Lanting eight pillars

      On the first pillar, there is a copy of Yu Shinan, a calligrapher in the early Tang Dynasty; on the second pillar, a copy of Chu Suiliang; on the third pillar, a copy of Feng Chengsu; on the fourth pillar, The engraving is the original "Lanting Poem" written by Liu Zongyuan, a famous writer in Tang Dynasty; the fifth pillar is engraved with the original "Lanting Poem" written by Liu Gongquan, a famous calligrapher in Tang Dynasty; Yu Minzhong repaired the Lanting Que pen written by Liu Gongquan; on the seventh pillar, Dong Qichang, a Ming calligrapher and painter, was engraved with the "Lanting Poem" written by Liu Gongquan; Wrote "Lanting Poems".

The eight pillars of the Lanting Pavilion and the Orchid Pavilion stele are all old objects of the "Sitting on the Stone and Facing the Stream" pavilion in the Old Summer Palace, and are now an important part of the "Scenery from Heaven" pavilion in Zhongshan Park.

[Orchid Pavilion Preface Eight Columns First Yu Shinan]

 [Chu Suiliang, the second of the Eight Columns of Lanting Preface]

[Orchid Pavilion Preface Eight Pillars Third Feng Chengsu]

【Chu Suiliang's coming to the yellow silk edition】

Ding Wu Lanting Preface

     "Lanting" emerges from concealment, and it is the most famous Dharma book in the world, thanks to Li Shimin, Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty. The original work of "Lanting" was buried in Zhaoling, and the original work will never be extinct, which is its fault. At that time, Emperor Taizong ordered to copy "Lanting", and gave it to the crown prince, the kings, and eight people including Fang Xuanling, a close minister. There were more than ten copies. The appearance of "Lanting".

      Some people say that as long as Zhaoling is excavated, the original "Lanting" can be seen again. However, Zhaoling Mausoleum was robbed and excavated in the early 10th century. "New History of the Five Dynasties: Wen Tao Biography" records: Houliang Town, who was born as a robber, entered Wen Tao into the mausoleum. He saw stone beds on both sides of the main bedroom. It is an iron box, and I have collected the books of the previous life. The paper and ink of Zhong (you) and Wang (Xizhi) are as good as new. Tao took them and passed them on to the world." Ouyang Xiu said that Wen Tao only valued money, and "picked out all the calligraphy and paintings in Zhaoling's collection of scrolls and gold jade and discarded them." This is dead."

     In the era of Emperor Taizong's great-grandson Xuanzong, "Lanting" has been spread in the world. Wu Ping, a man of the time, tracked down the source: "Puche stole the extensions, so it was passed on to the outside world." Thompche was a humble court extensionist, and he dared to give more extensions in private, which is unbelievable. But Wu Dao made clear a fact: the "Lanting" handed down in the world comes from the court copy. All kinds of ancient editions of "Lanting", without exception, maintain the style of 28 lines, with the same style and style. This phenomenon shows that the "Lanting" handed down from generation to generation originated from a common ancestor.

The "Lanting" circulated in the Tang and Song dynasties became less and less with the passage of time. Among the famous ink-stained copies of "Lanting" seen today, the top three are Yu Shinan's copy, Chu Suiliang's copy, and Feng Chengsu's facsimile, all of which belong to the collection of the Palace Museum in Beijing. This ranking was arranged by Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty, and it was combined with other related orchid pavilions into eight types, which were engraved on the eight stone pillars of the "Sitting Stone Linliu Pavilion" in the Summer Palace (relocated to Zhongshan Park in Beijing in the 20th century). The first, second and third of the "Eight Pillars of Lanting Pavilion" are called "Lanting Eight Pillars" in sequence. "Lanting" engraved version, "Dingwu version" is the most famous, Song people said that Ouyang Xun copied Shangshi according to the original work of Youjun. These four famous books of "Lanting" do not have the name of the writer, and each name has a story of coronation.

Yu Shinan Linben

    This piece of white linen paper is 24.8 cm long and 57.5 cm wide. The two papers are spliced, and the seam is between 14 and 15 lines, and the lines are evenly spaced. It has been mounted repeatedly in the past dynasties, and the ink color is dull. At the end of this painting, there is a line of small characters titled "Minister Zhang Jinjie Slave Makes Progress", known as "Zhang Jinjie Slave Ben". Mrs. Zhang is from Wanping, and her humble name is "Jinjienu", which means slave of the monk's family. He was in charge of the craftsmen of dyeing and weaving in the Yuan Dynasty, and in charge of the construction of Kuizhang Pavilion during the reign of Emperor Wenzong of Yuan Dynasty. The first volume of this volume is engraved with the "Treasure of Tianli" seal of Yuan Wenzong, also known as "Tianli Lanting".

     During the Ming Dynasty, this "Lanting" was popular among the people, and it was owned by the great collector Wu Ting in the late Ming Dynasty. Wu Ting, whose name is Yongqing, was born in She County (now Huizhou District, Huangshan City, Anhui Province) and was born in Shexian County (now Huizhou District, Huangshan City, Anhui Province). Wu Ting made friends with literati and calligraphers, and once lent this "Lanting" to Dong Qichang, and claimed it back on New Year's Eve in the 26th year of Wanli (1599). After being collected by Dong Qichang, it was transferred to Mao Yuanyi (Zhisheng), a Confucian general in the late Ming Dynasty, in the forty-sixth year of Wanli (1618). In the early Qing Dynasty, it was acquired by Liang Qingbiao, a great collector, and then entered the inner palace of the Qing Dynasty. There are two inscriptions and postscripts by Emperor Qianlong, one of which was written in the twelfth year of Qianlong (1747).

      This "Lanting" is called "Yu Shinan Linben", which originated from Dong Qichang. When he ceded Mao Yuanyi, he wrote an inscription and postscript, including the phrase "this volume looks like Yongxing came". When Liang Qingbiao (Jiaolin, 1620-1691) mounted it, he inscribed the label "Tang Yu Yongxing Linyi Tie" and pasted it on the front of the volume. "Yongxing" is the title of Yu Shinan, a calligrapher in the early Tang Dynasty. Emperor Qianlong liked this famous title. The inscription said that "Dong Qichang was designated as Yu Yongxing's imitation", and he also found a reason for Dong Qichang's rhetoric, "Because it is different from Chu (Suiliang) outside the law. Shen Yun also." However, appraisal experts did not believe Dong Qichang's words. Weng Fanggang (1733-1818), an appraisal expert in the Qing Dynasty, wrote an article "Sumi Zhai Lanting Kao", and believed that "the slave books of Yingshang and Zhang Jinjie are all descendants. Those who know a little about calligraphy, brush and ink, don't copy it." Qi Gong had read the original volume many times, agreed with Weng Fanggang's theory, and then suspected that this book "was written by the people of Song Dynasty according to Ding Wuben". However, the scholars' "exquisite knowledge" was no match for the common sayings of the previous dynasty, and the world still called this book "Yu Shinan's Lin's Book".

Chu Suiliang's copy

    This light yellow paper is 24 cm long and 88.5 cm wide. It is also splicing of two papers, the seams are between 19 and 20 lines, and the lines are evenly spaced. There are 10 lines of poems inscribed by Mi Fu on the back paper, so it is also called "Poems Inscribed by Mi Fu". The poem said: "In the late spring of the ninth year of Yonghe, the mountains of internal history flourished. The sages sang and chanted, and the narrations were unreasonable. The rewriting of love is not as good as it is, and God's help remains as the eternal law. Twenty-eight lines There are hundreds of characters, most of which have no similarity. Zhaoling did not know where he came from, and the imitation of the punishment can still be secret. Purchasing Chu Mo was a shocker. Sending good deeds but rewarding good ones is a popular saying.” In the Northern Song Dynasty, it became a fashion to buy “Chu Mo” and “Lanting”, and it became more and more popular to refer to the Tang Dynasty copy as Chu’s pen. Mi Fu wrote a poem to ridicule this trend, not to mention that this "Lanting" is "Chu Mo" or "Chu Suiliang's copy". Later generations did not understand the meaning of Mi's poem, thinking that it was similar to Chu Fa, so they actually titled it Chu Ben.

     Qi Gong said that the handwriting of this volume of "Lanting" is the same as that of Mi Fu's inscriptions later on, and the paper is also the same. "In fact, Mi Fu wrote it himself." Mi Fu benefited from Chushu's pride in his proficiency in imitating ancient times, and he likes to show his ability to copy the real ones. It is also possible that he will write a book when he comes. In his poem, he said, "Send good things but reward good things. As the saying goes, there are so many", which seems to imply that those who do good things in the world should not be fooled.

Feng Chengsu facsimile

     This white linen paper is 24.5 cm long and 69.9 cm wide. The two papers are spliced, the front paper has 13 lines, and the line spacing is loose; the back paper has 15 lines, and the line spacing is tight. There is an old inscription "Tang Molan Pavilion" on the top of the water in front of the first post, and the left half of the small seal of "Shenlong" remains at the seam on the left side, so it is called "Shenlong Ben". This edition was collected in the Neifu of the Southern Song Dynasty, Guo Tianxi of the Yuan Dynasty, Xiang Yuanbian of the Ming Dynasty, and Neifu of the Qing Dynasty. There are more than a hundred seals in the whole volume, and the back paper includes 17 inscriptions and postscripts by Li Zhiyi and Shi Cangshu in the Song Dynasty, Zhao Mengfu, Guo Tianxi, Xian Yushu, and Deng Wenyuan in the Yuan Dynasty, and Li Tingxiang, Wen Jia, and Xiang Yuanbian in the Ming Dynasty.

     The "Shenlong" seal seen in this volume, Guo Tianxi's inscription and postscript in Zhiyuan Guisi (1293) refers to Tang Zhongzong's reign seal. Zhongzong Li Xian is the grandson of Taizong, the son of Gaozong, born of Wu Zetian, and ascended the throne twice in his life. For the first time, in the first year of Sisheng (684), he was deposed as King of Luling by Empress Wu within two months. In the first year of the Holy Calendar (698) during the reign of Empress Wu, he was recalled and established as the crown prince. When Wu Zetian was seriously ill in the first month of the first year of Shenlong (705), Zhang Jianzhi welcomed Li Xian to supervise the country and forced Wu Zetian to abdicate. Li Xian came to the throne again and restored the Tang Dynasty. During Zhongzong's "restoration", Wu Zetian's "Shenlong" reign was used, and two years later it was changed to "Jinglong". Three years later, he was poisoned by Queen Wei and died at the age of 55.

Guo Tianxi named this version of "Lanting" "Shenlong Version", thinking that "this must have been copied by Feng Chengsu, the enshrined couch () bookmaker of Tang Taizong Dynasty, Zhihong Wenguan, etc., on the double hooks on the original "Lanting" by imperial decree." He was cautious and only said "Feng Chengsu and others". Because in addition to Feng Chengsu, there were Zhao Mo, Han Daozheng, Zhuge Zhen, Tang Puche and others in the Tang Dynasty court scribes, Guo Tianxi could not confirm who was responsible, but only made an overall judgment. In the fifth year of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty (1577), Xiang Yuanbian Province was restored to a single form, with the title "Feng Chengsu of Tang Zhongzong Dynasty imitated Wang Xizhi, General of the Right Army of Jin Dynasty, and the post at Lanting", which was actually Feng Chengsu. Xiang Yuanbian also connected Feng Chengsu with the seal of the "Shenlong" year title, and attached him as a person of Zhongzong's era. Imitation with double hooks is a delicate job that takes a lot of eyesight. If Feng Chengsu was 30 years old in the last year of Zhenguan (649), even if he lived to Tang Zhongzong Shenlong (705-706), he would be 87 years old and his eyesight is dim.

This "Lanting" is a recognized copy of the Tang Dynasty, and has a greater influence than the so-called Yu Lin's and Chu Lin's versions. Qigong's "Lanting Tie Kao" said: "The brushwork of this post is slender and decent, beautiful and sweet, which is far beyond the reach of other books. The traces of breaking and peeling are all faithfully imitated." It is dense, and the line format preserves the squeezed state of Wang Xizhi's original manuscript. "From the perspective of the fidelity of the copy, since the Shenlong version is so precise, it can be seen that it is not far from the original." However, this Tang copy of "Lanting" is too charming, and some scholars doubt the authenticity of "Lanting".


     The Dingwu version that appeared in the Song Dynasty is the most famous among the many printed editions of "Lanting". It has a boundary column and is recognized as the printed version of the Tang Dynasty. Song people said that Zhu Liang usurped Tang, and the original stone was moved to Biandu (now Kaifeng, Henan). The Khitan broke the Shijin Dynasty, carried the stone across the river to the north, and lived in Dingzhou (now Dingxian County, Hebei). During the Qingli period (1041-1048) of the Northern Song Dynasty, it was acquired by Li Xuexue, a scholar in Dingzhou. After his death, he was confiscated by the government and placed in the official treasury of Dingzhou. During the reign of Shenzong Xining (1068-1077), Xue Xiang guarded Dingzhou and took the original stone with him when he left office. During the Daguan period of Huizong (1107-1110), the Xue family handed over the restored stone and placed it in the Xuanhe Hall in Bianjing. This "Lanting" stone inscription was discovered in the Dingwu army in northern Xinjiang in the Song Dynasty. Song people used to call it "Dingwuben", and it was also known as "Dingwu Lanting", "Dingzhouben", "Dingben" and "Dingtie".

     People in the Song Dynasty liked to pass on and engrave "Lanting", especially after the Nandu, "those who do good things on the left of the river often carve a stone at home." Judging from the objects copied, the printed editions of "Lanting" can be divided into three categories.

     The first category is reprinting Dingwuben. In the eighth year of Qingli (1048), not long after Li Xuejiu obtained Dingwu's "Lanting", Han Qi guarded Dingzhou, Li Xuejiu presented Dingwu rubbings, Han Qi asked for the original stone, and Li Xuejiu carved a stone and handed it in. After Li's death, his son sold the original stone rubbings for thousands of dollars each. And Song Qi kept Dingzhou, Li's son owed taxes, Song Qi exchanged public money for carved stones, and hid them in the public treasury. During the Xining period of Shenzong (1068-1077), Xue Xiang guarded Dingzhou, and his son Xue Shaopeng (later called "Mi Xue" together with Mi Fu) did not carve a stone to stay in Dingzhou in exchange for the original stone, and chiseled the "Tuan, Belt" on the original stone. , right, flow, day" five characters as a mark. Since then, the Dingwu version, which was extended from the original stone, has a distinction between "undamaged version" and "damaged version". Jin soldiers fell into Bianjing, and the original stone was lost. Afterwards, the engraved version was turned over, and the rate was five characters "not to damage the original".

     The second category is the ancient block editions other than the engraved Dingwuben. During the reign of Emperor Huizong, Mi Fu, his father and his son handed down the engraving of Du Baocheng's family biography "Lanting" in the Tang Dynasty, "five-day model" and "shangong ten-day engraving", named "San Milan Pavilion". Hu Shijiang, a scholar of Huiyou Pavilion, engraved two copies of "Lanting" in Yuzhang, one of which was "from Qian's Zhenguan edition", which is probably also a Tang edition.

     The third category is hand-carved ink books copied by people in the Tang Dynasty. In the first year of Shaoxing in the Southern Song Dynasty (1131), Emperor Gaozong summoned officials in the Zhengshitang, and Xin Daozong, a member of the Privy Council, presented a copy of "Lanting" from the Tang Dynasty, saying that it was from the inner government of the Tang Dynasty, and Gaozong ordered it to be engraved in Kuaiji.

    There are many printed editions of "Lanting", and Sang Shichang's "Lanting Tie Kao" describes more than 60 kinds. The Dingwu edition is imitated and engraved with exquisite workmanship, and its reputation is higher than other editions, and it is highly valued in the world. Therefore, people in the Song Dynasty collected the engraved version of "Lanting" by themselves, so that they can be proud of the Dingwu version; There are many conjectures about who the original stone of Dingwu came from (who wrote it), including Zhiyong, Ouyang Xun, Chu Suiliang, Zhao Mo, Huairen, and Wang Chenggui. Later, the claim that Ouyang Xun copied Shangshi prevailed, and Dingwu originally belonged to Ouyang Xun.

People in the Song Dynasty praised Dingwu's "Lanting" not only because of Ouyang Xun's name, but You Miao, a bibliophile in the Southern Song Dynasty and one of the "Four Great Poets", said: "The world's most expensive Dingwu version is based on the theory of the valley." Wang Anshi His great-grandson Wang Houzhi put it more concretely: "From Jiading Wuben in the valley, I thought that there was no fat left and no skinny, so the literati and bureaucrats competed for the treasure." Huang Tingjian evaluated the Wuben in this way and compared the other two blocks he saw. A copy of "Extremely Fat", which is said to have been written by Chu Tinghui, a calligrapher in the Kaiyuan period of the Tang Dynasty. The other book, "Extremely Thin", was unearthed underground and was acquired by Zhang Jingyuan, a scholar of Longtu Pavilion in the Song Dynasty. These two books have long since disappeared, but Huang Tingjian's "no fat left, no skinny" has been widely circulated, and has become a famous saying for appreciating martial arts books.

     The engraved version of Dingwu's "Lanting" is a mixture of genuine and fake. Zhao Mengfu lamented in Dingwu's "Lanting Thirteen Postscripts": "Since the stone carvings are dead, those who are good at Jiangzuo often carve a stone at home, without worrying about dozens of copies, and it is difficult to distinguish between the real and the fake." Wang Shizhen of the Ming Dynasty is not like Zhao Ziang. So confused, he said: "There are three Dingwu originals. The undamaged original is the first extension; However, it is considered expensive."

     Dingwu's "Lanting", which was once very popular, still has many copies circulated in the early Qing Dynasty, but now it is very rare, and there are only three well-known copies circulating. There are two copies in the collection of the Tokyo National Museum in Japan. One is the old collection of Wu Bing, which is a non-destructive copy. One is the Dugu Monk’s version, which was once collected by Zhao Meng. It was burned during the Jiaqing period of the Qing Dynasty, and three small pieces survived. There are inscriptions and postscripts from Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties on the back of the scroll.

There is also a book hidden in the "Forbidden City" in Taipei, called Ke Jiusi's old collection, which is a five-character lost edition. At the back of the volume, there are more than ten inscriptions and postscripts from Song to Qing Dynasty. Famous Yuan Dynasty masters Xian Yushu, Deng Wenyuan, Zhao Mengfu, Yu Ji, Kang Lizishan, and Yuan Jue all left wonderful inscriptions. This ink extension is relatively light, and the stone surface is uneven and cracked. The word "hui" at the end of the first line is missing, and the seventh and 14th lines are missing. After repeated transmission and extension, the strokes of the pen gradually become bald, and the words are not very clear. Compared with Feng's copy, Dingwu Ke Jiusi's calligraphy and painting are vigorous, especially the horizontal strokes, which are not so slanted and more simple.

     Between the 14th and 15th lines of the Ke Jiusi edition, there is a word "monk" at the bottom, which is generally believed to be the custody office of Xu Sengquan, a court calligraphy artist of the Liang Dynasty. There is also a "Jiang Sengbao" among the calligraphers in Liang Neifu, whose name also has the word "seng". Liu Wei’s "Jiahua of the Sui and Tang Dynasties" said that the authentic work of "Lanting" "Liang Luan came out outside", indicating that "Lanting" was once owned by the Liang Dynasty's inner government. If the word "monk" is the charge of the Liang Dynasty appraiser, it can confirm Liu Wei's record . The word "monk" is not found in the ancient ink-printed editions. Perhaps it can be said that the word "monk" is a feature of the Dingwu edition.