Ke Jiusi (1290-1343?) was named Jingzhong, also known as Danqiusheng, and also known as Wuyun Pavilion official. A native of Xianju, Taizhou (now part of Zhejiang Province). Fu Qian, who served as a reviewer of national history in the Hanlin Academy and promoted Confucianism in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, was a relatively prominent official in Xianju in the Yuan Dynasty. In the first year of Dade (1297), he moved to Qiantang (now Hangzhou) with his father. In the first year of Yanyou (1314), he used his father's influence to supplement the Huating County captain, but he failed. He has been fond of calligraphy and painting since he was a child. He is extremely intelligent and is regarded as a child prodigy. In the first year of Tianli (1328), Ke Jiusi traveled to study Jiankang Classics and was introduced to him by King Huai Tutemu'er. Soon King Huai succeeded to the throne and proclaimed himself emperor, Wenzong. Ke Jiusi was awarded the position of the governor of Dianrui Academy (the seventh rank, in charge of auspicious treasures and ceremonial jades). In the second year of Tianli, Emperor Wenzong of the Yuan Dynasty imitated the academic system of Song Dynasty Pavilion, and Ke Jiusi was promoted to the doctor of calligraphy in Kuizhang Pavilion (the fifth grade), specifically responsible for the appraisal of epigraphy, calligraphy and painting collected by the palace. All ancient artifacts, calligraphy and paintings collected in the inner palace were ordered to be appraised by Ke Jiusi. Among the works that were appraised by him and included in the imperial palace were Wang Xianzhi's "Duck Head Pills", Yu Shinanlin's "Lanting Preface", Yang Ningshi's "Leek Flower Tie", Su Shi's "Hanshi Tie", etc. The emperor specially "granted a dental seal to pass through the forbidden office". Together with Yu Ji and Jiexisi, he was a representative figure of Kuizhang Pavilion in Wenzong era. Later, due to the jealousy of the imperial bureaucracy and the death of Emperor Wenzong, Ke Jiusi dressed up and returned south, retreated to Wuxia, and lived in Songjiang (now part of Shanghai).

Ke Jiusi was erudite and capable of poetry and prose; he was good at calligraphy, and he was capable of elevating elegance and eliminating vulgarity. It is known as the three masterpieces of poetry, calligraphy and painting. His paintings are famous for their "spiritual resemblance" and he is good at painting bamboo. Influenced by Zhao Mengfu, he advocated using calligraphy into painting. He once said: "Use seal script to write stems, cursive calligraphy to write branches, eight points to write leaves, or Lu Gong's brush strokes. The leftover meaning of broken hairpin strands on wood and stone, and traces of leaks in the house." Ke Jiusi collected many calligraphy works of Wei and Jin people, such as "Cao E's Poems" written by Jin people, and also some fine works of Song people, such as Su Shi's "Dark Clouds in the Sky" and Huang Tingjian's "Movement and Stillness" etc., many famous paintings and calligraphy works that have been authenticated by him have been passed down to this day. His calligraphy incorporates the charm of the Wei and Jin people in addition to Ouyang Xun's calligraphy. It has a strict structure, peaceful and elegant handwriting, and a strong and upright elegance. It is deeply influenced by Zhao Mengfu's admiration for Jin people's view of calligraphy. As Wang Wenzhi, a native of the Qing Dynasty, said: "Danqiu's calligraphy style imitates the father and his son, and strives to be vigorous and powerful. At first glance, it is known that it is a Yuan Dynasty calligraphy, and it reflects the times." Xingkai is his specialty, and his surviving calligraphy includes " "Ode to the Old Man", "Reading the Poem of Killing Mosquitoes", "Retitled Orchid Pavilion Dugu Edition", etc.



Ke Jiusi's "Ci of Shangjing Palace" on paper 30.9X53cm Collection of Princeton University Art Museum, USA

The volume of "Shangjing Palace Ci" is 53 cm long and 30.9 cm wide. It has been exported overseas and is now in the collection of the Museum Affiliated to Princeton University in the United States. Predecessors have long pointed out that there was no regular script in the strict sense after the Song Dynasty. Although this volume sometimes has a running script style, it can still be regarded as regular script.

The author's pen strokes are full of elasticity, and the place where he enters the paper is quite similar to the famous epitaph of Zhang Xuan in the North Monument. It is handsome yet steep, yet peaceful yet contains strength. Most of the straight points are short and vertical, which is closely related to the meaning of the word "Ju" in "Lanting Preface"; although the horizontal strokes are not wavy, they are mostly written in official script, and are quite similar to Chu Suiliang's calligraphy style. The combination of the "clear sky and clear air" charm of "Lanting Preface", the beauty of Chu Suiliang's "Yaotai Spring Forest" and the handsome brushwork of Zhang Xuan's epitaph are the natural expressions of Ke Jiusi's careful observation of the calligraphy of previous generations.

The glyphs may be long or flat, with flat being the most common. The long characters are in a vertical position, upright but not slack, while the flat characters are in a horizontal position, solid but not rigid. They have the physique of Zhong Yao's "Rong Lu" and "Xuan Xian" posts, and Su Dongpo's calmness like "a toad crushing a stone" close. What is particularly worth mentioning is that although the long characters and the flat characters show off their different postures, they are harmonious and harmonious, reflecting the diversity and unity of beauty.

The pace is peaceful throughout. The four-character title "Shangjing Gong Ci" has a uniform and slow rhythm, graceful and elegant, long and clear, which is in line with the artistic conception of "Gong Ci". The writing rhythm of the main text is also the same as the four-character title, which has a royal atmosphere. However, the author paid great attention to local changes under the premise of unifying the main tone, such as the word "Fu", "Duo", "Leng", "Xi", "Du", and "Xia" to refer to the cursive writing style. The characters for "summer", "piao", "gao", "ri", "you", "li" and "禾" are thickened to accentuate the change in ink color, while the glyphs are more Using long and flat forms interchangeably, these changes ripple on the "peaceful" water, which is in line with the content of "Shangjing Gong Ci". The micro-stimulation they produce is exactly in line with the mentality of the characters "Nine Levels" and "Thousand Officials" in the mark. Therefore, we can say that Ke Jiusi had a deep understanding of the meaning of the words when he wrote the volume "Shangjing Palace Ci". As a "doctor of calligraphy", although he sometimes thinks actively, he will never have less "leisure". Because of this, this calligraphy should also be the "mental painting" of Ke Jiusi, one of the "Thousand Officials" . However, the reflection of state of mind in calligraphy and painting is vague after all. The peaceful rhythm of "Nine Layers" is confused with "Thousand Officials", and the leisure of "temple" is difficult to distinguish from the leisure of "mountain and forest". Because of this, no matter how erudite or good-looking a person is, , we can only say that Ke Jiusi's paintings are indescribable because they are like escapism but not escapism, like spirit but not spirit. Of course, this is especially true for the more abstract calligraphy.