Zhao Zhiqian (1829-1884) was born in Shaoxing, Zhejiang. At the beginning, it was named Yifu, and it was named Lengjun; later, it was changed to Shushu, named Tiesan, Hanliao, Bei'an, Wuzhan, Mei'an, etc. The residence is called "Er Jindie Tang" and "Bitter House". He was an official in Poyang, Jiangxi, and Fengxin County. He was good at poetry and calligraphy. Don't be out of fashion. Good at painting, flowers have changed after learning from Shi Tao, which is the pioneer of freehand flowers in the late Qing Dynasty. Beginners of seal cutting learned from Zhe school, followed Qin and Han seal seals, rejoined Song, Yuan and Anhui schools, obtained Qin edicts, Han mirrors, spring coins, Han inscriptions and inscriptions, etc. for printing. In his youth, he was famous all over the country for his talent. His attainments in calligraphy are multifaceted, and he can integrate the strokes of real, cursive, official script and seal script into one, complement each other and complement each other. Zhao Zhiqian once said: "Independence is expensive, the world is huge, many people say everything, independence is hard to find." He made unremitting efforts in poetry, calligraphy, painting and meaning all his life, and finally became a master of his generation. One of the sixty Shanghai schools in the late Qing Dynasty.
Due to his superb artistic achievements, Shanghai-based artists, especially the new generation such as Wu Changshuo, were influenced by Zhao Zhiqian and gradually formed a new genre—Shanghai School of Painting. Pan Tianshou wrote in "History of Chinese Painting": "Uncle Zhao Zhiqian of Kuaiji, made flowers with the fun of gold and stone calligraphy and painting, magnificent and ancient, and opened a precedent for the former Shanghai School." In fact, Zhao Zhiqian's influence was not limited to the sea. , Chen Shizeng and other northern masters were also influenced by him.
Wealthy Eyebrow Shou Lenses, Ink and Color on Paper, Tongzhi Wuchen (1868) (24.08 million yuan, Shanghai Hengli in April 2010)
If this painting of "Fugui Meishoutu" is "yan", it means that "yan" is ancient, it is "ancient" rather than "nongli", and the brushwork of "powerful and vigorous" is really pan Tianshou's "Hongsi Guli" is a very suitable word to describe Zhao's flower style. "Wealthy Eyebrows and Longevity" is a large banner with an imposing composition. It starts from the upper right corner and ends in the lower left corner, forming a diagonal layout. The inscription is on the upper left part of the painting, and there are also two small vermilion seals, which play the role of the finale. This kind of diagonal composition method is more common in Zhao's large banner paintings. Zhao Zhiqian is a master seal carver, and he has extraordinary ability in the arrangement of seals and seals. From seals to paintings, his painting composition ability is naturally not bad. The inscription "Fugui Meishou" is in seal script, and the inscription in seal script and official script can make the work more rich in gold and stone, which is another feature of Zhao's flower works in the later stage. "Strength and strength" is also the characteristic of the brushwork in this work, especially the plum blossom on the right. Although he himself said that he used the method of Yuanren, the brushwork is entirely due to the stele. Such a large-scale and huge system, and it is so full of vigor, if there are no monumental lines, it will definitely not work. The publicity of "power" is an important aesthetic feature of Zhao's large-scale masterpieces. Few people can express this kind of strength, even in the freehand paintings of Xu Wei and Shi Tao, let alone Wu (Changshuo) and Qi (Baishi). In addition to the extraordinary brushwork, the composition of Fugui Meishou also has its own characteristics. The branches are sometimes interlaced and sometimes separated. The densely packed places and the large blank spaces form a strong contrast of density and density. This kind of layout is "sparse and impenetrable". In fact, it comes from his seal method, which is also the composition method he often uses in painting plum blossoms. "Wealthy Eyebrows and Longevity" is one of the most important works handed down by Zhao Zhiqian. It is not only huge in size, but also a masterpiece of his very personal style.
Great Fortune (6.944 million yuan, Beijing Rongbao in May 2010)
This "Peony Picture" is an eye-catching work, its exquisiteness and large-scale composition are rare. In this work, calligraphy and painting are integrated, the lines are grasped precisely, and the brush is crisp and sharp, especially the mountains and rocks outlined are extensive and thick, full of "golden and stone spirit". The flowers in the picture, with luxuriant branches and leaves, present a thriving scene. Breaking through the stereotypes of the predecessors in the composition is even more obvious at a glance. Zhao Zhiqian often likes to concentrate the main parts and titles on the top of the painting, which still has the interest of Bada Shanren. The inscription is "March of Gengwu in Tongzhi, Mr. Outing Gongzu is painting. Zhao Zhiqian." At that time, the word "Gongzu" was a respectful title for those with higher social status. It is not difficult to see that this should be Zhao Zhiqian's masterpiece. The "Ou Ting" in the painting, that is, Guo Ou Ting, is the great-grandfather of Guo Weiqu. He has a deep friendship with Zhao Zhiqian and likes to collect calligraphy and painting. As the national flower, peony is a symbol of wealth and honor. The author used peony in the painting and gave it to his friends for many years. The beautiful words are fully revealed through the picture.
Wealth and Noble Banner by Jiashen (1884)
Peonies, Hanging scroll, Ink and color on paper
Painting beautiful stones and blooming peonies has always been a favorite topic for painters. Zhao Zhiqian's painting of peonies fully reflects his unique style of coloring. The hook of the lake stone is round and vigorous. The depiction of peonies uses both Yun Shouping's boneless painting method and the method of hooking lines and filling in colors. The two painting methods are unified in the dignified and heavy brushwork. Make good use of red, black, green and other heavy colors in color application, seek harmony in contrast, and make the picture rich and lively. The pen and ink are solid and the colors are bright, contrary to its elegant and noble style, it has achieved the artistic effect of both refined and popular tastes.
Wind Lotus Picture Vertical Scroll
Lotus, hanging scroll, ink and color on paper (3.92 million yuan, Beijing Hanhai, December 2010)
As a literati painter, Zhao Zhiqian's paintings have the characteristics of literati paintings, that is, there are poems in the paintings, and the combination of poems and paintings contains profound literary connotations; Simulating objective objects, emphasizing freehand brushwork, trying to express the author's subjective factors, thoughts, feelings and temperament, especially pursuing the bookish and morale of the works, that is, the so-called elegant and refined literati demeanor. In terms of technique, he pays attention to the taste of brushwork and ink, incorporates calligraphy into painting, and integrates the expressive power of calligraphy into painting. His paintings often use exaggerated techniques to endow flowers and plants with character. Zhao Zhiqian painted the lotus in order to highlight the character of the lotus, expressing its characteristics of "coming out of mud but not stained, clean and clear but not demonic, straight in the middle and straight in the outside, neither spreading nor branching". This work adopts an extremely exaggerated technique, taking a vertical piece, painting the lotus stem vertically, straight up, from the bottom of the paper to the top of the paper, with two lotus flowers on top, echoing each other. Tingting is handsome. It is almost full of the picture, sparse at the bottom and dense at the top, empty at the bottom and solid at the top, thus vividly and prominently exaggerating the posture of the lotus blooming on the top of the peak, showing an outstanding arrogance. In fact, this painting of lotus is also a portrayal of the artist's self and soul. From the structure to the brushwork, it is bold and unique, and it is surprising.
Mo Song Tu Hanging scroll on paper, made in 1872
According to the artist's own title, this picture uses the three-body writing techniques of seal script, official script and cursive script to describe the pine tree. Tree trunks, branches, and pine needles are expressed in cursive brushwork, adhering to the bold and unrestrained tradition of literati painting. The brushstrokes inscribed in running script on the painting are vigorous and vigorous, and its charm of gold and stone complements the painting method of pine wood, which is full of interest. This painting is worthy of being Zhao Zhiqian's masterpiece of painting with gold, stone and calligraphy.
Flowers and Fruits, ink and color on paper, lens, made in 1869
It is not uncommon to paint on Shang and Zhou Jijin rubbings, but it is not easy to express harmony and elegance. First of all, the requirements for Tuojia are extremely high. Tuojia must have the ability of visual generalization, use the simplest and most sufficient means to grasp the characteristics of objects and make models, and express them on the same plane to maximize the information contained in the rubbings. Moreover, it is necessary to express artistically, to have a well-thought-out grasp of the paper, ink and even the expansion and contraction of the paper, so that the light and shade effects of the drawn sketch can be vivid. In ancient China, the tripod was an important tool of etiquette. It was a utensil that distinguishes superiors from superiors and inferiors, and symbolizes ruling power and rank. Its shape is stable, its decoration is gorgeous, and its facade composition is complex. Therefore, it is particularly difficult to expand the ancient tripod. Fortunately, its presentation on paper is not inferior to the paintings of famous artists. Since Qianjia in the Qing Dynasty, the study of inscriptions on inscriptions has flourished, and there are many generations of people who have made their careers in this field. Inscriptions and calligraphers and painters have also started to learn it. For example, Wang Xiaosong and Deng Shiru are good at this.
This is a rubbing of six capitals, Zhao Zhiqian added flowers, and the rubbing is an ancient tripod in the late Shang Dynasty. Liu Jie was a friend of Zhao Zhiqian, a famous Jijintuo family in Hangzhou during the Tongzhi period of Xianfeng. The inscription of this work is "Qian in the ninth month of the eighth year of Tongzhi was two kinds of flowers and fruits made by the five brothers of Lianxi in the same year." In the eighth year of Tongzhi, that is, 1869, Zhao Zhiqian was living in Hangzhou from Beijing, so this painting was painted in Hangzhou. "Lianxi" has a surname of Hu and is also Zhao Zhiqian's friend. Painting on rubbings can neither suppress the rubbings nor conceal one's own performance. Zhao Zhiqian is good at showing off his personality. When painting on the rubbings of the ancient tripod, not only did he write without hesitation, but he also made no mistakes. The flowers and fruit branches grew out of the ancient tripod, with a uniform perspective and full of vitality. The size of the fruit is sparse and dense, the length of the flower branches is staggered, and even the color is thick and light, which not only takes into account the shape of the ancient tripod, but also the decoration of the tripod body, which reflect each other and are harmonious and unified. Zhao Zhiqian belongs to the kind of artist who has both a good eye and a good hand, and his paintings are not limited by media and forms.
Handscroll, ink and color on paper, painted in 1861 (11.5 million yuan, held in Xiling Autumn Auction in December 2011)
Zhao Zhiqian's painting "The Picture of Different Fish" is a horizontal roll of ink and color on paper, 35.4 cm in length and 222.5 cm in width. It draws various marine creatures that Zhao Zhiqian has never seen or heard of before, including sand scorpion, Zhang Ju, golden ray, sea scorpion, and sword There are 15 kinds of sharks, ghost crabs, tiger crabs, horsewhip fish, lyre prawns, bamboo fish, hulan, dice fish, and eagle rays. The inscription said: "Xianfeng Xinyou, Uncle Ji's guest Dongou, who saw strange shapes in the sea, miscellaneous pictures on this paper, in the name of textual research, expressing the spirit of Adu, the intention is here." . This picture is inscribed by Hu Shu for the introduction, Fei Nianci inscribed the text, and Jiang Shi, Liu Kun, and Chen Baoshan inscribed the postscript, which was handed over to the collection by Xu Zijing, Liu Shiheng, Lin Xiongguang and others. Zhao Zhiqian was 33 years old.
"The Picture of Different Fishes" is a wonderful work in the painting garden of the late Qing Dynasty. trend. The shapes are accurate and vivid, the small ones are like whipfish, the big ones are like sea squirrels, and the complex ones are like eight-legged octopuses, all of which are freehand and full of vitality. The smallest ones, such as ghost crabs and lyre shrimp, can also be accurately and vividly drawn by the painter, showing their plump and fresh state. The colors are elegant and clear, among which, sandy ocher and golden ray are stained and dyed with shades of ocher with boneless overlapping colors. The shades and shades are perfect. On the other hand, sea squirrel and eagle ray are made by the method of rubbing, rubbing, drying and dyeing with ink and wash, with distinct layers and great texture. The different fish in this picture, no matter how big or small, must have a textual research question under it. The book is small but the big is seen, the spirit is restrained, and it is quite golden and stone. It is also an important link for the combination of calligraphy and painting to connect the overall situation of this volume.
Ji Shuya Tu
Inscription: Jishuyan map. Zheng Yu's servant ordered Zhao Zhiqian to paint. Seal: Zhao Zhiqian seal (white square seal)
In Zhao Zhiqian's paintings, there are not many landscapes that can be seen, and there are occasional ones, which are also quite individual. This work is based on the scenery of Jishu Rock in Hebei, where the blue waves are rippling at the foot of the cliff, the steep cliff is steep and there is no road, and the green pines between the rock cliffs are winding and verdant. There are caves on the mountainside, and there are natural horizontal and firm stone patterns in the cave, which looks like a library stacked with books from a distance, endowing it with infinite vitality and interest. Mo Yun has a good look, and is handsome in his workmanship.
In the history of painting, one said that Zheng Yu was Zhao Zhiqian's friend Shen Shuyong; another said that Zheng Yu was Zhao Zhiqian's friend Pan Zuyin. This is because both Pan and Shen are friends of the Zhao family in the capital, and their names are similar, and they are both famous collectors. However, because Pan paid more attention to the collection of gold, stones and books, and had served as a servant, it is inferred that this painting is most likely created by Zhao Zhiqian for Pan.
Looking at the Mountains in the Courtyard, Hanging scroll, Ink and color on silk
This picture is Zhao Zhiqian's works when he was 40 years old. It was the period when Zhao Zhiqian's art matured. Can be combined with Xu Wei, Shi Tao, Li, unique. This painting was originally collected by Li Jiafu, and it is even more rare to have a poem written by Wu Daiqiu (Li Jiafu's son-in-law), a famous landscape artist.
Sea Peach, Panjingping, ink and color on paper, made in 1873
Flowers, four screens, ink and color on paper (6.0632 million yuan, Sotheby's Hong Kong autumn auction in October 2005)
This pair of hall screens is a masterpiece among Zhao Zhiqian's handed down works. The number of its paintings circulated is limited, and the four screens recorded in the data are even rarer. If each frame of the hall screen is four feet wide like the original copy, there is no one in a hundred. It should be specially drawn by the artist Ying Ji. become. The hall screen is painted with peony, wisteria, red plum and osmanthus. The titles of the two frames have their origins. Hongmei Ri imitates Xuehu and Xiaoxia, that is, Liu Shiru and Shen Xiang in the late Ming Dynasty. Although Master Yun is a predecessor, he has already adapted to his own appearance, such as red plums with vigorous and strange stones, and seal and official brushwork in the turning of lines; , Rubbing with thirsty brushes brings out the mottled and uneven texture of the trunk, the shape is simple and jerky, unique and interesting; peony, longevity, graphite and color blend, the brush and ink are majestic, showing a spicy and vigorous spirit. The whole work is a mixture of strong gold and stone and freehand brushwork, which shows the artist's dedication!
Tongyin Qiuyue, hanging scroll, ink and color on paper (3.472 million yuan, passed on in Beijing in November 2010)
Zhao Zhiqian's painting of trees is not based on brushwork, but on the shape and posture of the trunk to express the tree's spirit of being old and vigorous without bending, bending without bowing. This painting "Tongyin Autumn Moon" depicts a towering tung tree, breaking through the picture, and a kind of tenacious character emerges vividly on the paper. Traditional literati paintings are better than ink in five colors, and since the mid-Qing Dynasty, many literati painters have tried to use color and ink in their paintings. How to play the role of color in freehand painting without losing the elegance of literati became a new challenge for literati painters in the late Qing Dynasty. In this painting, Zhao Zhiqian blends color and ink freely, using grass and green to decorate the tung leaf, ocher to decorate the buds, and gamboge to decorate the autumn moon. Especially in the treatment of the trunk of the tung tree, it is a masterpiece. First, the yin and yang of the trunk are separated with a light ink hook, and then partially moistened with gamboge, and then the tree moss is painted with thick ink, so that the whole trunk is blended and dripping.
Beauty and Beauty Handscroll Ink and color on paper
Guihe Xianshou Four Screens (3.3 million yuan, Shanghai Zhongtian in July 2005)
These four screens are naturally a work of praying for longevity and wealth. It is a good intention to use elegant words between the inscriptions. None of the paintings have been dated, so it seems difficult to make haste. Therefore, it is more elegant and elegant, and its book atmosphere is better than that of gold and stone. It is a rare and rare treasure.
Hibiscus, colored silk and silk frame (3.32 million yuan, China Guardian in November 2011)
The flowers in Zhao Zhiqian's brushwork are based on the ivy and white sun. After seeing the influence of Futang's painting style, he combined seal cutting and calligraphy into the painting. Therefore, the brush and ink are bold and unrestrained, and the ink and color blend, which is gorgeous but yet simple and heavy. Gold and stone charm. Although this painting is called "testing the pen from illness", the composition is naturally tight, with red flowers and green leaves interspersed with each other. Written in Ayamoto, extremely rare.
Flowers Four screens, ink and color on paper, by Ren Shen (1872)
Fruits of Four Seasons, screen, ink and color on paper
Zhao Zhiqian's heavy-color freehand flower paintings subtly integrate the brush and ink techniques of literati freehand brushwork with the coloring principles of Ming and Qing dynasties. This four-screen can be described as its masterpiece. The flowers, fruits and trees are painted with magnolia brush and ink, and the colors are rich and colorful. The contrast between the density and density of the composition is strong, and the calligraphy of the title is also simple and thick, so its style is rich in gold and stone, and its personality is strong. Title on one screen: "Biography of Hundred Sons, Thousand Houses and Strange Trees, I received the Prime Minister's Record for ten years. Pseudo-uncle." Title on the second screen: "Long live forever. Uncle Su." Middle-class. Worked by Uncle Sui." Title on the four screens: "Don't lift the Lishi fist, but hold the Tathagata's arm. Tan Chan faces the dragon, and realizes that it is not a finger. Zhiqian is the painting of Zi Peizun, the elder brother. Tongzhi ninth year in December. "
There are too many masterpieces by Zhao Zhiqian, so let’s cite so many first!