Yan Zhenqing's "Twelve Meanings of Zhang Changshi's Brushwork" Ming rubbings (biography), each 28 cm long and 15 cm wide, collected by Duoyunxuan, Shanghai


I left Zhiliquan and went to Dongluo. I visited Zhang Gongxu, the chief historian of Jinwu, and asked him to learn brushwork. Chang Shi stayed at Pei Zhen's house for a year. There were many teachers who asked Mr. Zhang for his brushwork skills, and some of them said they were wonderful. I was studying with Mr. Zhang in Chang'an, but he was not taught the way. When people asked about calligraphy, Zhang Gong laughed loudly, and wrote in cursive on three or five sheets of paper. I will travel to Luoding again, and I will never leave you when I see you. A servant asked Pei Zhen, "What do you get from being a teacher and respecting a long history?" He said, "I just got a few copies of calligraphy on silk screens. I don't want to discuss the brushwork, but I just said that you should learn to practice calligraphy by doubling it."

The servant stayed at Pei Zhen's house for more than a month. Because he and Pei Zhen had parted ways with Chang Shi, he returned to Chang Shi Qian to ask: "Since I have received the reward of nine feet, the sun and the moon have nourished me, I have worked hard day and night, and I have indulged in calligraphy. It spreads far and wide, but it has never been stable. If one learns the secrets of brushwork, he will eventually become a teacher and learn it, hoping to become better at it. How can he be grateful for Dai Zhizhi's sincerity!" Chang Shi did not say anything for a long time, but looked around, and he stood up in fear. . The servant returned from the trip to the small hall of Dongzhulin Courtyard. Zhang Gongnai sat on the bed in the hall and ordered the servant to sit on the small couch. He said: "Calligraphy is mysterious and difficult to teach. If you are not a person with high ideals, you can't say its key points." ?The book asks for talents and attacks the real grass. Now that it is granted, you need to think carefully."

Nai said: "Fupping means horizontal, do you know that?" Pusi replied: "I heard that every time the nine-foot order of Changshi is a flat painting, there must be images vertically and horizontally. Isn't this what it means?" Changshi laughed and said : "ran".

He also said: "If you are straight, you mean vertical. Do you know this?" He said: "Doesn't it mean that if you are straight, you must be vertical and not make evil twists?" Chang Shi said: "Yes."

He also said: "It's all called "Jian", do you know it?" He said: "Have you ever been told that "Jian" doesn't allow light to be said?" Chang Shi said: "Yes".

He also said: "Defense refers to the occasion, do you know it?" He said: "Isn't it true that Zhu Feng and his pen are all made to be successful and not to be neglected?" Chang Shi said "Yes".

He also said: "The front is called the end, do you know that?" He said: "Don't you mean that the end is used to complete the painting and make the front strong?" Chang Shi said: "Yes."

He also said: "Strength refers to the body, do you know that?" He said: "Isn't it called Qiao? The brushes, stipples and paintings all have muscles and bones, and the handwriting is natural and majestic." Chang Shi said: "Yes, '.

He also said: "Do you know that turning lightly means twists and turns?" He said: "Doesn't it mean that the hook pen turns the corner, and the folding edge passes lightly, and it also means that the corner turns darkly?" Chang Shi said: "Yes."

He also said: "The decisiveness is called pulling and pulling, do you know this?" He said: "Don't you mean that the pulling and pulling is thrown away, and the sharp edge is blunted, so that it is not timid and sluggish, and the dangerous formation is made, how can we call it decisive?" Chang Shi said: "Of course".

He also said: "Do you know what it means to make up for the deficiency?" He said: "I have heard from Chang Shi that if the structure of stipple painting is uninteresting, then I can use other dot painting to make up for it?" Chang Shi said: "Yes. ".

He also said: "Damage means there is more than enough, do you know that?" He said: "After tasting what I was taught, doesn't it mean that the interest is long and the pen is short, and the long-term use of spirit and energy is more than enough, but the painting is insufficient?" He said: "Yes."

He also said: "Cunning means arrangement, do you know it?" He said: "Don't you mean that if you want to write, you must first anticipate the layout of the character shapes and make them stable, or unexpectedly create them, causing them to have different trends. Is this called cleverness?" He said: "But then. ".

He also said: "Do you know what the names of big and small are?" He said: "I have heard from Professor, don't you think that big characters make them smaller, and small characters make them bigger, and make them dense, so they are called?" Chang Shi said: "Yes. , Zi’s words are quite close. If you work diligently, you will be able to write a wonderful pen."

Zhenqing came to ask: "Fortunately, I have been taught the art of writing by Jiuzhang, the chief historian. I dare to ask how the art of writing is as good as that of the ancients." Zhang Gong said: "The beauty lies in holding the pen, making it round and smooth, and not making it tense. . The second is to know the method, which means to pass down the secrets orally and hand-taught. Don't use too much, which is also called the brushwork. The second is to arrange it, neither slow nor overstepping, and to use it skillfully and appropriately. Secondly, the paper and pen are fine. Secondly, the changes should be appropriate, and the control should be given. There are rules. The five are ready, and then you can be on par with the ancients."

He said: "I dare to ask Chang Shi Shen Yong's theory of writing. Can you hear it?" Chang Shi said: "I taught you the writing method. I got it from my old uncle Yan Yuan, who said: I used to study calligraphy, and although I was very good at it, I couldn't make any achievements. Extraordinary. Later, I asked Chu Henan, saying: "The pen should be used like sealing mud." After thinking about it, I didn't realize it. Later, I met the flat sand and quiet ground on Jiangdao, which made me want to write. I occasionally used sharp drawing to write. It's strong and dangerous, bright and charming. From then on, I realized that using the brush is like a cone to draw on the sand, hiding the sharp edge, and the painting is calm. When using the brush, I always want to let it penetrate the back of the paper. This is the ultimate achievement. That's it. When using a brush on real grass, it is as clear as painting on sand. If the dot painting is pure and beautiful, then the way is perfect. In this way, the traces will last for a long time and will naturally be on par with the ancients. However, if you think about this principle and focus on the function, you should not act rashly in the dot painting. His son is a scholar."

I then thanked him, walked around, bowed again, and then retreated. From then on, I got the secret of attacking books. In the past five years, Zhencao knew it was ready.

It is straight, even and dense, the sharp force can turn it into a decision, and it is cleverly called the twelve meanings to repair the damage. Yan Zhenqing's account of the ninth month of Bingxu in the fifth year of Tianbao

Appendix "Calligraphy" magazine Wang Zhuanghongwen: Ming rubbings of Yan Shu's "Twelve Meanings of Zhang Changshi's Painting"

The calligraphy style of the Tang Dynasty, in the early Tang Dynasty, was characterized by elegance, elegance, elegance and elegance, but it changed in the middle Tang Dynasty. Zhang Xu has a long history of creating Kuangcao, with weird and unrestrained shapes, and his writing after being drunk is especially mysterious and unpredictable. Yan Zhenqing, the minister, learned from Zhang Xu about his writing techniques. His main script is majestic, with silkworm heads and wild goose tails that are unique. His writing style is as powerful as melted gold pouring down the ground. His writing style is easy to turn from opposite to opposite, and his writing style is easy to converge to widening. His characters are broad and full of loyalty. With a majestic air, his rough and bold body swept away the trend of fashionable delicacy and elegance, which was refreshing to the ears and eyes. Later generations praised it as Lu Gong's reform, but what changed was actually the brushstrokes and style. Both of these two families are dedicated to innovation, meritorious service to calligraphy, and deep study of calligraphy. How can you do whatever you want without being proficient in writing skills? Therefore, if you want to develop, you can only innovate, and if you want to innovate, you can only inherit. This is also the only way through the ages.

Hearing that Zhang Xu learned his writing skills from his old uncle Lu Yanyuan, he expounded the Eight Methods and Five Powers profoundly, and then taught the method again to Yan Zhenqing. Yan taught Fa and Huai Su, Huai Su said in his own words: "Xi and Xian surrendered, Yu and Lu succeeded each other, and the formula was taught by hand to Zhang Xu, the chief official of Wu County. Although his appearance and temperament are elegant, he is beyond the ancient and modern... When Zhenqing was young, he often visited When he was living there, he was repeatedly inspired and taught him the art of brushwork." Therefore, it has been handed down that Zhang Xu taught Yan's twelve meanings of brushwork.

In the second year of Tianbao's reign (743), Yan Zhenqing of the Tang Dynasty dismissed Li Quanwei and went to Luoyang to visit Zhang Xu, the chief historian, and stayed at Pei Jian's house to teach him. In the fifth year of Tianbao's reign, he left Chang'an Wei and visited Pei Zhen's house again to ask about Chang Shi's writing techniques. He was dictated by Chang Shi, so he wrote "Reporting the Twelve Meanings of Chang Shi's Writing Techniques". However, it has only been found in literature, and few written records have been circulated. In the autumn of 1965, I saw an ancient rubbing, which was very refined and beautiful. The brush strokes were like a dragon soaring and a snake moving. It was very similar to "Zheng Si Tie". After examining it, it is from Lu Gong's "Twelve Meanings of the Writing Method of Long History". Examining the paper and ink, it seems that they were made four hundred years ago. The joy is indescribable. That is to say, they are compared with the texts handed down from ancient times, and there are gains and losses from each other. So he regarded it as a treasure and hid it in the Duoyunxuan library. After more than 20 years, it has finally been revealed, and readers of this magazine can enjoy it together.

According to the year of the Tuo Mo Xin Office, it is presumed that it was written when Lu Gong was thirty-eight years old, six years before "Duobao Pagoda", twelve years before "Ji Nephew Manuscript", eighteen years before "Zheng Si Tie", handed down to Lu There is no public handwriting found earlier than this year. However, Tianbao Jianyuan changed "year" to "zai" and signed it "Tianbao five years". The writing is not as refined as Lu Gong's other books, or it may be that later generations imitated Lu Gong's writing. However, looking at his Qi movements, they are scattered and strange, like melting gold pouring down the ground. Although there are one or two immature pens, it is definitely not something that people after Wen and Dong can imitate. Many of the articles are also different from the original ones handed down from ancient times, and are not recorded according to the original notes. comparable. We regard "Epitaph of Princess Runan" by Yu Shinan and "Yin Fu Jing" by Chu Suiliang as both rare art treasures. Reading this volume is of great benefit to the discussion of calligraphy and the study of writing techniques.

According to the "Twelve Meanings", there are still two types that were engraved in the collections of Qing people. One is Jing De Yao Xue Jing's "Dharma Book of the Eight Great Masters of the Tang and Song Dynasties", and the other is Jiang Mei's "Zhisitang Dharma Notes". At the back of the Zhisitang book are postscripts by Mi Fu, Xu Heng, Zhao Mengfu, and Ni Yunlin. Like Yan Shu, they are both fake and evil letters. Compared with this ancient rubbing, the calligraphy and engraving techniques of Yao and Jiang are vastly different.