The name of Heng is Jushan, and the palace of Prince Sikong Qi was established in Shao. He was transferred to Prince Sheren, Shangshu Lang, Secretary Cheng, Prince Concubine, and Huang Menlang.

  Hengshan's cursive official script, "Si Ti Shu Shi", says:

  In the past, under the Yellow Emperor, he created things. Some people like Ju Chan and Cang Jie began to make written deeds instead of knotting ropes, and covered them with bird tracks to stimulate their thoughts. Therefore, the word "suizhi" has six meanings. The first is referring to things, meaning up and down; the second is pictographic, meaning the sun and the moon; the third is phonetic, meaning rivers; the fourth is knowing meaning, meaning is Wu Xin; the fifth is transferring notes, meaning Lao Kao; and the sixth is false borrowing, meaning commander. also. When the husband refers to something, the one who is above is the top, and the one who is below is the bottom. If the sun is full and the moon is waning, it resembles its shape. The shape-sound ones take the category as the shape and match it with the sound. Those who know what they mean use weapons as weapons and people's words as trust. Those who transfer their bets take old age as a test of their longevity. Borrowers have the same character in several words. Although their sounds are different, the meaning of the text is the same.

  From the time of the Yellow Emperor to the three generations, its writings remained unchanged. During the Qin Dynasty, seal script was used and ancient texts were burned, and the ancient texts were extinct. During the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, King Lu Gong broke into Confucius's house and obtained "Shangshu", "Spring and Autumn", "The Analects of Confucius" and "The Classic of Filial Piety". It is a secret treasure of the Han Dynasty, and it is rare for anyone to see it. In the early Wei Dynasty, the person who transmitted ancient literature came from Chun in Handan, and Heng Zu Jinghou wrote Chun's "Shang Shu", which was later used to show that Chun is not different from Chun. In the middle of Zhengshi, a three-character stone scripture was established, which turned away from the pure method. Because of the name of Ke Dou, it took its shape. In the first year of Taikang, people from Ji County stole the tomb of King Xiang of Wei and obtained more than 100,000 words of policy writings. According to the writings of Jinghou, it still seems to be like. There are several kinds of ancient books, but the one volume that discusses the affairs of Chu is the most ingenious, and I am always pleased with it. Therefore, I have tried my best to praise its beauty, but I feel ashamed that it is not enough to compare with the works of the previous sages, and I hope to preserve the image of the ancients. There was no other name in ancient times, so it was called "Zi Shi".

  In the history of the Yellow Emperor, I recited Cangjie, looked at the bird tracks, and began to write a deed. All things are governed by laws and regulations, and the emperor's canons are used to declare them. Yuanji violently overthrew the Qin Dynasty, wreaking monstrous violence. The great road was lost, and so were the ancient texts. Wei's literature is fond of antiquity, and has been passed down from generation to generation. In the Kaiyuan period of the Jin Dynasty, he preached Taoism and taught, the sky hung down his images, and the earth shone brightly on his writings. His writing is dazzling, his chapters are charming, his sounds are understanding, and his classes are well-organized. The sun is in the position of the king and is full of energy, the moon is in charge of the ministers and is in loss of its side; the clouds are snakes and spread upwards, and the stars are separated to relax the light. Heben* is used to hang down the ying, the mountains are rugged and connected to the hills; the insects are stomping on them, but they are moving, and the birds are flying but not rising. Observe that Qi Cuo's brushwork and ink are meticulous and focused, with balanced momentum and body, and seamless flow and stop. Either keep the rules and follow the rules, follow the rules and regulations, or follow the rules and control the power according to the situation. It is as curved as a bow and as straight as a string. It suddenly stands out like a dragon soaring over the river; it slumps down like rain falling from the sky. Or the pen is strenuously drawn, like a swan flying high, graceful and graceful; or it is graceful and graceful, like tassels and hanging feathers, lingering and lingering. Therefore, if you look at it from a distance, you will see that it is like flying in the wind and clear water, with clear waves; if you look at it from a distance, it will appear as if it is natural. It is believed that the relics of the Huang and Tang Dynasties are the pioneers of the six arts. The seal script is his descendants, and the official script is Zeng Xuan. Seeing things and thinking about them is not something that can be expressed in words.

  In the past, during the reign of King Xuan of the Zhou Dynasty, Shi Zhou began to write fifteen large seal scripts, some of which were the same as those of ancient times, or some were different from those of ancient times. They were called Zhou Shu in the world. When King Ping moved eastward, the princes established their political power, the families were different and the country was different, and the writing was weird. When the first emperor of Qin took over the world, he succeeded Li Si, who was in charge of the affairs of the country, and dismissed those who were not in line with the Qin Dynasty. Si wrote the "Cangjie Pian", Zhongche Mansion ordered Zhao Gao to write the "Yuanli Pian", and Taishi ordered Hu Wuzheng to write the "Boxue Pian". They all took the large seal script from Shi Zang, or made some provincial changes to the so-called small seal script. Or it is said that Cheng Miao, a native of Xia Du, was a government official and offended the First Emperor. He stayed in Yunyang for ten years and changed the big seal script from prison. After reporting it to the First Emperor, the First Emperor was kind to it, and he became the censor, and the envoy made the final decision. Or it can be said that Miao Ding is the official character.

  Since the ancient times of the Qin Dynasty, there have been eight styles of writing: the first is called large seal script, the second is called small seal script, the third is called engraved characters, the fourth is called insect script, the fifth is called copy seal, the sixth is called official script, the seventh is called Shu script, and the eighth is called official script. During the reign of Wang Mang, he sent Sikong Zhenfeng to correct the text department and changed the ancient script to include six books: the first is ancient script, which is the book on the wall of Confucius; the second is Qizi, which is different from the ancient script; the third is seal script, which is Qin seal script. ; The fourth is called Zuoshu, which is the official script; the fifth is called Miao Zhuan, so it is also a copy of the seal; the sixth is called Bird Script, so it is written in flags and letters. When Xu Shen wrote "Shuowen" during the Han Dynasty's ritual wine ceremony, he used seal script as the correct form, thinking that the style was the latest and could be discussed. During the Qin Dynasty, Li Si's name was Gongzhuan, and all mountains and bronze inscriptions were written in this way. In the junior middle school of Han Dynasty, Fufeng Cao liked to be good at seal calligraphy. He was not very different from him, so he was also called good. Master Chun from Handan, after a brief study of its merits, Chun but not as good as Master Wei Dan. During the reign of Taihe, he was born as the prefect of Wudu. He was good at seal script, Caisi, and Xi, and he was good at seal script. Yong Zuo's "Seal Script" says:

  The beginning of calligraphy and painting is due to the traces of birds. Cangjie followed the saints and wrote articles. There are six seal characters in the body, which must be wonderful and fascinating. Some are like turtles, some are like dragon scales. The body is thin and the tail is short, with long wings and short body. It is as droopy as millet and millet, and it is as dense as insects and snakes. The waves are shaking, the eagles and birds are shaking. Extending the neck and cooperating with the wings, the momentum is like flying clouds. Or cast inward with a slight movement, it will be slightly thicker and thicker; if it is disconnected or connected, it will look like exposed silk, hanging down at the lower end. Those who follow are like hanging, those who balance are like weaving. Yaojie is evil, neither square nor round. If it is walking or flying, it is like a crawling duck (xuān). Looking at it from a distance, it looks like a flock of swans traveling in a continuous stream. Looking at it forcefully, you can't see the turbulent water, pointing to the invincible source. Studying mulberry leaves cannot count the grievances and grievances, leaving Lou cannot see the gaps. Ban Tui bowed and gave in and spoke skillfully, and chanted and held his hands in front of him. The first chapter of the book is charming and charming.桔(chī) is more gorgeous than Wan Su, and is a fan of learning arts. Jia Wende's Hongyun is not published by the author. Think about the pitch of the font and discuss it briefly.

  Since the Qin Dynasty used seal script, there were many things to do, and it was difficult to write seal characters, so they ordered officials to assist in writing, which was called "official script". In the Han Dynasty, seals were used for seals, flags, letters, and inscriptions. Those who write official script are the best in seal script. Cizhong, the king of Shanggu, began to write regular script, and when Emperor Ling became a good calligrapher, he had many talents, but Shi Yiguan was the most talented. The big one could be a word in diameter, and the small one could be a thousand words square inch. He was very proud of his ability. Sometimes he went to a restaurant to drink without money, and because he wrote on the wall, he paid attention to the watchers and sprinkled them with him. He calculated that the money was enough and destroyed him. Every book was cut and burned, and Liang Hu was still busy with it, and drank the wine, and when he was drunk, he stole his cup (fū). Hu died and sent the book to the Ministry of Finance. After Yi Guan, he was the general of Yuan Shu. Today, Song Zi of Julu has the "Geng Qiu Stele", which was established by Shu. His book is very skillful, so it is said that it is the book of Yi Guan. Liang swans rushed to Liu Biao, and Emperor Wu of Wei invaded Jingzhou to recruit swans. Huzhi was the chosen unit. Wei Wu wanted to be ordered to Luoyang and was appointed as the northern captain, so he was afraid and tied his own gate. The fake Sima of the army signed a contract with the secretary, and the diligent writing of the secretary was self-effective. Therefore, many people today have the handwriting of a swan. Emperor Wu of the Wei Dynasty hung it in the tent and played with it by nailing it to the wall, thinking that it would be a good match for an official. Most of the inscriptions in the palace today are in swan letters. Hu should be written in big characters, and Handan Chun should be written in small characters. Hu said that Chun was the second best, but Hu used his pen to the best of his ability. Mao Hong, a disciple of Hu, taught him the secret, and he is now spreading the teachings in all eight divisions. At the end of the Han Dynasty, there was Zuo Ziyi, which was different from Chun and Hu, but it was also famous. In the early Wei Dynasty, there were two schools of calligraphy, Zhong and Hu, both of whom learned from Liu Desheng. Zhong's calligraphy was slightly different, but each had its own skill, and it is now popular in the world. "Li Shi" says:

   The change of the bird's trace is just to assist the official, and to avoid the complicated writing, it will be simple from now on. The use of Jue is broad, the body image is measured, radiant like stars, and gloomy like clouds. It has a large diameter, no small details, adapts to the situation, and has regular rules. Some of the vaults are huge, some of the branches are more cracked than needles, some of them are flat and straight, some of them are winding and wild, some of them have evil horns, some of them are twisted and folded regularly. The shorter ones complement each other, and the different bodies have the same potential. Work hard and move lightly, but never leave. The fiber waves are thick and scattered among them. If the bell 簴 (jù the pillar on the stand on which the bell chime is hung in ancient times.) is set up, smoke will fly in the courtyard. The rocks are rugged, high and low, like a high platform and a heavy sky, with layers of clouds crowning the mountain. Looking at it from a distance, it looks like a flying dragon in the sky; looking at it from a close distance, it is confusing and dizzying, its appearance is strange and strange, and it is invincible. There is nothing you can do to study mulberry trees, and there is nothing you can say about slaughtering and bestowing gifts. Why is it that the cursive seal script is enough to calculate, but the elegance and elegance are not announced? How can it be that the body is so big that it is hard to see, and the secrets will not be told? Let's stop and think about it and look at it in detail, and make a big comparison and discuss it.

  Cursive script existed during the rise of Han Dynasty, but the author's name is unknown. At the time of Emperor Zhang, Qi Xiang Dudu was known as a good man. Later called Shan Zuo. Later there were Cui Yuan and Cui Shi, both of whom were also called Gong. Du's "sha" character is "an", but his calligraphy is thin; Cui's style is very good, but his calligraphy is sparse. Hongnong Zhang Boying turned to refine his skills. Every family's clothes and silk must be written and practiced first. Studying calligraphy near the pond, the pond water is exhausted. The writing must be in regular script, and it is often said: "There is no time to write cursive in a hurry." Not even an inch of paper was left behind, but his books are especially treasured to this day. General Wei Zhong called him the "Sage of Grass". Boying's younger brother Wenshu was followed by Boying. There were also disciples of Jiang Mengying, Liang Kongda, Tian Yanhe and Zhongjiang, all of whom were disciples of Boying. They were famous in the world, but not as good as Wenshu. Luo Shujing and Zhao Yuansi were famous in Xizhou at the same time as Boying, but they were so proud of themselves that they were confused by them. Therefore, Boying claimed: "It is not as good as Cui and Du at the top. Luo and Zhao at the bottom are more than enough." Zhang Chao is also famous in Hejian, but although he is from the same state as Cui, he is not as good as Boying in achieving his method. Cui Yuan's "Grass" says:

  The development of book contracts began with Emperor Jie; he wrote the traces of birds to finalize the article. At the end of the year, the classics became more numerous. There are many secluded times and many political powers. The official affairs were desolate, and Mo Han was suppressed; but there were many assistants and officials, and the old characters were deleted. The method of cursive writing is simple and simple; it can be used to indicate when the situation is right. Use both functions at the same time, love the day and save effort; the change of pure frugality does not have to be the ancient style. Observe the image of the Dharma, the pitch and elevation are correct; the square is not in the right direction, and the circle is not in conformity with the rules. Suppressing the left and raising the right, looking at it like a dream. The beasts and birds are determined to fly; the cunning rabbits are so frightened that they are about to run but have not yet galloped. Or swarthy (yǎn black; dim) dots ¤, like beads in a row, never separated. Animals are angry and depressed, and they are unrestrained and strange. Or Lingsui is anxious, if he is in danger at a high place. There is evil attached to the side, like a praying mantis hugging a branch. The last stroke has come to an end, and the rest is tangled. If poison is applied to the mountain peak, you will see the edge of the gap; if the snake flies to the hole, its head will be uncovered and its tail will hang down. Therefore, if you look at it from a distance, you will see that it is as if it is running towards the shore; if you look at it from afar, you will not be able to move it in one stroke. A few details are important, and you should adapt to the situation. A little bit of a big comparison, just like Ruos.

[Note] Wei Heng (?-291), a calligrapher in the Western Jin Dynasty. The courtesy name is Jushan, a native of Anyi, Hedong (now Xia County, Shanxi Province). When he was the minister of Huangmen, he was killed by Empress Jia and others during the reign of Emperor Hui. He was born in a calligraphy family. His ancestor Wei Qian, his father Wei Guan and his niece Wei Shuo were all famous calligraphers. Tao Zongyi of the Ming Dynasty said in his "Shu Shi Hui Yao" that he was good at cursive, Zhangcao, Li, Sanli and other calligraphy styles, but most of the ones seen in the world are his cursive scripts. Li Sizhen of the Tang Dynasty's "Shuhoupin" said that his calligraphy is light and graceful, flowing and charming, strong and vigorous, yet charming and detailed. The second volume of "Chunhua Pavilion Tie" of the Northern Song Dynasty contains two lines of his cursive script.
  Volume 1 of "Four Body Calligraphy Movements" is Wei Heng's calligraphy theory work. The original text is included in "The Sixth Biography of Jin Shu Biography of Wei Heng". It is one of the earliest and relatively reliable important calligraphy theories in the world and has high historical value. . Most of the information about various calligraphy styles at that time, the evolution of calligraphy history, and the situation of some calligrapher representatives depend on this book to be preserved.