Sima Guang (1019-1086), whose courtesy name was Junshi, was known as Mr. Sushui in the world. A native of Sushui Township, Xia County, Shaanxi Province (now Xia County, Shanxi Province). In the early Yuan Dynasty of Renzong Baoyuan (1038), he was a Jinshi in Jiake, except Fenglilang. At the end of Renzong's reign (1036), he moved to Tianzhang Pavilion to wait for the system and also became known as the Jianyuan. During the reign of Emperor Yingzong (1046-1067), he entered Longtuge and became a bachelor. In the third year of Zhiping, eight volumes of "Tongzhi" were presented to the emperor. Yingzong liked it and ordered a bureau secret pavilion to be set up to continue his book. Shenzong named it "Zizhi Tongjian". Wang Anshi came to power and implemented new laws. The old party represented by Sima Guang continued to oppose the new laws, forcing Wang Anshi to resign as prime minister. Zhezong came to the throne, and at the beginning of Yuanyou (1086), he paid homage to Shang Yizuo Pushe and served as his servant, so he abolished the new law and restored the old system of Xia, which was called "Yuanyou Genghua". He died at the age of sixty-eight. Presented to the Grand Master and Duke Wen, with the posthumous title Wenzheng.

  There are 294 volumes of "Zizhi Tongjian" written by Guang, starting from the 23rd year of King Weilie of the Zhou Dynasty (403 BC) to the 6th year of Xiande of Emperor Shizong of the Later Zhou Dynasty (959). In addition to the seventeen histories, the materials are drawn from, There are also 322 families of unofficial histories, anthologies, and other books. Guang Ziyun compiled this book by "reading through old history, reading novels, and accumulating slips and slips, as vast as a sea of ​​smoke." The book is full of historical facts, and the historical facts are systematic and comprehensive. In addition, he also wrote "Ji Gu Lu", "Sushui Ji Wen", etc., and poems and essays include "Sima Wenzhenggong Collection".

  Not many calligraphy works of Sima Guang have survived. His calligraphy is thin, strong and square, and every stroke is very regular. Even if it is a long and large piece, he is not sloppy. Such a dignified writing style is similar to his honest and rigorous personality.

  Sima Guang used Zhengshu and Lishu as his main calligraphy styles, and Zhengshu was more common than Lishu. The characteristics of its official script are: clear strokes and strokes, regular and flat structure, and the intention and shape of the official script at the entry and exit of the horizontal stroke, which is obviously integrated into the tradition of official script. The characteristics of official script are: its purity is not as good as that of Han official script, and its beauty is not as good as that of Tang official script. However, its writing style is square and sharp, its strokes are deep and strong, and its structure is mostly vertical. Although the font is small, it is powerful and powerful. The turning points are sharp and sharp, combining hardness and softness. The lines intersect with straight arcs, which is very beautiful in its simplicity. In addition to the legal system, it also has the meaning of regular script. It does not have the shortcomings of fatness that are common in Tang Dynasty officials. It has an angry but not intimidating style. (Tang Dongdong's article in "China Cultural Relics News")

  Sima Guangzhi's achievements in calligraphy are mainly due to his knowledge and appreciation of calligraphy, painting, epigraphy and stone. Based on his personal imagination, he learned from the best of many schools of thought and integrated the roundness and vigor of Qin seal script, the solemnity of Han Li and the style of Jin people. The combination of Yun and Tang's regular script creates a distinct personal appearance and style, which is undoubtedly unique in Song calligraphy.

  Huang Tingjian once commented in "Lun Shu": "Wen Zhengzheng's writing is not very good, but his legal system is extremely vigorous, just like his life. The so-called left criterion, right rule, sound as law and body as measure. Looking at his writing, you can imagine his Style." Huang Tingjian is a master of his generation who attaches great importance to the charm of his works. To be highly praised by him shows that Sima Guang's calligraphy achievements are indeed extraordinary. Emperor Gaozong of the Song Dynasty also said: "The characters in Sima Guang's official script are really like those of the Han people, which are not the same as those of Mi Fu in recent times. I have five volumes of Guang's official script, and I can't stop playing with his characters day and night."