In ancient times, the Paoxi clan was the king of the world. When looking up, one would observe the phenomena in the sky, and when one looked down, one would observe the laws on the earth. He would observe the patterns of birds and beasts in harmony with the conditions of the earth.
Take all bodies from near, take all things from far away; then I started to make the Eight Diagrams of Yi to hang the image of the constitution. As for the Shennong family, they tied ropes to rule and unified their affairs.
. The common people's business is complicated, and false pretenses are born. Cangjie, the historian of the Yellow Emperor, saw traces of the hooves of birds and animals, and knew that principles could be distinguished from each other, so he first created
Book deed. Hundreds of works are based on Yi, thousands of products are inspected, and all the merits are obtained. "夤, promote it in the king's court", the speaker preaches and makes it clear to the king
When it comes to court, "a gentleman should give money and salary to his subordinates, and if he lives in virtue, he will be taboo".

When Cangjie first wrote books, they were based on pictograms, so they were called wen. Then the shape and sound complement each other, which is called the word. Literary person, object
The origin of Xiang; the character means that it breeds milk and soaks in too much. Written in a book called Zhubo. The book is like this. Up to the time of the Five Emperors and Three Kings
, changed to a different body, and there were two generations in the seventies who were granted the title of Mount Tai, but they were all the same.

Zhou Li: When he entered primary school at the age of eight, Bao Shi taught Guo Zi, starting with the Six Books. One word refers to things. Those who refer to things can be recognized by looking at them.
When it comes to seeing thoughts, "up and down" are the same. The second is pictography. Pictograms are drawn into their objects, and they are interrogated according to the body, such as "sun and moon".
The third is the phonetic sound. The phonetic form is named after something, and the example is used to complement each other, such as "jiang, he". The fourth is understanding. Understand,
By analogy with Heyi, we can see that it refers to "Wu and Xin". The fifth day is transfer. Those who transfer the bet, build a similar poem, agree to accept it,
Kao, Lao" is also. The sixth is to borrow. Those who borrow under the guise have no real purpose at all. They rely on the voice to ask for something. This is "Ling, Chang". and King Xuan
Taishi Zhou wrote fifteen large seal script chapters, which may be different from ancient Chinese prose. As for Confucius's Six Classics and Zuo Qiu Ming's Spring and Autumn Annals, they are all written in ancient prose.
Jueyi can be obtained and said.

After that, the princes were in power and were not unified under the king. If those who dislike rituals and music harm themselves, they should all be removed from their books. Divided into seven kingdoms, the fields belong to different lands
, the cars are painted on different tracks, the laws and regulations are different, the clothes are different, the speech is different, the words are different, and the writing is different. At the beginning of Qin Shi Huangdi's reign, he became the Prime Minister.
Li Si played the same tune, but dismissed those who did not agree with Qin Wen. Si wrote the Cangjie chapter. The CRRC government ordered Zhao Gao to write a love story. Great Shi Linghu
Wu Jing wrote a learned chapter. They are all based on the large seal script of Shi Zhen, or they may have been slightly modified, so-called small seal script.

At this time, Qin destroyed books and eradicated old classics. A large number of officials and soldiers were promoted, and garrison service was established. Officials and prisons had many duties, and at first there were official scripts for fun.
The agreement was changed, and the ancient prose was extinct. Since the Qin Dynasty, there have been eight types of calligraphy: the first is called large seal script, the second is called small seal script, the third is called carved talisman, and the fourth is called "engraved seal script".
Chongshu, the fifth is called copy seal, the sixth is called official script, the seventh is called Shushu, and the eighth is called official script.

There was cursive writing in the Han Dynasty. Wei Lv: The examination begins for schoolchildren over seventeen years old. The 9,000-word satirical book can be regarded as history. Another eight-body test
Of. The county moved to Taishi and incorporated it as a class. The most popular one is Shangshu Shi. If the book is not correct, it will be impeached at any time. Although there are military regulations today, there are no classes.
If you don't practice it, you have been talking about it for a long time.

During the reign of Emperor Xiaoxuan, he summoned Cangjie readers, and Zhang Chang accepted them. Du Ye, the governor of Liangzhou, was a great lecturer in Pei people.
Qin is close and can also be said. During the reign of Emperor Xiaoping, he recruited more than 100 people, including Li, to order Shuo Wenwen to be in the Central Court, and he regarded Li as a primary school scholar.
. Yang Xiong, the minister of Huangmen, adopted it for training and compilation. The following fourteen chapters by Fan Cangjie, and the five thousand three hundred and forty-four words written by Fan Cangjie, are recorded in the group of books.
, save a little bit.

After his death, he was photographed in his new residence and sent to the Department of Documentary Affairs such as Chief Sikong Zhenfeng and others. I thought I should make it, so I changed the ancient text. There are six
Book: One is called ancient prose, which is also the book written on the wall by Confucius. The second is Qi Zi, which is the official script of Qin Dynasty. It was written by Cheng Miao, a native of Xiadu, who was envoyed by the First Emperor of Qin.
The fifth one is called Miao Zhuan, so it is also a copy of the seal. Sixth, it is said that birds and insects write books, so the books and flags are also letters.

The author of the book on the wall was that the King of the Communist Party of Lu destroyed Confucius' house and obtained the Book of Rites, the Book of Documents, the Spring and Autumn Annals, the Analects of Confucius, and the Classic of Filial Piety. Also Beiping Hou Zhang
Cang Xian Chun Qiu Zuo Shi Zhuan. Counties and counties also often found Dingyi in mountains and rivers, and their inscriptions were similar to the ancient inscriptions of previous generations. Although not repeated
Jian Yuanliu, its details can be briefly described.

But most of the people in the world are not stupid, and they think they are curious, so they change the text in a cunning way, and make up unknowable books on the wall of the countryside. Chaos often happens.
, to shine in the world. Scholars competed for word-telling and interpretation of scriptures, and called the official script of Qin the Cangjie Shishu, saying: "It is passed down from father to son, why?"
Gotta change it! Naiwei said: "The horse-headed person is the leader, and the person holding ten is used to fight, and the insect is bent in the middle." Tingwei said that the law is based on the word
Judgment: "If a harsh person accepts money, the word harsh will stop the sentence." If there are many of these, they are all inconsistent with Confucius' ancient prose and are wrong in historical records. rustic
The vulgar Confucians, because of what they are accustomed to, conceal what they hope to hear. I don't see Tongxue, and I don't see the rules of writing. It's strange that he is old and good at wild talk, so he
What I know is a secret, and I will investigate the subtleties of the cave sage. See also "The youngest son accepted the imperial edict" in the Cangjie chapter, because it says: "What the ancient emperor did
, his words are magical. ” It’s not contrary to the fact that he is astray and does not give instructions!

The book says: "I want to see the image of the ancients." The words must be based on the old text without going into detail. Confucius said: "I am still at the end of history.
Wen, my husband is dead now. ” It’s just because he didn’t know and didn’t ask. People use their own selfish interests to make right and wrong unjust, and they skillfully speak evil words, making scholars all over the world doubtful.
Those who cover it with words are the foundation of economics and art and the beginning of royal government. The predecessors look down upon the latter, and the descendants know the past. Therefore, it is said: "The original
And Tao is born. "Knowing that the world is extremely powerful, it is impossible to cause chaos. Today's description of seal script is based on the ancient seal script. Be knowledgeable and knowledgeable, no matter how small or large you are.
Believe it and have proof, and write it down. Classify rationale, explain fallacies, educate scholars, and achieve spiritual enlightenment. They live in separate tribes and don't mix toilets with each other.
All things are seen, and everything is overwhelming. The friendship is not clear, but the love is clear. They are called the Yi Meng family, the Shu Kong family, the Shi Mao family, and the Li family.
Zhou Guan, Chun Qiu Zuo Shi, The Analects of Confucius, and Xiao Jing are all ancient texts. If you don't know what you don't know, it's like a bridge.

Full text translation

Author: Department of Chinese, National Taiwan University Edited by Xu Fuchang
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King Lu Gong demolished Confucius' residence and (unintentionally) obtained ancient Chinese classics such as "Book of Rites", "Shangshu", "Spring and Autumn", "The Analects of Confucius", and "The Classic of Filial Piety". (ancient classics) and "Zuo Zhuan" presented by Beiping Hou Zhangcang. Some counties and vassal states also often unearthed treasure tripods and utensils from previous generations from the ground. Their inscriptions are ancient inscriptions from previous generations. (These ancient writing materials) are very similar to each other. Although they cannot reproduce the complete picture of ancient writings, we can get a rough idea of ​​the situation of ancient writings in the Pre-Qin Dynasty. People in the world are ignorant and try their best to deny and slander ancient Chinese characters. They think that ancient Chinese characters are unknown characters that were forged by curious people who deliberately changed the writing method of current characters and pretended to come from the walls of Confucius' residence. People who support ancient literature) want to use it to show off to the world.

There are many Confucian scholars (who like to rely on conjecture) vying to explain the text and the meaning of the Sutra. They regard the official script that was only available in the Qin Dynasty as the writing of the Cangjie era. What do they say, "Writing is passed down from father to son, where will it change?" They went so far as to say nonsense: "The character for "horse" means a person is long." "A person holding ten means a fight." "The character for insect is the Chinese character for bend." When explaining the law, the executioner went so far as to make assumptions based on analyzing the glyphs. Criminal laws, such as "harsh people receive money" (the original meaning is to prohibit intimidating criminals and asking for bribes, "harsh" is a borrowed word of "ha", but) some people say that the word "harsh" ("stop" at the top, "sentence" at the bottom) "), meaning "stop sentence". There are too many examples like the above, (these explanations) are inconsistent with the ancient characters unearthed in the hole wall, and are contrary to the font of Shi Zhen Dazhuan. Vulgar and superficial people appreciate the things they are familiar with, but are incompatible with rare things. (They) have never seen Hongtong's knowledge, do not know the laws and rules of Chinese characters, regard ancient Chinese classics as heresy, and regard nonsense as truth. , seeing what you know as wonderful. (They) explored the profound meaning of the saint's writings, and saw the sentence "the young son inherited the imperial edict" in the "Cangjie Pian", so they said that the "Cangjie Pian" was written in the Huangdi era, saying that the sentence implies that the Yellow Emperor went to immortality and asked the young son to inherit the edict. The profound meaning of Si. How can they not violate the truth if they are astray?

"Shangshu" records that Emperor Shun said, "I want to see the images drawn by the ancients." These words indicate that when Emperor Shun formulated the system, he would act in accordance with the old codes and not go beyond the details. Confucius said: "I can still see places where there are doubts in the history books." He also said: "(This kind of "skeptical spirit") is gone nowadays! ” (“doubtful”) It’s not that the author himself doesn’t understand and is indifferent, (but he is worried) that if people rely on their own conjectures to interpret ancient historical events, it will lead to uncertainty about right and wrong; clever words and sophistry will bring confusion to the world. The world's learners and researchers create doubts and confusion. Writing is the foundation of hundreds of schools of classics and history, and is the primary condition for the implementation of the royal way. The ancients used it to record their own experiences and pass them on to future generations, who then relied on them to understand ancient history. Confucius said, "The foundation is established and the Tao is born." This is because (establishing the foundation) can enable people to understand the most profound truths in the world and no longer be troubled. Now I describe the seal script, refer to the ancient Chinese and Zhenwen, and learn from the opinions of various schools, so that all my words, no matter how big or small, are conclusive and evidence-based, and I write my own explanation based on the research. I want to use this book to compile all things and identify fallacies, so that students can understand (the origin of words) and understand the wonderful meaning of words. I use the method of separating the radicals and connecting the radicals with the prefixes to organize the text so that they are not confusing. Everything can be seen in this book, and there is nothing that is not covered or recorded. When I encounter something that is difficult for readers to understand, I use metaphors that can explain it. The book mentions Meng Xi's "Book of Changes", Kong Anguo's "Book of Songs", Mao Heng's "Book of Songs", "Zhou Li", "Zuo Zhuan", "The Analects of Confucius", and "The Classic of Filial Piety", etc., all referring to ancient Chinese versions. When I encounter something I don't know, I just ignore it. …

The text "Xu" lists fourteen chapters and five hundred and forty parts. (This book contains Chinese characters) 9,353 words, 1,163 reprints, and a total of 133,441 words of commentary. In the arrangement of radicals in this book, "一" is placed at the beginning, and the arrangement of Chinese characters is carried out according to the principle that if the "type" is the same, things will be grouped together, so that things are divided into groups; those with "the same article" belong to one place, and those with "the same reason" Continuously, the types are arranged in an orderly manner without confusion, and the prefixes are connected one by one according to the glyphs; starting from the character "一", citing and connecting, the origin of tens of thousands of Chinese characters is explored; the " The word "Hai" is listed at the end of the chapter, so we can see that the change has reached its extreme and returned to "one".

At that time in the Han Dynasty, the sage and virtue were as bright as the sun. Emperor Guangwu accepted the destiny and followed the way of Emperor Yao to create great achievements. China and abroad all received the favor of the Han emperor, and this favor was as great as rain and tide. The (royal) government promoted learning and selected talents without neglecting the common people; the scholars knew the essentials of scholarship and conducted profound research (writings), and their insights could be passed on to future generations (so I collected and edited them into this book). This is the first day of the first lunar month in the twelfth year of Emperor Yongyuan of the Han Dynasty.

I am a descendant of the Xu family, and my ancestors should be counted from Emperor Yan and Shennong. The distant ancestor Jinyun assisted the Yellow Emperor, the distant ancestor Gonggong was succeeded by Gao Xin, the distant ancestor Taiyue assisted Xia Yu, and Taiyue's descendant Uncle Lu guarded the Zhou Dynasty, and was entrusted to Xu by the Emperor of Zhou to protect his ancestors. The Xu family has been passed down from generation to generation. Since then, the Xu family moved from Xu to Runan, and my direct descendants have lived by the Ru River.

I admire saints, and I do not presume to want to get close to their door. How tall is the Holy Gate? Like Nanshan Cui Wei. I wanted to give up halfway, but I couldn't. I have exhausted all my stupidity, but unfortunately I have not mastered the "Tao Tao". When I hear the word "suspicious", I can only remember "suspicious". I deduced the meaning of the saint's words and compiled my own superficial opinions. I don't know much about this subject. If there are obvious mistakes, I hope everyone can correct them. 

Introduction to Xu Shen