Fu Shanben was a loyal and honest scholar, indifferent to fame and fortune, and diligent in reading. His calligraphy, which he learned from Zhao Mengfu and Dong Qichang for the first time, can almost resemble the real ones. His "Shanglan Wulongdong Field Records" was written in the 14th year of Chongzhen (AD 1641), which is no different from the style of the Song Dynasty. Literati in the Song Dynasty liked to use vivid words and allusions, and so did Fu Shan. He is well-educated, profoundly accumulated, and quite individual. In addition to the influence of Zhang Ruitu, Huang Daozhou, Wang Duo and Ni Yuanlu in the calligraphy circle, Fu Shan's calligraphy has a peculiar flavor. Of course, the most important thing is his outlook on life and aesthetics played a decisive role. He admired Yan Zhenqing's character and writings so much that he was totally enthralled. He likes to use Yan style when writing large characters, such as "Jigu Plum Blossom Poems", and he also uses Yan style when writing lower case characters, such as "Xiaoyaoyou". Deng Sanmu said in "Linchi Occasionally": "Fu Shan's lowercase script is the most refined, extremely ancient and clumsy, but he doesn't write much. He usually responds to people's inquiries with cursive script, but his cursive script is not at all vulgar. The appearance is elegant and the connotation is stubborn. what he was." His writing style is very good, and there are many couplets and list books in large characters in Yan style that have been handed down to this day, all of which are dignified, vigorous, vigorous and powerful.

  Fu Shan has made contributions to the theory of calligraphy art. The theory of "Four Nings and Four Won'ts" put forward by him is extremely incisive, and has universal significance and far-reaching influence on the entire art category.

  "Clumsiness is better than cleverness, ugliness is better than flattery, branching is better than frivolity, sincerity is better than arrangement, which is enough to affect the field of Chinese calligraphy.

  Writing a book would rather pursue simplicity than gorgeousness, and should pursue an artistic realm that is as clever as clumsy, subtle but not revealing.

  It is better to write ugly or even rough clothes, than to please others, servile, and seek inner beauty.

  It is better to pursue looseness and unevenness, collapsed cliffs and old trees than to be frivolous and frivolous. The interest of natural chic is far better than the appearance of frivolous character.

  I would rather believe in straight writing, without worries, and don't draw eyebrows and temples, decorate and embellish, and feel suspected of posing.

  Fu Shan's theory has the purpose of criticizing the trend of the times and turning the tide. It can be said that Hong Zhong, who is deafening and deafening, is very different from his contemporaries of literati and scholars. In his poems and essays, there is no intention of speaking for the sage or making suggestions for the ruler. On the contrary, he calls himself a Taoist priest and an expatriate, and he expects a sudden change in the hearts of the people in the world when there is no hope of fighting against the Qing Dynasty and restoring the Ming Dynasty. He gave himself the nickname "Guanhua Weng". Now that the rule of the Qing Dynasty has been consolidated, and the world's morals and people's hearts are getting worse and worse, they hope that the deterioration will be rapid, and things will change after extremes. He has conducted in-depth research on the philosophers of the Warring States Period, and believes that ancient academic culture can inspire the descendants of Yan and Huang to work hard; he is willing to be a stone from other mountains that can be used to attack jade, and looks forward to the true awakening of the nation and the fundamental eradication of tyranny.

  Jin Shengtan is the same age as Fu Shan. Jin likes to insinuate the emperor, but also has illusions about the emperor. But Fu Shan had no illusions. He wrote: "Li Bai treats the emperor as he treats ordinary people, and being an official is only like being a scholar, so he becomes a madman." He explained to "Don't do anything about princes, noble things" in "Zhouyi · Gu Gua · Upper Nine": "All princes are truly noble and sages, and doing nothing is noble. The other so-called princes are not princes, and they don't matter. Righteousness and equal ears, how noble is it?"

  When Fu Shan commented on Ouyang Xiu's "New History of the Five Dynasties", he said: "Wang Yanzhang is a rude and reckless man, only death is allowed, and the purpose of the death festival is set up, and he has never considered who the dead are." How sharp Fu Shan's comments are! What kind of shit emperor is worth dying for? For those slaves and obedient people, no matter what kind of emperor they are, when they see the emperor, this is undoubtedly a shocking reprimand and a sharp irony.

  In his later years, Fu Shan devoted himself to the study of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty and achieved great academic achievements. In the fifth volume of "General History of Chinese Thought", there is a special chapter by Fu Shan, which is highly praised by historians. He conducted in-depth research on the calligraphy of Wang Xizhi and Wang Xianzhi, and re-evaluated Zhao Mengfu's calligraphy. Take a look at his poem "Bingzhu": "Bingzhu sighs, and the strange man wants to break his heart. Zhao Si is really different, and Guan Bei is also very different. Drunken wine is still like wine, and the old man is even more crazy. Chop the wheel in one stroke, where to post the article ". "Cailun" comes from "Zhuangzi · The Way of Heaven": "Cailun is old when he is seventy years old". This poem was undoubtedly written by Fu Shan after he was seventy years old. "Zhao Si" refers to Zhao Mengfu, "Guan Bei" refers to Zhao Mengfu's wife Guan Zhongji, and "Qi Ren" refers to the Zhao couple.

  Fu Shan learned from Zhao when he was young, and later scolded Zhao Zi completely out of political and ideological reasons, and repeatedly warned his children and grandchildren not to learn Zhao Zi. At this time, after in-depth study of Wang Shu, he regarded Zhao Mengfu as a strange genius again.