.

4. The ancients said: "The fingers are used to hold the pen, and the wrist is used to move the pen." When studying "Thirteen Lines", the same should be done, using more wrist power and less finger power.

5. Comprehensively grasp the characteristics of writing, structure, and composition mentioned above, deeply understand their connotation and essence, and grasp them accurately.         

6. Chasing the source and peeking into the flow. It is advisable to take an eclectic approach when studying this post. Therefore, it only has more than 250 words. Therefore, it is necessary to study some of the Zhong and Wang dharma texts that Wang Xianzhi learned from. Furthermore, this post is written with extraordinary skill and may be difficult to master with direct hands. If you have practiced Zhong and Wang Xiaokai first before entering this post, the effect may be better. At the same time, when practicing, it is also advisable to understand the regular works of later generations of calligraphers who were influenced by it. Only greatly in this way can you be successful in your luck.