Zhang Xu Kuangcao's "Four Notes on Ancient Poems" - Zhengda Weather

   "Four Ancient Poems in Cursive Script"It is said to be the work of Zhang Xu and is extremely precious. Among its contents, the first two are "Buxu Ci" by Yu Xin, and the last two are "Zan of Prince Jin" and "Zan of Four or Five Young Men" by Xie Lingyun of the Southern Dynasty (suspected to be forged). The strokes throughout the text are full and there are no weak or slippery strokes. The writing is ups and downs, intertwined with movement and stillness, and the paper is filled with clouds of smoke. It is truly the pinnacle of cursive writing. Modern person Guo Zixu said: "Four Notes on Ancient Poems can be said to be the crystallization of Zhang Xu's entire life. It is a model of genius beauty and natural beauty, the essence of national art, and a symbol of eternal beauty."("Dictionary of Chinese Calligraphy Appreciation") 

    Zhang Xu was a famous calligrapher in the Tang Dynasty, named Bogao, and was born in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. He was once an official, Jinwu Changshi, and he was said to have led the government to be the chief historian, and was known as "Zhang Changshi". He is good at poetry and prose, good at truth and cursive writing, and is most famous for his cursive writing. His world name is Zhang Dian, also known as Caosheng. The nephew of Yanyuan, the son of Lu Dong, his book was inherited from his uncle's family tradition. It can also be traced back to Wang Xizhi, Zhiyong, Yu and Ou. During the reign of Emperor Wenzong, Li Bai's poetry, Pei Min's sword dance, and Zhang Xu's cursive script were considered three masterpieces.

  Zhang Xu's cursive script is valued by the world for its vigorous and unrestrained style, vertical and horizontal strokes and unrestrained romantic posture.

  According to legend, he saw the princess fighting with the bearer and learned the meaning of calligraphy from the advocacy. When he was in Ye County, Henan, he loved to watch Gongsun (a dancer of the Tang Dynasty) dancing with the Xihe sword, and he became the god of cursive calligraphy. Yan Zhenqing resigned from office twice to ask him for advice on penmanship.


Zhang Xu used his unique cursive calligraphy style to write a total of four ancient poems by Xie Lingyun and Yu Xin, two literary giants from the Southern and Northern Dynasties, on the precious "five-color paper". The writing of the work is extremely powerful, and the strokes are full and full, with no weak or slippery strokes. The writing is gentle and free, with ups and downs, movement and stillness intertwined, rippling in a comfortable rhythm with urgency and slowness. His calligraphy is unrestrained and heroic, with continuous strokes that threaten to fly over eaves and walls, and the paper is full of clouds and smoke. It is truly the pinnacle of cursive writing. The beauty of cursive writing actually lies in the fact that it can be done easily and in one go, giving people a sense of joy.

"Four Ancient Poems in Cursive Script" is collected by the Liaoning Provincial Museum, ink-printed, five-color paper, in cursive script. The length is 28.8 cm and the width is 192.3 cm. There are forty lines and one hundred and eighty-eight words. There is no money. Dong Qichang of the Ming Dynasty was designated as Zhang Xushu.

The Jiuzhi cover is in the East Ming Dynasty, and the Five Cloud Cart is the candle in the North. Floating into the reverse scene, disappearing and disappearing

On the haze. Jade slides under the spring spring, and blue birds fly toward the golden flower. The Emperor of Han looked at peach stones, and the Marquis of Qi

Ask about the thorn (the original poem is jujube) flower. We should go to Yuanjiu and visit the Cai family together.

The North Palace is adjacent to Danshui, and the South Palace is surrounded by Jiangyun. Dragon mud seal jade slips(original poem for policy)

Practice real writing under fire. The wind and rain of Shangyuan have dispersed, Brother Zhongtian(The original poem is a song)Blow points. Xu (original poem is spirit) rides on Qianxun

The fragrance can be smelled thousands of miles away. Xie Lingyun Prince Jinzan

Good quality is not inferior to beauty, and it will be difficult to survive for thousands of years. The Crown Prince is not cheap

How can it be like going to heaven? The prince returned to Qingkuang, and there was a real uproar in the area. Noisy and floating

Mr. Qiu, I will be with you. Iwashita's husband

The four or five-year-old boy praised the medicine collector in Hengshan. He lost his food even if he lost his way.

I sat down under the Shiyan Rock and talked about the correct views. One old, four and five young, the immortals are not hidden

Can't do it? His books are not worldly teachings, but his people must be sages.


The first two poems are from Yu Xin's "Buxu Ci":

The Jiuzhi cover is in the East Ming Dynasty, and the five-cloud car is candlelight in the North; it drifts into the reverse scene and disappears into the haze. Jade slides under the spring spring, and blue birds fly toward the golden flower. The Emperor of the Han Dynasty looked at the peach stones, and the Marquis of Qi asked about the jujube flowers; in the Yuan Dynasty, he sent wine to Cai Jing's house.

The north pavilion faces Xuanshui, and the south palace sits on Jiangyun; the dragon mud seals the jade slips (the original poem is the policy), and the sky fire practices the true writing. In the Shangyuan Dynasty, the wind and rain dispersed, and Brother Zhongtian (the original poem was a song) blew the wind; Xu (the original poem was a spirit) came up Qianxun, and the fragrance in the sky was smelled thousands of miles away.

The last two poems are "Prince Jin Pian" and "Four or Five Young Men" by Xie Lingyun of the Southern Dynasty (suspected to be fake): 

[Thanks to Prince Lingyun for his praise] Good quality is not bad, but it will be difficult for thousands of years. The Imperial Palace is not cheap, how can it be as high as heaven? The prince returned to Qingkuang, and there was a real uproar in the area. When Xuan saw Duke Fuqiu, he and you turned over it together. 

[Praise from Yanxia Husband, a young man of 4 or 5 years old] Hengshan’s medicinal collectors are also good at finding food if they get lost on the road. I sat down under the Shiyan Rock and talked about the correct views. One old, four and five young, why don't you say goodbye to immortality? His books are not worldly teachings, but his people must be sages.

The artistic characteristics of "Four Transcripts of Ancient Poems"

The following is an analysis and introduction to the artistic characteristics of "Four Calligraphy of Ancient Poems" from four aspects: brushwork, calligraphy, composition and artistic style.

1. Characteristics of calligraphy

① Side stroke center: This is the most fundamental content of Zhang Xu’s inheritance of Wei and Jin brushwork.  

②Seeking smoothness in the midst of hesitation: When you open "Four Posts on Ancient Poems", the first thing you see is unrestrained and smooth. But if you look closely at every stroke, many of them are slow and dignified. The biggest difference between Zhang Xu’s Kuangcao and Wang Xizhi’s Jincao is that the creative style has changed. Wang Xizhi is elegant, while Zhang Xu is romantic. Elegant and rational, romantic and emotional.   

③ Flexible and changeable.  

④ Unbridled and continuous: This is the most obvious feature that distinguishes Zhang Xu Kuangcao from his predecessors. Kuangcao wants to highlight the word "kuang". What is "kuang"? The "madness" of Kuangcao is not craziness, eccentricity, arrogance and madness, but a kind of elegance, chicness, unrestrainedness and heroism in the author's psychology.

2. Characteristics of calligraphy

    Calligraphy can simply be explained as the method of tying words. Since ancient times, calligraphy has been regulated and changed. There are two points of standardization: First, from the beginning of writing, each character has an original glyph formed by the number of strokes, pictography, and freehand brushwork. This is the basis of calligraphy for the next two thousand years. The second is the change of conventional glyphs formed by the influence of writing habits and aesthetic pursuits during the evolution of fonts. These often require rote memorization.

    Change is the reason for the formation of calligrapher's creative style. Changes occur on the basis of norms. For example, some people mainly write flat characters, and some people mainly write long characters; some people like to write compactly, and some people like to write open characters; some people are accustomed to writing in the upper right, and some prefer the lower right. Broad. For the study of calligraphy, "Four Notes on Ancient Poems", a Kuangcao work, is highly representative.

① Proficient in grass law:草法精熟是狂草书家的共同特点,然而张旭草法的精熟又在古今众多狂草书家之上。以《古诗四帖》为例,首先,作品中所有文字均为纯正的草书,没有一个行书。清一色的草书很大程度上增加了作品创作的难度,这一点古今草书家很少有人能做到。第二,此帖草法和书写的熟练程度以及表现上的写意程度也达到了前无古人的高度。沈鹏先生常说,写草书的人要进入狂草。什么是进入狂草?就是一定要写出纯正的草书的感觉。张旭的《古诗四帖》之所以感人,之所以能给人以耳目一新的震撼,其根本原因就在于他写出了纯正的与所有今草作品都截然不同的狂草气息。













The meaning of "big" refers to being majestic and majestic, which is easy to understand; secondly, it refers to being mainstream and taking the big road, being neither biased nor weird in style, and consistent with the universality of aesthetics. There is a concept in art appreciation called "appreciation of both refined and popular tastes". What is elegance and vulgarity? That is, one person's works have a wide audience, and most people think they are good and can accept them. This shows that there are commonalities in aesthetics, that is, there are some things that everyone thinks are good. Calligraphers must find this universal thing and write it into their own works. Only in this way will your work resonate with more people. Magnificent beauty, elegant beauty, and substantial beauty are all universal beauties; withered beauty, delicate beauty, incomplete beauty, absurd beauty, and weird beauty are all special beauties.

    Although "Four Calligraphy of Ancient Poems" is a cursive work, it strictly adheres to the traditional writing method. From the brushwork to the calligraphy, it is in the same vein as the orthodox cursive script of the Wei and Jin Dynasties. Moreover, in terms of style, it is wild but not wild, wild but not strange, insisting on the right and seeking change, thereby creating a noble quality characterized by its own upright atmosphere in art.

    Anyone who has in-depth practical experience in calligraphy knows that it is the most difficult to maintain an upright style and at the same time write a taste of the work. It is much easier to write a little crookedly, a little strangely, and a little interesting. It is for this reason that works that take the right path, take the high road, and adhere to an upright atmosphere are more valued by people. Among the cursive inscriptions in ancient times, "Four Inscriptions on Ancient Poems" is the most difficult. The reason lies on the one hand because of its superb technique, and on the other hand because of its insistence on uprightness.