The development of book contracts began with Emperor Jie; he wrote the traces of birds to finalize the article. At the end of the Yuanji period, the classics became more numerous; the times were secluded and the government had many powers. The official affairs were desolate, and Mo Han was suppressed; but there were many assistants and officials, and the old characters were deleted. The method of cursive writing is simple and simple; it can be used to indicate when the situation is right. Use both functions at the same time, love the day and save effort; the change of pure frugality does not have to be the ancient style. Observe the image of the Dharma, the pitch is correct; the square is not square, and the circle is not regular. Suppressing the left and raising the right, looking at it like a dream. The beasts and birds are determined to fly; the cunning rabbits are so frightened that they are about to run but have not yet galloped. Or ¤¤point¤, like a string of beads; never separated. Animals are angry and depressed, and they are surprised when they let go. Or if Lingsui is worried about the chestnut, if it is close to a high position and is in danger, there will be some evil spots on the side, like a praying mantis hugging a branch. The last stroke is finished, but the remaining knot is tangled; if the mountain bee poisons, you can see the edge of the gap; if the snake flies to the hole, its head is not up and its tail is hanging down. Therefore, if you look at it from a distance, you will see that it is as if it is running towards the shore; if you look at it from afar, you will not be able to move it in one stroke. A few subtleties are important, so take the appropriate measures for the time being. A little bit of a big comparison, just like Ruos.
[Note] "Cursive Script Shi", Cui Yuan (77-142), courtesy name Ziyu, was a native of Anping, Zhuo County (today's Hebei Province). When he was young, he traveled to Luoyang, the capital, and stayed with Zhang Heng, Ma Rong and others, and became the prime minister of Jibei. Cui Yuan's calligrapher Fa Dudu was good at calligraphy and had an important position in the history of calligraphy. He was known as Cui and Du. "Cursive Script Shi" is an article discussing cursive writing techniques, describing it using metaphors. See "Jin Shu Biography Sixth Biography of Wei Heng"
This is the earliest calligraphy paper in the history of our country that has been handed down to this day, and it is about cursive script. Calligraphy is a line art, and cursive writing is particularly representative here. Therefore, this article is extremely precious. After talking about the origin of calligraphy, the article focused on the emergence of cursive script, pointing out that due to the "desertion of official affairs", "official script", which was simpler than the big and small seal scripts, appeared; and "the method of cursive script is simple and simple, and it is recommended according to the time. It is used for pressing and pressing, and it can be used for both functions. It saves labor by loving the sun." This shows that cursive writing was created due to busy political affairs and the need for simple and fast writing. This is realistic. Any kind of art is initially for practicality, and later it is gradually perfected and matured out of aesthetic needs. Cursive writing in the Han Dynasty improved its skills in practice and became a unique calligraphy art, which was finally recognized by society.
The importance of Cui Yuan's "Cursive Script Shi" also lies in the fact that it records his aesthetic feelings about the art of cursive script and treats cursive script as a beautiful art for people to appreciate. The article puts forward an important aesthetic proposition: "Observe the image of the law." Dharma image originally refers to a person's appearance and behavior that conforms to etiquette standards. Borrowed from the intuition of cursive script, it refers to its artistic image that conforms to the law and is unique. Therefore, "viewing its Dharma image" means appreciating the artistic image of cursive script. And the article describes this vividly and concretely. One said, "Suppress the left and raise the right, looking at it as if you are looking at it", which means that the structure of cursive script is different from the symmetry and stability of seal script and official script. One article says, "The beast is lame and the bird is hesitant, but it is determined to fly away; the cunning rabbit is frightened, but it is about to run before it gallops", emphasizing the dynamic beauty of cursive writing. Calligraphy is a space art and is static. The birds and beasts here want to "fly"; the cunning rabbit is suddenly frightened and about to "run", giving people a strong dynamic sense of time art. One article also said, "Or a spider points to a dragonfly, which looks like a chain of beads that never separates." It points out the lower points of cursive script, such as the four points below "Yan" and "Ran", and the strokes also have their own characteristics. One article also said, "If a mountain bee poisons, you will see the edge of the gap; if a snake flies to its hole, its head will be down and its tail will hang down." This highlights the twists, turns, and smoothness of the cursive strokes. These are the special features of cursive writing. Compared with the official seal script and official script of the Han Dynasty, its lines are smoother, freer, more dynamic and full of artistic conception. The gesture of "animal anger and depression" will produce strange scenes if left unchecked. However, after Cui Yuan affirmed these characteristics of cursive script, he also pointed out that the freedom of cursive script is not arbitrary. On the one hand, the article writes that "the square is not square, and the circle is not regular", pointing out that cursive script breaks the restrictions of seal script requiring symmetry and stability; on the other hand, it is written that "just observe it, and it cannot be moved in one stroke", indicating that cursive script is Those who have their own laws and regulations have rules and regularities that "cannot be moved once a painting is drawn". This highly unified requirement for freedom and law, purposiveness and regularity is an important principle of pre-Qin aesthetics in my country. Cui Yuan's aesthetic feeling for cursive calligraphy art once again reflects this point.