Zhao Zhiqian (1829-1884) was born in Shaoxing, Zhejiang. The first name was Yifu, and the nickname was Lengjun; later the name was changed to Lushu, and the names were Tiesan, Hanliao, Bei'an, Wumen, Mei'an, etc. He lived in "Erjindietang" and "Kujianshi". He served as magistrate of Poyang and Fengxin counties in Jiangxi Province. He was good at poetry and prose, and was good at calligraphy. He first studied with Yan Zhenqing, and used seal script and official script with Deng Shiru. Later he became his own style, stubborn and powerful. Stay out of fashion. He was good at painting, and his flowers were modified after imitating Shi Tao. He was the pioneer of freehand flowers in the late Qing Dynasty. He first learned seal cutting from the Zhejiang School, followed the seals of the Qin and Han Dynasties, and then joined the Song, Yuan and Anhui schools. He obtained Qin imperial edicts, Han mirrors, coins, Han inscriptions and stele texts, etc. for printing. He swept away old habits and made his works green and powerful. In his youth, he became famous all over the world for his talent. His attainments in calligraphy are multi-faceted, and he can integrate Zhen, Cao, Li and Zhuan brushwork into one, complementing each other and complementing each other. Zhao Zhiqian once said: "Independence is precious, the world is huge, many people say it, and independence is hard to find." He made unremitting efforts in poetry, calligraphy, painting and art throughout his life, and finally became a master of his generation. One of the sixty Shanghai schools in the late Qing Dynasty.
    Due to his superb artistic achievements, artists centered in Shanghai, especially the new generation such as Wu Changshuo, were influenced by Zhao Zhiqian and gradually formed a new school - Shanghai style painting. Pan Tianshou wrote in "History of Chinese Painting": "Zhao Zhiqian, the uncle of Kuaiji, painted flowers with the interest of calligraphy and painting in stone, grand and ancient, and was the first of the Qianhai School." In fact, Zhao Zhiqian's influence was not limited to the sea, Qi Baishi Northern masters such as Chen Shizeng and Chen Shizeng were also influenced by him.

 Rich Eyebrows and Longevity Lens, color on paper, by Tongzhi Wuchen (1868) (24.08 million yuan, Shanghai Hengli, April 2010)
    This "Picture of Rich Eyebrows and Longevity", if we say it is "gorgeous", it means that the "gorgeous" is ancient, it is "gorgeous" rather than "rich", coupled with the "strong and thick" brushwork, it is really Pan The word "Hongsi Guli" mentioned by Tianshou is very suitable to describe Zhao's floral style. "The Picture of Wealthy Eyebrows and Longevity" is a large banner with a very imposing composition. The strokes start from the upper right corner and end at the lower left corner, forming a diagonal layout. The title is in the upper left part of the painting, and there are two small vermilion seals, which play the role of the finale. This diagonal composition method is more common in Zhao's large banner paintings. Zhao Zhiqian was a master of seal cutting and had extraordinary abilities in arranging seal patterns. From sealing to painting, his painting composition ability was naturally also outstanding. The four-character inscription "Wealth, Honor, Eyebrows and Longevity" is written in seal script. The inscription in seal script and official script can make the work more rich in gold and stone. This is another characteristic of Zhao's flower works in his later period. "Strong and thick" is also a characteristic of the brushwork used in this work, especially the plum blossoms on the right. Although he himself said that he used Yuanren's method to create it, his brushwork was entirely due to the stele. Such a majestic structure, and such a vivid expression of vitality, would definitely not be possible without the lines of the stele. The publicity of "power" is an important aesthetic feature of Zhao's large-scale masterpieces. Very few people can express this kind of power, even in the freehand paintings of Xu Wei and Shi Tao, let alone Wu (Chang Shuo), Qi (Bai Shi), etc. In addition to his extraordinary writing skills, Fugui Meishou's composition is also unique. The branches are sometimes intertwined and sometimes separated. The dense areas form a strong contrast with the large blank spaces. This kind of "sparse and airtight" layout It actually comes from his sealing method, which is also the composition method he often uses to paint plum blossoms. "Wealthy Eyebrows and Longevity" is one of the most important works among Zhao Zhiqian's handed down works. It is not only huge in size, but also a masterpiece of his personal style.

Dafugui (6.944 million yuan, Beijing Rongbao in May 2010)
    This "Peony Picture" is an eye-catching work, rare in its exquisiteness and large-scale composition. In this work, calligraphy and painting are integrated, the lines are mastered with precision, and the brush strokes are crisp and sophisticated. In particular, the mountains and rocks outlined are rough and thick, and are full of "gold and stone spirit". The flowers in the painting have lush branches and leaves, presenting a thriving scene. It is clear that Zhao Zhiqian broke through the stereotypes of his predecessors in terms of composition. He often likes to place the main parts and titles at the top of the painting, which is still like the interest of Bada Shanren. The inscription is "In the third month of Gengwu, Tongzhi, Lord Ou Ting Gongzu is painting. Zhao Zhiqian." At that time, the word "Gongzu" was an honorific title for those with higher social status. It is not difficult to see that this should be Zhao Zhiqian's masterpiece. The "Ou Ting" in the painting is Guo Ou Ting, the great-grandfather of Guo Weiqu. He had a close friendship with Zhao Zhiqian and also liked to collect calligraphy and paintings. As the national flower, the peony is a symbol of wealth. The author used peonies in the painting and gave them to his friends of many years, and his beautiful words are fully revealed through the painting.

Picture of Wealth and Honor Banner by Jiashen (1884)

 Peony painting, vertical scroll, color on paper
    The use of beautiful rocks and blooming peonies in paintings has always been a favorite subject of painters. This peony painting by Zhao Zhiqian fully reflects his unique style of color application and brushwork. The lake stone hooks are round and strong. The peony is depicted using both Yun Shouping's boneless painting method and the outline and coloring method. The two painting methods are unified in the dignified and thick brushwork. Make good use of red, black, green and other heavy colors in color application, and seek harmony in contrast to make the picture rich and lively. The pen and ink are solid and the colors are bright. Contrary to its elegant and noble style, it achieves an artistic effect that is appreciated by both refined and popular people.

     Picture of wind and lotus, vertical scroll, picture of Tongxia Lake stone, picture of crape myrtle making the weather clear, vertical scroll

 Lotus, vertical scroll, color on paper (3.92 million yuan, Beijing Hanhai, December 2010)

 墨松图  立轴纸本 1872年作

花果图  设色纸本 镜片 1869年作

异鱼图  手卷 设色纸本 1861年作 (1150万元,2011年12月西泠秋拍)
    赵之谦画《异鱼图》,设色纸本横卷,纵35.4厘米,横222.5厘米,画各种赵之谦以前见所未见,闻所未闻的海中生物,计有沙噀、章拒、锦魟、海豨、剑鲨、鬼蟹、虎蟹、马鞭鱼、琴虾、竹夹鱼、胡阑、骰子鱼、燕魟,共计15种。落款曰:“咸丰辛酉,撝叔客东瓯,见海物有奇形怪状者,杂图此纸,间为考证名义,传神阿堵,意在斯乎。” 钤白文印“赵氏之谦”。此图胡澍题引首,费念慈题笺,另有江湜、刘焞、陈宝善题跋,历经徐子静、刘世珩、林熊光等人递藏。时年赵之谦33岁。


 闲庭看山图  立轴 设色绢本
    This picture is a work made by Zhao Zhiqian when he was forty years old, which was the period when Zhao Zhiqian's art matured. His works also had a growing reputation. He also used calligraphy to write landscapes, which are broad and honest, and blended with ink and wash. It can match Xu Wei, Shi Tao, and Li, and has a unique appearance. This painting was originally collected by Li Jiafu, and it is even more rare because it was appraised and inscribed with poems by the famous landscape artist Wu Daiqiu (Li Jiafu's son-in-law).

  Picture of Fairy Peach on the Sea, panoramic screen, color on paper, 1873

Flowers, four screens, color on paper (6.0632 million yuan, Sotheby’s Autumn Auction in Hong Kong, October 2005)
    This secondary hall screen is the largest among Zhao Zhiqian's handed down works. A limited number of his paintings have been circulated, and the four screens recorded in the data are even rarer. If every frame of the hall screen is all four feet wide like this copy, there is no one in a hundred. It should be customized and specially painted by the artist. become. The hall screen is painted with peonies, wisteria, red plums and osmanthus trees respectively. The titles of the two frames are taken from each other. The red plum sun is modeled after the Xuehu and Xiaoxia families, namely Liu Shiru and Shen Xiang in the late Ming Dynasty. Both of them were good at writing plum blossoms and had a master-disciple relationship. The wisteria is modeled after Li Wei. Although Yun Shi is a predecessor, he has already combined his own appearance, such as the red plum with the vigorous and strange stones, and the twists and turns of the lines with the meaning of seal script and official brushwork; the wisteria uses the pen to turn randomly, smooth and freehand, showing the unrestrained and unrestrained; the osmanthus uses thick ink and light ink alternately The texture effect of the tree trunks is brought out by the chapped brush, the shape is simple and astringent, and unique and interesting; the peony, longevity and graphite colors are blended together, and the brush and ink are bold and vigorous, showing a strong and old-fashioned spirit. The whole work is a mixture of powerful metalwork and freehand brushwork, which shows the artist's concentration!

Tongyin Qiuyue, vertical scroll, color on paper (3.472 million yuan, published in Beijing in November 2010)
    Zhao Zhiqian's painting of trees does not rely on the strength of his brush strokes, but rather uses the shape and posture of the trunk to express the tree's bending but not bending, bending but not bowing, and the old and vigorous spirit. This painting "Autumn Moon in the Shade of Tung Trees" depicts a towering tung tree, breaking through the picture, and a persevering character emerges vividly on the page. Traditional literati paintings are good at dividing ink into five colors. Since the middle of the Qing Dynasty, many literati painters have begun to try to mix colors and ink in their paintings. How to play the role of color in freehand paintings without losing the elegance of literati has become a new challenge faced by literati painters in the late Qing Dynasty. In this painting, Zhao Zhiqian's colors and inks blend freely, using green grass to represent the tung leaves, ocher to represent the buds, and garcinia to represent the autumn moon. Especially the treatment of the tung tree trunk is a masterpiece. First, light ink is used to distinguish the yin and yang of the trunk, and then garcinia is used to moisturize the part. Then, thick ink is used to paint the tree moss, and the whole trunk is blended with color and ink.

 The beauty of beauty, hand scroll, color on paper

Guihe Xianshou Four Screens (3.3 million yuan, Shanghai Zhongtian, July 2005)
    These four screens are naturally designed to pray for longevity and wealth. The words used in the title and title are elegant and thoughtful. None of the paintings are signed with year marks, which seems to be difficult for Lu to do his best. Therefore, it is relatively pure and elegant, and the atmosphere of books is better than that of metal and stone. It is definitely a rare treasure.

Furong, ink and color on silk, frame (3.32 million yuan, China Guardian, November 2011)
    The flowers in Zhao Zhiqian's paintings are based on ivy and white sun, and are influenced by Futang's painting style. He integrates seal cutting and calligraphy into the paintings. Therefore, the pen and ink are bold and unrestrained, and the ink and color are blended. They are gorgeous but without losing the simple and heavy atmosphere. It is very The charm of gold and stone. Although this painting is said to be "a test of brushstrokes due to illness", the composition is naturally tight, with red flowers and green leaves interlaced, making it eye-catching, which shows that it is full of energy, and the straight lines are as straight as a hair, which is vivid and vivid. Written in the Aya edition, it is extremely rare.

 Flowers, four panels, color on paper, by Ren Shen (1872)

Fruits of the Four Seasons, screen, color on paper
    Zhao Zhiqian's heavy-color freehand flower paintings skillfully combine the brush and ink techniques of literati freehand painting with the coloring principles of Ming and Qing Dynasty's mixed-color freehand flower and black paintings, making them unique and unique. These four screens can be described as his masterpiece. The flowers, fruits and trees painted are rich and colorful in brush and ink. The contrast between density and density in the composition is strong, and the calligraphy on the inscription is also crude and thick, so its style is rich in gold and stone and has a strong personality. The title of one screen: "The biography of hundreds of sons and thousands of houses and wonderful trees, receiving the prime minister's record for ten years. Pseudo uncle." The title of the second screen: "We will live forever for thousands of years. Uncle." The title of the third screen: "The real flowers hang in the autumn, and the rich gold is always there. Midstream. Worked by Uncle Ruo." The title of the four screens is: "Don't hold up the strong man's fist, but hold the Tathagata's arm. Tan Chan faces the sky dragon, and realizes that it is not a finger. Zhiqian is a painting of Lord Zi Pei. In December of the ninth year of Tongzhi. "

    There are so many masterpieces by Zhao Zhiqian, let’s start with these!