Appreciation of calligraphy by female calligraphers in Qing Dynasty
Most of the female literati and calligraphers in the past dynasties came from the families of Lehu and ladies, and the Qing Dynasty was no exception. Lehu is just another name for geisha. Because of the need to make a living, they have to receive special talent training since childhood. Excellent skills in music, chess, calligraphy, painting, wine, sex and sex are their basic skills for making a living; Go to the next level and be famous for thousands of years. This class is distributed in major cities, especially in Kyoto and Wuyue, Jianghuai, and women Shi Liu Rushi, Dong Xiaowan and others stand out in Qinhuai and are famous for thousands of years. Ladies rely on the shelter of official families and the influence of scholarly families. Due to the needs of their own interests, they can often enjoy good training, so their talents can be developed and improved. Most of the ladies can hide themselves in the folk, or travel among the literati, or enter the court, or make a splash. Most of them can enjoy an artistic life, such as Jiang Shuzhai, Wang Duanshu, Sun Yunfeng, Zhang Lunying, Wu Zao, Qiu Jin and others. Jiang Shuzhai (year of birth and death unknown) in the early Qing Dynasty, named Ruzhang, with characters, nicknamed Guangping Neishi, a native of Jiaozhou in the early Qing Dynasty, active in the 17th century AD, a famous female calligrapher and poet during the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty, Qing Dynasty Calligraphy of women's history should be promoted as the leader.
Liu Rushi(1618～1664), whose name was Yin, and later changed his name to Shi, with the word Miwu, named Wowen Jushi, also known as Hedong Jun. After going through the Ming and Qing Dynasties, she was sold into a prostitute at the age of 10 due to family distress. Because of her talent, beauty, beauty, and outstanding poetry, she was ranked among the "Qinhuai Eight Beauties". Its Fengshen talent has been handed down to the world for more than 300 years, and it has not yet been discovered.
Liu Rushi is amazing in piano, chess, calligraphy, painting, poetry and other aspects. Modern Chinese masters Wang Guowei, Chen Yinke and the famous writer Yu Dafu all praised it. Liu Rushi's vigorous calligraphy is the externalization and manifestation of his temperament, vision and heart. Weng Tonghe praised her calligraphy: "Stretching the silver hook with an iron wrist, the paper is full of Qi Qi." But her calligraphy art has not received due attention. Liu Rushi's calligraphy master, Mr. Chen Yinke said in "Liu Rushi's Biography": "Among the celebrities who communicated with Mr. Hedong, Li Cunwo is especially famous for his calligraphy. The calligraphy of Mr. Hedong (Liu Rushi's name) should be kept by me. Undoubtedly, Liu Rushi's handed down calligraphy mainly includes "Grass on the Lake" and the couplet ink marks of Wanghai Tower, and a small amount of couplet calligraphy.
Qing Dynasty Liu Rushi's "Ti Wanghai Tower" regular script couplet
"Ti Wanghai Tower" is a couplet in Liu Rushi's regular script, and the couplet is "the sun travels to the left boundary of the sky, and the land machine stimulates the water to roll up the eastern sea". Ancient for me, own style. Wang Duanshu is versatile, good at poetry, calligraphy and painting. Painting Zong Ni, Mi, and flower workers. Painting, calligraphy, poetry, especially historiography. According to Wang Shilu's "Gongwei Family Zhizhiwen Textual Research" in the Qing Dynasty, Wang Duanshu loved reading. Talent and learning are conceited, and there are many strengths in desire, so poetry and prose are not related to writing." Regarding Wang Duanshu's talents, Lin Wenzhen, a female painter and poetess in Putian, Fujian Province in the Qing Dynasty, wrote a poem "Self-titled Qiulan and then painted to send Yingranzi "Specially praised. Yun Zhu in the Qing Dynasty said that he was very talented, especially good at lower script, and he was the second king of regular script. Zhu Jia's "History of Calligraphy" listed her as a female calligrapher in the Qing Dynasty for introduction.
Wang Duanshu (about 1620-1700), courtesy name Yuying, nicknamed Yingranzi, Master Yinhong, and Qingwuzi, was the daughter of Wang Siren, a famous civil servant in the late Ming Dynasty, and a talented woman in Shanyin (now Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province) in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties. Wang Duanshu was educated in her family since she was a child, and she also worked in calligraphy and painting. Zhang Geng's "Painting Records" in the Qing Dynasty said that she was skilled in poetry and prose, and good at painting.
Wang Duanshu is versatile, good at poetry, calligraphy and painting. Painting Zong Ni, Mi, and flower workers. Painting, calligraphy, poetry, especially historiography. According to Wang Shilu's "Gongwei Family Zhizhiwen Textual Research" in the Qing Dynasty, Wang Duanshu loved reading. Talent and learning are conceited, and there are many strengths in desire, so poetry and prose are not related to writing." Regarding Wang Duanshu's talents, Lin Wenzhen, a female painter and poetess in Putian, Fujian Province in the Qing Dynasty, wrote a poem "Self-titled Qiulan and then painted to send Yingranzi "Specially praised. Yun Zhu in the Qing Dynasty said that he was very talented, especially good at lower script, and he was the second king of regular script. Zhu Jia's "History of Calligraphy" listed her as a female calligrapher in the Qing Dynasty for introduction.
Wang Duanshu's Poems inscribed on the hand-rolled Postscript Zhang Chong's Demeanor of the West Garden
Wang Duanshu's postscript "Zhang Chong Xiyuan Demeanor Handbook" inscription poem, inscription: "Jiayin (1674) in May, Shanyin Yinhong female history Yuying Wang Duanshu." Seal seal: "Shi Haotang, Wang Duanshu seal, Yuying." Weng Fanggang commented The title of the title is "all the well-known scholars at the end of the volume, and Wang Yuying, a female historian, has three unique abilities, and those who are more important than Yilin are not treasures." It is good enough.
Dong Xiaowan (1624-1651), named Bai, also known as Wanjun, with the word Qinglian, nicknamed Qinglian Nushi. Both her name and character were chosen because of her admiration for Li Bai, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. A native of Nanjing, he was reduced to a brothel because his parents divorced and lived in poverty. She was smart, smart, and beautiful, and she was called "Jinling Eight Beauty" together with eight famous prostitutes in Qinhuai Nanqu, Liu Rushi, Gu Hengbo, Ma Xianglan, Chen Yuanyuan, Kou Baimen, Bian Yujing, and Li Xiangjun. Dong Xiaowan was clever since she was a child. When she was eight years old, she learned poetry, calligraphy and painting, opera and piano from a group of Qing literati.
What Dong Xiaowan left to future generations is not only a strange feeling, but also an elegant taste. She is keen on the study of recipes, has a good command of poetry and prose, is good at calligraphy and painting, and is especially good at painting peach blossoms. The small clump of cold trees painted by Xiao Wan is vivid and moving. When he was 15 years old, his work "Colorful Butterfly Picture" is now collected in Wuxi Museum. Good at calligraphy, first learned Zhong Yao, and transferred from "Cao'e Stele", the small script is neat and handsome, with fine brushwork and ink, exquisite and exquisite. Ink marks are quite rare today, except for "Eleven Seven-Character Poems Made by Myself in Autumn Girl Ci" in lower case on gold paper and fan.
Qing Dong Xiaowan's Eleven Seven-Character Poems Composed by Autumn Guici
"Eleven Seven-Character Poems Made by Myself in Autumn Girl Ci", small script on gold paper fan, 18.5 cm in length and 51.4 cm in width. Collection of Jilin Provincial Museum. This frame of Dong Xiaowan's regular script autumn boudoir poetry is a rare calligraphy art work, and it also has important reference value for textual research on the relationship between Dong and Mao Xiang. Appreciating the poetic scene carefully, feeling sad for autumn, you can feel the aspiration of a weak crowned woman pursuing freedom under the heavy fetters of feudal ethics. Its small regular script is neat and elegant, capturing the essence of ancient calligraphers.
Sun Yunfeng (1764-1814), courtesy name Biwu, was the eldest daughter of Lingyi (Chunyan), and a disciple of Yuan Mei. Can poetry, good at writing flowers. His younger sisters Yunhe, Yunluan, Yunhong, Yunque, and Yunjuan are capable of both poetry and painting. They were all clever and well-behaved since they were young. Lei Jin's "Girlfriend Poetry Talk" records that Sun Yunfeng was very intelligent when she was a child. When she was eight years old, her father answered a sentence in "The Book of Songs": "Guan Guan Jujiu", and she immediately answered: "嗈嗈 Mingyan."
Sun Yunfeng of Qing Dynasty "On Xibai Zuozi"
"On Xibai Zuozi", Sun Yunfeng's fan-faced running script. Yuan Mei's "Suiyuan Poetry Talk" says: "Sun Yunfeng's poems are good, and his calligraphy is also beautiful." His calligraphy is smart and elegant, without sculpting, natural and leisurely, which is exactly in line with his teacher Yuan Mei's "spirituality". Appropriate in standards and full of talents, it is regarded as a masterpiece.
Zhang Lunying (1798~?), courtesy name Wanyan, and room name Lvhuai Yin Hall. Zhang Qi's third daughter, suitable for grandson Jie. A native of Wujin, Jiangsu. Gong Shu was praised by Bao Shichen. The nature is gentle and soft, the body is too weak to wear clothes, but the pen is vigorous and resolute. The tribute envoys of Japan and Korea bought his books and returned home. Zhang Lunying was good at the Beibei stele, using Zheng Daozhao as his method, and his calligraphy is similar to Li Yong, a calligrapher of the Tang Dynasty. Its official script is calm and slightly plump, simple and luxuriant. The brushwork, seal script, true script and official script are used interchangeably. Her Wei stele is majestic and majestic, and she doesn't care about the gains and losses of every bit of painting. But it is not blindly domineering, but soft in the tough, reflecting the feminine beauty of female calligraphy. Zhao Zhiqian especially praised Zhang Lunying, thinking that "there is no such thing as a calligrapher in the country, but Ms. Zhang Wanchuan of Yanghu is named Lunying, and Zheng Xibo is the only one after him." Zhang Lunying's calligraphy had a great influence on Zhao Zhiqian. His handed down ink marks include the vertical scroll of "Song Tingyu's Wife in Regular Script", four screens in official script, etc.
"Four screens in official script" by Zhang Lunying in Qing Dynasty
"Clerical Script Four Screens", official script on paper, 116 centimeters in length and 30 centimeters in width. This book mainly uses the center of the pen, and also uses the wing. The running brush combines the circle with the square, combining the square and the circle. The knot is square, tight on the outside and loose on the inside, wide and natural. In the middle of the level, there is a tendency to lean to the right, and the odd and the right are born together. "Yuemantang Diary" praised him as "good at learning Beibei, with superb writing skills, and the method of preparing seal script and official script".
"Song Tingyu's Wife in Regular Script" by Zhang Lunying, Qing Dynasty
"Song Tingyu's Wife in Regular Script" vertical scroll, regular script on gold paper, 122.1 cm in length and 29 in width. centimeter. This book is written on square gold letter paper, and the brushwork is graceful and smooth. This regular script work may be one of the screens, so there are only chapters but no style. The content written is also a good story in the previous generation of women's articles. The author has both hands and hands, and the momentum is extraordinary. Because of her few works handed down to the world, the world of calligraphy and history often ignores her when discussing Qing Dynasty monument scholars, which is worth reflecting.
Wu Zao (1799-1862), courtesy name Pingxiang, nickname Yucenzi, was born in Yixian County, Anhui Province. She hated the shackles of feudal ethics and created a drama "Drinking Wine and Reading Sao". The protagonist in the play is Xie Xucai, who "grew up in a famous family, was obsessed with books and history, lamented that she was a woman, and didn't love beauty". She painted herself as a man and cried bitterly while reading "Li Sao". Naturally, Xie Xu is the self-portrait of Wu Zao himself.
The age of death was sixty-four. He is the author of "Xiangnanxuebeilu Collection", "Hualian Bookstore Poems", "Hualian Ci", "Reading Sao Tuqu". There are "Yilin", "Hangzhou Mansion Chronicle", "Xiling Boudoir Chant", "Essays on Two Kinds of Autumn Rain Temple", "A Brief Introduction to the Poets of the Boudoir in the Qing Dynasty", "Hua Lu Shi Yu" and so on.
Letter from Wu Zao to Sha Fu in Qing Dynasty
Wu Zao is not only good at poetry, but also good at calligraphy and painting orchids. During the period of Jiaqing (1796-1820), he and Zhu Lunan (Yi) and more than 90 people formed a Jinling Painting Society, and there was a painting society in Maju Village (Shitu) who chanted it. His books have not entered the current trend of stele studies, but are unique in the study of Erwang Tie. His "Letters to Sha Fu" is vigorous, free and easy, not inferior to men, without the softness and weakness of women, it is a rare and high-quality book.
Qiu Jin (1875-1907), formerly known as Qiu Guijin, courtesy name Ruiqing, first name was Xuanqing, nickname Danwu, baby name Yugu, changed his name to Jin after Dongdu, nickname Jingxiong, called himself "Jianhu Heroine", pen name Qiuqian, He once used the pen name Baiping, and his ancestral home is Shanyin, Zhejiang (now Shaoxing). In 1877, he was born in Xiamen, Fujian Province in the third year of Emperor Guangxu's reign. Modern democratic revolutionaries.
Qiu Jingong's poems and poems promote the democratic revolution and women's liberation. The style is vigorous, bold and tragic, and deeply emotional. There is "Qiu Jin Collection". Qiu Jin's calligraphy originated from Ouyang Xun, and the characters are slightly flattened. The beauty of Nushu and the inner fortitude are combined into one, and the style of calligraphy is open but dignified.
"Book of Poetry in Running Script" is clear in writing, elegant and upright in writing, it seems to have the bones of European characters, the hero of Beihai, and its poetic style is bold and vigorous. Appreciating its characters is like seeing the person, and the passion and indignation overflows between the lines. An upright and upright spirit is in front of his eyes!
Qing Dynasty·Qiu Jin“Partridge Sky·I Can’t Help Feeling the Sinking of the Motherland”
"Partridge Sky: Can't help but feel the sinking of the motherland" was written in 1904, not long after Qiu Jin went to Japan. Qiu Jin's determination to commit herself to the country and her courage to make great achievements are vividly displayed. The majestic and powerful character of the whole poem supports the valiant and heroic posture of the poet. The Shaoxing government of the Qing Dynasty announced the draft of this word as a "crime", which shows how revolutionary this word is. The heroic spirit shines between the pen and ink, and the atmosphere is similar to the manuscript of Lu Gong's memorial to his nephew, which is praised as a masterpiece.