Mi Fu's book Bao Zhao's "Dancing Crane Fu" is the pinnacle of unrestrained and unrestrained

   Mi Fu (1051-1107), a calligrapher, painter, and painting theorist in the Northern Song Dynasty. Initially named Fu, later changed to Fu, styled Yuanzhang, nicknamed Lumen Jushi, Xiangyang Manshi, Haiyue, Minangong, Xiangyang Jushi, Haiyueshanren, etc. His ancestral home was Wuwei County, Anhui Province, and later moved to Xiangyang, Hubei Province, and lived in Runzhou (now Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province) for a long time. He once served as a school secretary, a doctor of calligraphy and painting, and a member of the Ministry of Rites. He is suave and uninhibited, known as Mi Dian in the world. From the official to the Ministry of Rites, Wailang, loyal to impeachment, dismissed the Huaiyang Army, and died in Huaiyang the following year.

  Mi Fu, Huizong Zhao is a doctor of calligraphy and painting, known as "Mi Nan Guan". Because of his weird personality and crazy behavior, he was called "brother" when he met a stone, and he worshiped him endlessly, so he was called "Mi Dian". Mi Fu is capable of poetry and prose, good at calligraphy and painting, and has a good identification. He is a calligrapher, painter, connoisseur and collector. Its calligraphy style is unrestrained and unrestrained, but also strict with the law. "Song History·Wenyuan Biography" said: "Fu is especially wonderful in calligraphy, calm and flying, and got Wang Xian's brushwork."

   Mi Fu's calligraphy is fast and vigorous, and he does his best. In the process of writing, it changes with the situation, and it is unique. Mi Fu's calligraphic works are characterized by joy, vigor and change, vigor and freshness. The characteristics of Mi Fu's brushwork are mainly good at forming an elegant and super-stepping momentum and a calm and joyful style in the front side, the back, the back, the turning, and the setback. In Mi Fu's calligraphy, there are often sideways postures. If you want to go to the left, you should go to the right, and if you want to go up, you should go down first. This is to increase the ups and downs of the demeanor and the air of gallantry. Out of innocence and nature, never artificial.

   Mi Fu is good at various styles of calligraphy, and Mu Jin is an ancient man, and his cursive style is deeply rooted in Wang Xian's brushwork. Vigorous and dignified, there is a graceful and fluent attitude. Su Shi said that he surpassed the gods. Most of his books are running cursive, and all of them come from real regular script, so the writing is meticulous. Wherever the stippling comes, there is a deep meaning. Good at copying ancient calligraphy to the level of authenticity. At the beginning, I learned from a certain scholar at the time, and later learned from Ouyang Xun and Liu Gongquan. The fonts are tight and strong, and the strokes are straight and vigorous. Then I transferred to Wang Xizhi and Wang Xianzhi. Huang Tingjian and Cai Xiang are also known as the four great calligraphers of the Song Dynasty.

  The pinnacle of Mi Fu's calligraphy is "Dancing Crane Fu", which was written by Mi Fu to Emperor Zhao Ji. It was originally collected by the royal family of the Song Dynasty, and later in the imperial palace of the Yuan Dynasty. Emperor Wenzong of the Yuan Dynasty appointed Ke Jiusi, a famous calligrapher and painter, as a Doctor of Appreciation of Calligraphy in Kuizhang Pavilion to appraise calligraphy and painting. Ke commented on "Ode to Wuhe" as "unprecedented and unprecedented".

 "Dancing Crane Fu" is the pinnacle of Mi Fu's art when he was 56 years old, and it is a treasure that has been lost to the world; domestic experts on Mi Fu's research have conducted investigations, and no one knows about "Dancing Crane Fu"; the discovery of this work It is no less shocking at home and abroad than the excavation of underground cultural relics in China; it is a major event in the field of Chinese calligraphy and will rewrite Mi Fu's art history.

  Bao Zhao, the original author of the article "Dancing Crane Fu", is a writer of the Five Dynasties period. His works are passionate and touching. "Ode to Wuhe" is his masterpiece handed down from generation to generation, and it is the best article describing cranes since ancient times. In Chinese culture, the crane is a symbol of auspiciousness, health and longevity, freedom and nobility.

Original text of "Ode to Wuhe" by Bao Zhao

   Dispersing the secluded scriptures to experience things, the immortals and birds of great embryos. The algal quality of Zhong Fu Kuang embraces the bright heart of Qing Ji. Point to the pot and turn over the Han, look at the Kunlang and raise the voice. In order to return to the hustle and bustle of the day, the sky is poor and the sky is high. The area of ​​practicing gods is far away, and there are many places to worship spirits. Essence contains elixir and stars, and the top is condensed with purple and smoke. The slenderness of the introduction, the slenderness of the toe repair. Fold frost and hair to make shadows, vibrate jade feathers to Linxia. In the morning, I play in Zhitian, and in the evening, I drink in Yaochi. When you are tired of the river and the sea, you swim in the lake, and when you cover the clouds, you see the restraint. Go to the tranquility of the emperor's hometown, and return to the humility of the world. The year is full of vigor and sorrow, and the heart is melancholy and mourning.

   So the poor Yin kills the festival, and the year withers in a hurry. The sassafras vibrates the wild, and the wind of the dustpan moves the sky. Strict and bitter fog, bright and sad spring. The river is covered with ice, and the mountains are covered with snow. Then the atmosphere is dark and the night is resting, and the scenery is clear. The star turns back to the Han Dynasty, and the dawn moon will fall. Feel the morning of the cold chicken, pity the desert of the frost and the wild goose. Facing the depression of the convulsive wind, facing the light of the streamer. The sound of beeping is clear in Danchi, and Wufei is in the Golden Pavilion. Shi Lianxuan staggered with the phoenix, and finally turned around and the dragon leaped. Wandering and wandering, vibrating quickly and destroying. Shocked body fluffy, corrected wings Xuefei. Leaving the outline and not going, and the thread is dependent on each other. The prosperity will be suspended, and if you go, you will return. Sa da prudent, procrastinating late. Yihe followed in the footsteps, Aozhu led the way. Refers to the rules of the meeting, and the steps of Linqi. The attitude is beautiful, and the appearance is endless. Benji teases festivals, and favors fractals. Changyang slowed down, and wings repeatedly sounded. Light traces are messy, and floating shadows are intertwined. There are many changes and complex appearances, and they are uneven and dense. The smoke is condensed, if there is no hair. The wind goes and the rain returns, so we can't talk about it. The soul is scattered and the eyes are wandering, and the fans don't know where they are. Suddenly the stars are separated and the clouds are gone, and the face is straightened and self-sufficient. The admiration of Yangtianju is even more melancholy and startling.

   When it was time, Yan Ji looked depressed, and Ba Tong felt ashamed. The towel brush stops twice, and the pill and sword stop twice. Although Handan dares to be honest, how can Yang Ah be able to imitate it. Enter Weiguo and take advantage of the pavilion, leave Wudu and pour into the city. Keep and domesticate for a thousand years, and grow and mourn for thousands of miles.

  Since the Song Dynasty, Mi Fu's calligraphy has been admired by later generations. His writing is called "brushing characters", which means that his writing method is different from that of the predecessors. Mi Fu studied calligraphy the most in his life, and his greatest achievement was running script. Although the traces of the paintings have not been handed down to the world, there are many calligraphy works left. Among the famous Huitie since the Southern Song Dynasty, most of them are engraved with their Dharma books, which have been widely circulated and far-reaching. They are indeed second to none among the "Four Great Calligraphers of the Northern Song Dynasty". Kang Youwei once said: "The structure of Tang dialects is more interesting in Song Dynasty." It means that calligraphers in Song Dynasty emphasized charm and individuality, and Mi Fu was particularly outstanding in this respect, and he was an outstanding representative of the four great masters of Northern Song Dynasty.


  Mi Fu studied calligraphy the most and made the greatest achievements in his life. Mi Fu claims that his works are "collection of ancient characters", and he has a deep understanding of the brushwork, composition and charm of ancient masters, which also shows to a certain extent that Mi Fu has put a lot of effort into the tradition of calligraphy. Mi Fu was not involved in the political vortex, and lived a relatively stable life. Later, he became a doctor of calligraphy and painting, read the books in the inner palace, and was familiar with thousands of stories. When he was young, he studied Yan, Liu, Ou, Chu and other Tang scripts hard, and laid a solid foundation. When Su Shi was demoted to Huangzhou, he went to visit for advice, and Dongpo persuaded him to learn Jin. Beginning in the fifth year of Yuanfeng (1082), Mi Fu devoted himself to the Wei and Jin Dynasties. Taking the calligraphic style of the Jin people as his guide, he searched for many calligraphy posts from the Jin people, and even named his study "Bao Jin Zhai". The "Mid-Autumn Tie" handed down by Wang Xianzhi today is said to be his copy, with exquisite form and spirit.

  When the emperor asked about calligraphy, Mi Fu claimed to be a "painting brush", Mingli was self-effacing and down-to-earth to the essence, "painting calligraphy", which showed that he used the brush quickly and vigorously, and did his best. His calligraphy works, ranging from poem posts to small ruler slips and inscriptions, all have the characteristics of being lively, changing, vigorous and fresh. Judging from the nearly 60 extant handwritings of Mi Fu, the word "shua" is vividly expressing the spirit of Mi characters. It is no wonder that Su Dongpo said: "Mi Shu is super elegant and fascinating." Seal script, official script, true script, script script, cursive script, majestic and majestic. Calm and joyful, it should go hand in hand with King Zhong. Not only is it worthy.” Mi Fu’s calligraphy had far-reaching influence, especially at the end of the Ming Dynasty, when there were many scholars, such as Wen Zhengming, People like Zhu Yunming, Chen Chun, Xu Wei, Wang Juesi, and Fu Shan all took a "Heart Sutra" from Yonago, and this influence has continued to this day. Mi Fu's "On Cursive Calligraphy" In addition to Mi Fu's calligraphy reaching a very high level, he also has a lot of calligraphy. He is the author of "Book History", "Haiyue Famous Quotes", "Bao Zhang Dai Visit Record", "Commentary Post" and so on. It shows his outstanding courage and exquisite appreciation. He often ridiculed his predecessors, but he never followed the ancient sayings. Harsh.


  Mi Fu has his unique understanding of the distribution, structure and brush use of calligraphy. It is required to be "steady and not vulgar, dangerous and not strange, old and not dry, moist and not fat", probably the same meaning as Jiang Kui's record of "no hanging, no shrinking, no closing". That is to say, it is required to achieve unity in the change, and to integrate the opposing factors such as wrapped and hidden, fat and thin, sparse and dense, simple and complex, that is, "bones, tendons, flesh, fat, and spirit are all complete, just like a good scholar." . In terms of composition, it pays attention to the overall charm, and takes into account the perfection of details, with a well-thought-out plan, and changes with the situation in the writing process, showing unique ingenuity. The characteristics of Mi Fu's brushwork are mainly good at forming an elegant and super-stepping momentum and a calm and joyful style in the front side, the back, the back, the turning, and the setback. The writing of the characters is often quite heavy at the beginning, and slightly lighter in the middle, and when the turning point is encountered, the pen is lifted sideways and turned straight down. There are also many changes in the stroke of the brush. Sometimes the focus of writing is at the beginning of the stroke, sometimes at the end of the stroke, and sometimes it is in the middle of a stroke. There are twists and turns for longer horizontal strokes. The hook is also distinctive.

  In Mi Fu's calligraphy, there is often a sideways posture. If you want to go to the left, you should go to the right, and if you want to go up, you should go down first. This is all to increase the ups and downs of the demeanor and the air of gallantry. Therefore, out of innocence and nature, never artificial. Those who learn from Mi Fu, even those who are close to the water, will inevitably lose "hard madness". Since the Song and Yuan Dynasties, when discussing Mi Fu's calligraphy, two attitudes can be distinguished: one is praise but not derogation, which is highly praised; Those who hold the first attitude can be represented by Su Shi. 

  Mi Fu turned to many teachers throughout his life, and he also said in the "Self-narration" written in his later years: "Yu was a beginner, and he first learned to write on the wall. Yan was seven or eight years old. The calligraphy is as big as a picture, and it is impossible to write simple. When I saw Liu, I admired it. Tight knot, is to learn from Liu's "Diamond Sutra". For a long time, knowing that it came from Ou, is to learn from Ou. For a long time, it is like printing and calculating, and it is Mu Chu who has learned the longest. , Jue Duan Quanze exhibited "Lanting", so he viewed the posts together, entered the Jin and Wei Dynasties, abandoned Zhong Fang and learned from Shi Yigong, "Liu Kuan Bei" is also. The seal script loves "Ji Chu" and "Stone Drum Wen". I also understand the bamboo slips Use bamboo to paint, and the inscription on the tripod is very ancient." Mi Fu is famous for his calligraphy, and his achievements come from the hard work he acquired. Astringent, I think the ancients never waste a book for half a moment." "If Zhiyong inkstone is made into a mortar, it can reach the Youjun (Wang Xizhi), and if it penetrates to Zhong (Yao) and Suo (Jing), it can be encouraged forever." He His son Mi Youren said that he did not forget to write even on the first day of the Lunar New Year. (According to Sun Zubai's "Mi Fu Mi Youren"). Mi Fu was very serious about his book writing. He said to himself: "She wrote "Hai Dai Poems" three or four times, and one or two characters in between are good, and it is difficult to write letters" (Ming Fan Mingtai's "Mi Xiangyang Wai Ji"). After writing a poem three or four times, I am still satisfied with only one or two words. The joys and sorrows in it cannot be understood by an expert, which also shows his rigorous attitude towards creation.

  Mi Fu's calligraphy is ranked among the four masters of the Song Dynasty, after Su Dongpo and Huang Tingjian, and before Cai Xiang. Regardless of the status of Su Dongpo's Wen Zong and Huang Tingjian's influence as the leader of the Jiangxi School of Poetry, as far as calligraphy is concerned, Mi Fu's traditional skills are the most profound, especially running script, which is the right of the two. Dong Qichang of the Ming Dynasty said in his "Essays on the Painting of the Zen Room": "I commented on the rice characters, and thought that the Song Dynasty was the first, after all, it was on the east slope. That is to say, the Mi Dian script was changed by itself, and it changed in his later years. It is colder than the water. strange."

  Mi Fu is famous for his calligraphy, and he is one of the four masters in the Northern Song Dynasty. In terms of style, he is undoubtedly the first. His achievements come entirely from acquired efforts. When he was 30 years old, he was an official in Changsha. He had seen the Yuelu Temple stele, and the next year he went to Lushan to visit the Donglin Temple stele, and all of them were inscribed. In the second year of Yuanyou, six paintings by Zhang Xuan, two posts by Xu Hao and Shi Yigeng were exchanged for Li Yong's "How hot you want Gefen post". As evidenced by his calligraphy, at the age of 24, the inscription on the cliff in Longyinyan, Lingui, has a little momentum, and there is no trace of his own family; at the age of 30, the inscription and postscript of "Bucharian Picture" also makes people feel deeply talented and inferior to academic ability. . Mr. Mi is cunning, and it is reasonable to boast occasionally, just as the predecessors said, "set yourself with a high standard". Mi Fu's self-narrative learning books often make some mysteries. For example, he said to the emperor that "my minister has learned Yan Xing since childhood". However, Mi Fu's success comes entirely from acquired hard work, and there is no element of trickery at all. Mi Fu never stops at the pond every day, citing two historical materials as evidence: "If you don't write for a day, you will feel dull. Thinking about the ancients is not a waste of books for a while." Also." "Zhiyong's inkstone is made into a mortar, but it can reach the Youjun (Wang Xizhi), and if it penetrates to Zhong (Yao) and Suo (Jing), it can be encouraged forever." His son Mi Youren said that he was even young. I don't forget to write in the first day of junior high school. (According to Sun Zubai's "Mi Fu Mi Youren"). Mi Fu was rich in collections, and when he went out on official tours, he often went with him, and wrote a banner "Mi Family Painting and Calligraphy Boat" on his boat.

  Mi Fu is good at painting with dead wood, bamboo and stone, especially ink and landscape. Using the dots in calligraphy to paint, using large brushstrokes of ink to express the landscape of the south of the Yangtze River in the misty clouds and wind and rain, known as Mi's Yunshan or Mijiashan, both poetic and creative. Mi Fu's handed down calligraphy and ink marks include "A Resignation to the Empress Dowager", "Shu Su Tie", "Tiaoxi Poetry Tie", "Worship Zhongyue Ming Tie", "Hongxian Poetry Volume", "Cursive Script Nine Tie", "Duojinglou "Poetry Post", etc., no paintings have been handed down. His work "Shanlin Collection" has been lost. His theory of calligraphy and painting can be found in his books such as "Book History", "Painting History", "Bao Zhang Dai Fang Lu" and other books. Mi Fu's handed down ink writings mainly include "Taoxi Poetry Volume", "Shu Su Tie", "Fangyuan Temple", "Tianma Fu", etc., and there are many sketches in Hanzha. Mi Fu is good at ink and wash landscapes, known as "Mi's Yunshan", but Mi Fu's paintings do not exist in the world. But the only thing that can be seen so far is hard to say is the real "rice painting" "Coral Pen Holder Picture", which draws a coral pen stand with the word "Golden Sit" written on the left side of the frame. Then add rice points and inscriptions, and the landscape of Mijia will emerge impressively. It is quite interesting that Mi Fu used paintings instead of pens.

  Mi Fu liked to read poems and books since he was a child. He received a good education since he was a child. In addition to his talent and intelligence, he could recite a hundred poems at the age of six, learn calligraphy at the age of eight, and copy inscriptions at the age of ten. At the age of eighteen, Song Shenzong succeeded to the throne. Because he did not forget the old love of Mi Fu's mother, Yan's baby, he bestowed on Mi Fu the secretary of the provincial school, responsible for proofreading and correcting errors. From then on, he started his official career and died in office from 1107 to 1107. Mi Fu's official rank was not high throughout his life, which is related to his lack of courteousness in the officialdom and his aloofness. Mi Fu is a man of real talent and learning, and he is not good at officialdom. He has won a lot of time and energy to play with stones, appreciate inkstones and study the art of calligraphy and painting. The pursuit of calligraphy and painting art has reached a state of fascination. He is different in the eyes of others. is the cornerstone of his success. He once wrote a poem of his own: "Maozi Chai Jiyan, Mo Qing of Mingchuang Museum, both fame and fame are in the same field, and he has never felt that he has lost his life." He is such a talented and arrogant person who puts the art of calligraphy and painting above everything else.