"Stone Drum Text" (Figure 1 is a part of the rubbings) is the earliest stone inscription in my country. It was carved on ten drum-shaped stones, so it got its name. There is a four-character poem on each stone, which is about the safari of the king of Qin, so "Shigu Wen" is also called "hunting Jie". The original stone is about three feet high and about two feet in diameter. Because it has been repeatedly destroyed by war and fire, and eroded by wind and rain, it is quite diffuse. One of the stones was chiseled into a mortar in the Song Dynasty, and there is no word on the other stone. According to Guo Moruo's statistics, there are 465 complete characters in "Shiguwen". The lines of "Stone Drum Inscriptions" are more even and rounded than those of Bronze Inscriptions, and the structure of characters is simpler than that of Oracle Bone Inscriptions and Bronze Inscriptions. , The line spacing is wide and balanced, as clear as the stars and the moon in the clear sky, the characters are more than an inch in size, the charm is pure and ancient, strong and vigorous, simple and natural, highly praised by everyone in the past dynasties, and it is an excellent model for starting with seal script. Ming Zhu Jian's "Seal Essentials" said: ""Stone Drum Wen" is the first seal method in ancient and modern times."
In the thousands of years of book history, Wu Changshuo has the most, deepest and most unique study of "Stone Drum Wen". Most of the comments on Wu Changshuo must mention his "Stone Drum Essays". "Stone Drum Essay" fulfilled Wu Changshuo, and in turn, Wu Changshuo also promoted the artistic value of "Stone Drum Essay". From the performance point of view, Wu Changshuo's "Stone Drum Essay" appeared in the form of copying, but few people view his "Stone Drum Essay" from the perspective of appreciating the copy. It should be said that Wu Changshuo's "Stone Drum Essay" is a well-founded creation, which reflects Wu Changshuo's unique understanding of "Stone Drum Essay", which is more creative than imitation. Picture 2 was made by Wu Changshuo when he was 75 years old. It is quite different from the original version of "Stone Drum Literature". It has both a classical form and its own style.
It is specifically manifested in several aspects: the shape of the font has changed from the slightly rectangular shape of the original version to a rectangle, and the aspect ratio is close to the golden section, which is the best structural form; Moving, although the lines are round and firm, they are not sloppy and slippery. They are all solid seal script lines, with a sense of brokenness and a sense of gold and stone; the structure changes from the original straight posture to the uneven posture, and the words are flying, ready to come out ;The division of space breaks the balance, it can be sparse and impenetrable; This is Wu Changshuo's successful attempt to use the past to open up the present. Seal script is a static form, and Wu Changshuo's ability to write seal script with a sense of movement and lyricism has really won the admiration of later generations.
This lecture is mainly about the analysis of strokes. However, the starting and closing strokes of "Shiguwen" are very characteristic and crucial, so the following will first introduce the writing method of starting and closing strokes. In Wu Changshuo's "Stone Drum Essays", the beginning and end of the pen are all natural strokes and strokes, and there are very few deliberate movements against the front, which is not difficult to see from the characters listed in Figure 1. Generally speaking, arc lines in seal script can be written in one stroke or in two strokes. The right half of the U-shaped line in the character "Yu" starts again, reflecting Wu Changshuo's natural strokes. Regarding this point, Ma Zonghuo's "Shayuelou Bi Tan" has many criticisms. He believes that Wu Changshuo used the method of painting Chinese cabbage to write books, and the seal method is sweeping the ground and the village is full of spirit. Its closing strokes are naturally exposed, such as the characters "you", "jun", and "wo" in the second middle school, sometimes forming a standing stroke, such as the upper right half of the strokes of the word "xi".
1 o'clock Most of the dots in Wu Changshuo's "Stone Drum Wen" are thick and powerful, absorbing the characteristics of bronze inscriptions, and have a decorative effect, such as the second character in Figure 3; some have a balancing effect, such as the first character; Make the glyphs appear abnormal, such as the dots in the characters "jian" and "zuo".
2. Horizontal Each horizontal painting has its own style, and the writing process does not pass by one by one, but there are many lifting and pressing movements to produce rhythm changes, as shown in the two characters "one" and "no" in Figure 4; when two horizontal lines appear at the same time, through The length and thickness are changed to avoid similarities, such as the character "Yu"; sometimes absorbing the characteristics of bronze inscriptions, turning the horizontal into dots, such as the character "C". vertical. Wu Changshuo's seal script has the function of supporting the glyph vertically, such as the character "che" in Figure 5. When multiple vertical lines appear, avoid the sameness by changing the severity and radian, such as the three characters "handsome", "yong" and "dai".
3. Arc The arc is an important stroke in seal script, which embodies the meaning of roundness. As shown in Figure 6, it is either curved outward or inward, or has twists and turns, or twists and turns, etc., with graceful shapes.
4. Decorative strokes There are two types of decorative strokes in Wu Changshuo's "Stone Drum Essay", one is the shape of a pattern formed by overlapping circles, as shown in Figure 7; the other type of decorative strokes is a "small Tail", very interesting, as shown in Figure 8. The latter was used with ease in Wu Changshuo's creations, while later scholars such as Deng Sanmu showed artificiality and had the disadvantage of dragging the tail too much, which became a habit.
This lecture is mainly an analysis of the use of ink and the complex and simplified processing of Wu Changshuo's "Stone Drum Essay".
1. Use ink Because the original "Stone Drum Essay" is a stone inscription, the method of using ink is unknown. Wu Changshuo's "Stone Drum Essays" is full of ink and full of flesh and blood. Although most of the ink is thick and heavy, there are subtle differences in movement. There are mainly three types: one is thick ink, bold and unrestrained, like the characters in Figure 1; the second is fine brushwork, like the characters in Figure 2; The three together constitute the rich changes in ink painting.
2. Complex and simplified processing Wu Changshuo's handling of complex and simplified in "Stone Drum Essay" can be summarized as the eight-character principle of "seeing the big in the small, deleting the complex and simplifying it". In layman's terms, characters with few strokes should not be scattered because they are too small; characters with many strokes should not be too bloated. Although the characters in Figure 4 have few strokes, they are not scattered; while the characters in Figure 5 have many strokes and dense knots, but they are dense and dense on the whole without being blocked, which reflects Wu Changshuo's superb handling method.