Ni Yuanlu (1593-1644), courtesy name Ruyu and nickname Hongbao, was born in Shangyu, Zhejiang and was a famous calligrapher and painter in the Ming Dynasty. In the second year of Tianqi (1621), he became a Jinshi. Li Guan went to the household and was the Minister of the Ministry of Rites. In the last years of Chongzhen, Li Zicheng was trapped in the capital and hanged himself. King Fu was given the posthumous title Wenzheng, and King Qing was given the posthumous title Wenzhen.

In the seventh year of Tianqi (1627), he served as the chief examiner of the Jiangxi Provincial Examination. At that time, the eunuch Wei Zhongxian monopolized the government and corrupted the rules and regulations. Yuan Lu ridiculed him by publishing the examination questions. When Sizong came to the throne, Wei Zhongxian was executed, and Yuan Lu was spared.

Yuan Lu failed to meet the expectations of the times, but she gradually gained more importance. Si Zong wanted to use her, but she was deeply disliked by villains because of this, and she was slandered and returned home. From then on, Yuan Lu knew that government affairs were beyond her control, and she never wanted to pursue an official career. In the fifteenth year of Chongzhen (1642), when she heard that Qing soldiers had entered Beijing, Beijing was shaken and she asked for help from all over the world. Yuan Lu resolutely spent all her family property to recruit soldiers, recruited hundreds of dead soldiers, and rushed to Beijing. He also told Si Zong how to defeat the enemy. Si Zong worshiped him as the Minister of the Ministry of Household Affairs and regretted not being able to use it as soon as possible. In March, Li Zicheng fell into Beijing. On the day the city fell, Yuan Lu dressed up and bowed before Que, saying: "It is my duty to die to thank my country. Do not bury me after I die, otherwise my body will be exposed outside to express my inner sorrow." Then she hanged herself.

Yuan Lu is good at calligraphy and painting. His calligraphy studies were conducted by Yan Zhenqing. Wu Dexuan of the Qing Dynasty commented in "Essays on Calligraphy at Chuyuelou": "No one in the Ming Dynasty could learn more about Duke Lu than Duke Ni." His writings were inspired by Lu Gong's thick and vigorous writing style, but became more vigorous and steeper, and the structure tended to be flat. Fang, showing the trend of leaning sideways, using danger to balance the upright, the style is strange and stubborn, and it became a style of its own in the late Ming Dynasty. The cursive writing style is ancient and vigorous, with ups and downs of characters, thick spacing of words, wide spacing of lines, and emphasis on rhythm changes. The calligraphy is famous for its spirit and strength. Qin Zuyong said in "Tongyin Theory on Painting": "Yuan Lu's calligraphy is graceful and wonderful, and his cursive writing is especially elegant." Kang Youwei once commented: "Everyone in the Ming Dynasty is good at cursive calligraphy, and Ni Hongbao's new theory and philosophy are especially unusual." The handed down works include "Wu Crane Fu" "Volume", "Scroll of Poems in Running Script", "Scroll of Poems in Jinshan", etc. He is the author of "Children's Intentions and Internal Instruments" and "Ni Wenzhen Collection".


Zi Shu Diju Poetry Axis