Tips for using ink and water in calligraphy

A successful calligraphy work, in addition to its profound ideological connotation and traditional skills, is often due to its proper use of skills. The use of special effects to achieve artistic effects that are not normally available is a noteworthy aspect of calligraphy in the new historical life atmosphere. The reason why Japanese avant-garde and Shaozi calligraphy, as well as Chinese modern calligraphy, also have a certain artistic charm is largely due to the use of a series of special techniques.

First of all, it should be emphasized that the use of special effects should be based on the premise that it does not violate the overall creative principles of calligraphy. If you use a brush or rice paper instead of anything else, it may be more clearly emphasized that it must be done with a single stroke of the brush. This is an extremely strict and serious premise that cannot be shaken. Therefore, calligraphy stunts are mainly based on the use of pens (including ink dipping and pen handling), inks (including the use of thick and light inks, the use of glue and alum, the use of pigments, etc.), and the use of paper (including the breaking method, folding method, Overlap method) these three aspects.

(1) Special skills of using ink

The ink used in ancient calligraphy was relatively monotonous, with more dry and moist changes. This is related to the fact that in ancient times only ink blocks were used to grind the ink and the quality of the ink. In addition, from the perspective of the medium through which calligraphy works are transmitted, there was no exhibition hall like today in ancient times. Most of the works were for self-entertainment or gifts. There was no grand exhibition hall with a collection of the best works like today's exhibition hall. All these have affected the artistic pursuit of the use of ink in calligraphy. The field of contemporary calligraphy art has broadened, and the convenience brought by modern science and technology has made the use of ink possible and inevitable in artistic experimental practice.

a) Skills in using dark and light ink

Changes such as dryness and whiteness in the calligraphy works, if processed with thick and light ink, will have a unique artistic effect, and the meaning of the content of the work will also be expanded.

Thick and light ink is to make use of the different proportions of water and ink, the different speeds of water and ink gathering and dispersing on rice paper, and the different degrees of coloration. Use one stroke or one word to create a transitional, natural and alternating shade of ink in a work.

The key to using thick and light ink is to dip the ink, secondly to control the amount of water, and thirdly to absorb ink and water in a timely manner. There are two ways to dip in ink. The first is to dip the pen in water and then ink. The specific method is to wash the pen in the pen wash until it is 50% wet, then dip one side of the pen tip in ink and start writing immediately; the second is to dip the pen in ink first, and then Quickly dip the bundle in water and write instantly. This method of using ink is very similar to the use of thick and light ink in Chinese painting. The difference is that Chinese painting can be repeated, but calligraphy can never be repeated. It must be done in one stroke. Moreover, the brush strokes are faster and there is no room for hesitation or delay. When writing, you must also use old rice paper and waste rice paper to dry it in time to avoid "ink pigs".

If you are writing large characters and the strokes are thick, you can use a small pen dipped in ink and apply it on the large pen to make more layers of ink and ink.

The use of dark and light ink not only increases the artistic appeal of the characters in Shaozi calligraphy works, but the effect is also outstanding when used in banners. For example, I used dark and light ink in the creation of the banner "Li Bai Sends Meng Haoran to Guangling" in the main hall. The three words "The End of the Blue Sky" not only made it white and blank, but also used very light ink for these three words. The exhibition is deeply loved by viewers. My other work "Xu Rong Indifferent" also uses thick and light ink, allowing a large amount of water to push the ink to deposit between the strokes, which successfully highlights the detached and elegant situation in the calligraphy content.

b) The effect of white characters on an ink background is obtained

White characters on an ink background are often favored by calligraphers in calligraphy works because they have both a “flavor of extension” and a smooth texture. There are two specific methods. First, use alum water (mixed at a ratio of about 1:8) to write on the student announcement. After it dries, apply ink on the back to naturally get the effect of white characters on a black background. The second is to use advertising powder to write on the student announcement, and then use ink to paint the front, you can also get the same effect. The difference between the two is: when writing with advertising powder, the powder peels off after drying, leaving the words with a sense of incompleteness. This is of course beneficial to pursuing an antique taste. However, when writing, the dispersing effect of gouache is not as good as that of thin alum water, so the font appears dry. . In short, each has its own merits, and the calligrapher can choose according to the content and artistic needs. In addition, when inking the bottom surface, colors can also be added to increase the odor.

c) Application of glue ink

Glue ink is mainly used in light ink creations. For some works, if you want to use light ink entirely, you can use the glue ink method to achieve a light ink effect with a more consistent tone. The dark ink method mentioned above is only suitable for creations with changes in shades. If it is used for light ink works, it may be difficult because the water is too strong and difficult to control, and some more delicate strokes are not easy to express with light ink. . In this case, higher-grade glue can be diluted with water, and then an appropriate amount of ink can be added. In this way, when writing, you will rarely encounter the problem that when using ink, the strokes melt too quickly and are difficult to control.

d) Utilization of Sumo

The use of Su Mo can sometimes produce unexpected results. In the ink wash of Yidege's ink, the ink, colloid and water are separated. After leaving the surface behind and floating it, you can make large characters. After the watermark dries, there will be traces of sinking, like light ink, and it will be in a ring shape. The middle part of the strokes can have a burnt ink effect, with subdued ink color and a unique flavor.

(2) Stunts using water

Chinese painting has always been called ink painting, because it pays attention to the use of water, and seems to put water first. However, traditional calligraphy pays little attention to the role of water in calligraphy creation, which is a pity. In fact, giving full play to the activity, flexibility and dilution of water in calligraphy creation can greatly enhance the artistic charm of calligraphy works. As introduced above, the use of water in thick and light ink is one example. In the creative process, it can also have the following special uses.

①Water splashing method

Shengxuan absorbs water and spreads ink. According to this characteristic, when using thick and light inks to create, you can use the water splashing method for strokes that need to continue to spread over a large area after writing, that is, splash them with clean water to make the strokes The ink stains dispersed again.

②Water spray method

The functions and steps are the same as those of the water spraying method. However, for easier control or if local treatment is required, the water spraying method can be used. To spray water, you can use a spray gun (such as a spray bottle for ironing clothes, a spray can and a spray can for killing mosquitoes, or even your mouth) to spray clean water in a targeted manner.

Using the water-spraying method, the edges of the strokes will appear in a scattering shape according to the thickness of the low lines, and the texture is generally more uniform and delicate; using the water-spraying method, the edges of the writing will not only appear diffused, but also show dot-like ink masses of different shades. It also has a different taste.

③Sprinkling method

In the same way, use clean water, or use a spray gun, or sprinkle by hand, just to distinguish the order of time, so the word "sprinkle" is specially used. The water sprinkling method is to sprinkle water on raw rice paper before writing, and then write on the paper while it is still wet to obtain the other loose ink effect. The loose ink effect obtained by the water sprinkling method is irregular, and the handwriting is blurred or even broken. If there are water droplets in the rough strokes before writing, there will be faint watermarks there.

The author used the sprinkling method to create a work. This work has been noticed and repeatedly pondered by the audience in many exhibitions, and the artistic effect is very good.

The heart of this work is 60cm x 60cm. The large characters in thick ink literally read "Smart Life", followed by the words "Confused, confused, confused, misleading, misleading, misleading" and "Momomo" written in light ink seal characters. , wrong, wrong, wrong." In addition, there are various small words in different sizes, in different orders, and unclear, such as "Qingqing was too smart in his calculations, but it cost Qingqing's life", "It's rare to be confused," and "It's better to be confused." etc. Among the four characters "Clever One Life", the word "One World" is treated by sprinkling water, which makes it look a bit "confused". My whole idea is this: this is a life answer sheet, and the audience can understand my work from different life experiences and ideological levels. "Being smart for a lifetime" is what everyone hopes for, and it is a good thing, but in fact it is impossible. There is a contradiction between ideal and reality. From another perspective, being smart may not be a good thing. It may be a mistake. People should not be too shrewd or too calculating. Don't you see the precedent and ancient saying of "counting your life against yourselves"? It can be seen from the above that this kind of content has a bit of a "must have this form" flavor. -

④Special effects of alum water

Alum, whose chemical name is metal sulfate hydrous crystals, has the function of precipitating water pollution. Of course, we don’t have to worry about it so much, as long as we know its magical effect on rice paper.

We know that there are two types of rice paper: raw rice paper and cooked rice paper. It is said that cooked rice paper is rice paper that has been bleached with alum water. The miraculous effect of alum water is mentioned in the section on ink special effects, that is, it is used to achieve the effect of white characters on an ink background. It can be seen that it has the effect of blocking the ink color.

Spray and drip the raw xuan with alum water to make it into a mixture of raw and cooked xuan, which will achieve its effect. Please look at the works below and choose the word "tiger".

This work I created the year before last has been exhibited many times and has aroused the interest of audiences and calligraphers and painters. This work has two characteristics. One is the word knot. For thousands of years, the word "tiger" in cursive script has always been written directly as "虍", and this "tiger" has been changed to be written as a bedroom, which is a bit cute, like a crouching tiger trapped in a cage, looking up to the sky and roaring. Sad and powerful. The second is the unique effect of ink color: dark and light inks naturally gather and disperse, and their traces resemble tiger spots. I used the word "resembling" here. I think everyone who has seen the authentic work of this work will agree with my statement. The exquisiteness of its patterns is also highly praised by gongbi painters.

This artistic effect is achieved by spraying alum water, water spraying and thick and light ink. The specific method is as follows:

Dilute alum to water in a ratio of 2:8, that is, two parts alum and eight parts water. You can also dilute it further. Choose Anhui Shansheng Xuan or Du'an Shengxuan, spray alum water evenly on the back of the paper (it is best to use a pistol-type plastic watering can for spraying), the ratio of dry to wet area is 3:2, wait until it is completely dry, and it is best to let it dry for a while On time. When creating, the side with alum water is facing down, that is, the ink is still on the front of the rice paper. When writing, use the method of dipping dark and light ink on the ink, but you must significantly increase the amount of water until it no longer drips. Write in a hurry, and then spray a large amount of water to make the ink float on the paper and melt naturally. But be careful not to Use rice paper to absorb ink, so as not to affect the luster of the ink color. It is better to be mushy than to die of ink.

In addition to even spraying, there are also various methods such as dripping method, grid method, combined method, etc. Calligraphers can use their imagination to their fullest. Here I will use a few of my personal calligraphy exhibition works as examples.

There is a picture of "well". There is a line of inscription below this word: "You may not believe that this word is written in one stroke, and you dare not ask, right?" This work often attracts onlookers in the exhibition hall, and people often argue and debate over what the word is. In fact, this is a square shape with the word "well" clearly in it, so there should be no doubt about it, but the viewer is confused by my signature (and the strange ink effect, I should say). There are several reasons for creating this work; first, I want to directly use the psychology of the audience to achieve a humorous exhibition hall effect. It enables the author and the viewer to form an inevitable dialogue, make a joke, and achieve a kind of understanding; secondly, it is aimed at such a kind of psychology. People tend to be confused and shaken in front of simple things. We often hesitate or even dare not recognize things that we have already recognized clearly; thirdly, tic-tac-toe is a stable structure, which vividly reflects a situation in Chinese ideological concepts that is worthy of reflection.

To create a calligraphy, first use alum water to paint square alum on the back of the single letter, use an oil paint brush with a blade width of 20 mm to make patterns, and then sprinkle a few places randomly. After drying, straighten the paper and write the word "Well" in one stroke. Then use a spray gun to spray the two horizontal strokes of the word "well". Sometimes, spray directly on the thick ink to make it melt. Sometimes, spray on the white outer edge of the writing to let the water Inducing Mo Feng. In this way, a work with rich layers of dark and light ink and ink colors that are square, round and scattered is formed. The ink mark naturally forms a square tile inlay effect, which highlights the original connotation of the word. Content and form are unified.

Another piece of "Gone with the Wind". It was originally used as a large nave and was written with the entire four-foot frame. If you look at the original work, the strokes of the word "wind" are clearly carved with regular deep grooves, which are very metallic, but they are obviously not painted. There is also a picture of "Shou". This character contains three characters: "Spring and longevity", or "Millennium of longevity". This is a technique for tying characters. It is made of square ink and is worth pondering. There are several places that are round or arc-shaped. Loose ink marks. These two words are the result of pre-painting the back of the rice paper with alum water.

⑤Salt water absorption method

Sprinkle salt on the newly written handwriting and use the salt's ability to absorb moisture from the air to create a special ink effect. One of my works "Bear" uses the technique of spreading salt to give the entire character "Bear" a very similar furry texture. The method is: sprinkle some salt on the ink while it is still wet. If you want a radial effect, sprinkle a denser pile in the middle of the stroke. Of course, in my painting "Bear", in addition to using table salt, I also used the technique of dripping alum water. -

(3) Special skills using paper

Paper processing is also a factor that cannot be ignored in a successful calligraphy work.

The treatment of the paper has a great influence on the ink color effect.

One method: scratch wrinkles. Before writing, fold the paper into wrinkles and flatten it slightly to make a book; you can also wrinkle a few places on the cut paper at will. The wrinkled paper will have uneven shapes, and the tip of the pen will be passed over, and the convex places will be inked. The handwriting will naturally appear mottled afterward. Use thick and light ink to write with heavy strokes. Ink is applied to the convex areas first and ink to the concave areas later. Due to the different dipping times, a natural effect will be formed and a special stroke texture can be obtained.

In addition, I deliberately burned a few holes with cigarette butts and splashed a few pools of old ink on it, making the writing look messy. The whole word is like the heroic posture of a scarred and trapped warrior still fighting. This work is still favored by factory directors and managers who are struggling in the economic field in the exhibition hall.

Method Two: Overwrite. Stack a piece of paper into two layers and write with heavy pen so that the handwriting appears exactly the same on the upper and lower papers. This is relatively difficult. The author once used this method to write a book titled "Shadow". I wrote just this word. When spread out, they are reflections of each other, which is very interesting. -

(4) Other acrobatics

1. The old method

Sometimes, in order to obtain the antique feel of calligraphy works, it is necessary to make the center of the calligraphy and even the silk and silk on which it is mounted become worn or even moldy. The following methods can be used.

You can use old paper or even paper with moldy watermarks, or you can use new rice paper. Write it first and seal it, or use pigment to make a light brown dye on the rice paper and let it dry before writing the seal. After leaving it aside for a month (mainly to allow the ink to dry), wrap it in a damp cloth and place it in a damp place for about ten days and a half, depending on the temperature at that time, to allow it to become moldy. After that, let it dry completely and hold it in place. You can wash it with bleaching powder several times, then remove the supporting paper and mount it again. If you want the word center to be cracked, you can simmer it over a fire after mounting, make it slightly charred, roll it up with your hands, and then mount it. The mounted damask or satin can also be washed with water to make it lose its luster and show its old smell.

2. Colored ink and base method

There are two trends in modern calligraphy. One is to incorporate words into paintings to make the words have a pictorial meaning. The second is to incorporate calligraphy and painting, and boldly use painting pigments in calligraphy creations that originally only had black and white variations. Indeed, new artistic conception can be obtained. In this way, new techniques emerged.

For example, create a banner (the center of the character is 1.2 meters × 0.4 meters). There is a single character. The character "Lotus" occupies most of the center of the character. It is written in one stroke with ink and Chinese painting pigments. There is a signature along the long vertical stroke of the character "Lotus". The words "I only love the lotus that emerges from the mud but remains unstained" have a good overall effect. The specific method is to use pigment mixed with water to wash the pen as the color of the light ink part. When writing, add a thicker pigment mass before dipping in ink, and then spray water after writing.

In order to achieve the smooth color effect of oil painting, some works can choose to use better quality and thicker Xuan or Gaoli Xuan. Since it requires repeated dyeing, single Xuan cannot bear it. Dye with a heavy color before writing, and then repeat as needed after writing. Add color lining and dyeing on the back. When dyeing, you can get broken jade patterns by scratching the center of the word.

Special skills in calligraphy are just a means of innovation in calligraphy. With the development of science and technology and the diligent experimentation and exploration of calligraphers, they will continue to be enriched. However, as a calligrapher, you should be very clearly aware that the role of stunts is far from the mainstream of calligraphy art. The main aspect of innovation is always in the use of pen and word binding; in addition, not all content and works use it. If you have too much craftsmanship and craftsmanship, you will become a wordsmith, so you must pay great attention to the unity and natural integration of form and content, and not be too deliberate. Calligraphy works that are stunts for the sake of stunts are definitely not good products. Use colors with caution, remember!

Three realms of calligraphy creation

The issue of realm is a very important issue that often troubles literary artists, because as a creator, only when he understands the realm in his heart, he will also feel the artistic ladder he is on. From entry to entry, from a lower realm to a higher realm, this is exactly what the artist expects.

The Qing Dynasty scholar Wang Guowei once proposed three realms of literature and art. He pointed out that "Last night the westerly wind withered the green trees, and I climbed up to the tall building alone, looking at the end of the world" as the first realm; "The clothes are getting wider and wider, but I will never regret it, and I am haggard for the sake of Yi" as the second realm; "Looking for him in the crowd" Thousands of times, I suddenly looked back, but that person was there, "at the lighted fence" is the third realm. Wang Guowei's realm theory summarizes the creative process of writers and artists in a universal sense, that is, the practical trajectory from life to art, from the kingdom of necessity to the kingdom of freedom. Of course, calligraphers are no exception.

Just like other art forms, to become a successful person in the art of calligraphy, in the first realm, he must cross three steps: self-choice-reading thousands of books-life accumulation.

This is almost still the preparatory stage of creation, but this stage is very important. Almost every step determines the taste of his future calligraphy works.

Self-selection is the first step towards success as a calligrapher. This means that the calligrapher himself must first make his choice (calligraphy in general, and more specifically a certain font, a certain style in calligraphy) a scientific choice, and separate himself from the general understanding of calligraphy. Hobbies and general interests in certain fonts and styles of calligraphy turn into self-discovery and grasp of character and temperament, because calligraphy creation cannot be successful by resilience alone. As long as you learn calligraphy not just to be fashionable and to pass the time, you have to consider its results and how to make yourself a truly accomplished and influential calligrapher. Although anyone who steps into the art of calligraphy must go through the copying stage from regular script to official script to seal script to Xing and Cao script, or from official script to regular script to Xing script to cursive script and seal script, entering the creative stage requires specialization and specialization. Refined. Some people are suitable for regular script, some are suitable for attacking official seal script, and some people are good at doing good things. This all requires everyone to make a choice based on their own interests and, most importantly, their personal temperament.

Huaisu, the grass sage of the Tang Dynasty, was a bohemian monk with a cheerful spirit and a heavy drinking habit. He was drunk nine times a day and was called the "drunken monk" by people at the time. His cursive script was unique both at the time and in the history of calligraphy. The so-called "epileptic factor". His hard work in calligraphy is profound. At the beginning, because he was poor and had no paper to write on, he tried to plant thousands of banana trees in his old city for writing. When he was short of books, he painted a plate of books and then painted a square board. He wrote over and over again, and all the boards were worn. Whenever I encounter temple walls, clothes, or utensils, I don’t write about them. The abandoned pen vertebra was buried at the foot of the mountain, and it was named the pen tomb. "According to his skill, the real cursive and official seal scripts are not ordinary, but he specializes in cursive script, and finally became a master with an independent style after Zhang Xu. Huaisu's success is due to hard work, but more of it lies in his ability to This wild and romantic temperament fits well with the form of wild cursive writing.

See what kind of material you are, this choice is very serious. People tend to overemphasize their hobbies and believe in their own intelligence, while ignoring the crucial factors of their own personality and temperament. I don’t know that the wrong choice means taking risks with life as a low stake, which means half the effort with twice the result, and a huge misunderstanding; while the correct scientific choice means that you have stepped on the first ladder of success.

Reading thousands of books seems to be much more difficult for calligraphers than ordinary people. On the one hand, it means reading a lot of books, making oneself proficient in six arts, and understanding things; on the other hand, in the profession of calligraphy, it is even more important to be knowledgeable. This kind of knowledge even includes a lot of copying skills, which is the so-called "hand talk". ""Bi reading", because calligraphy has very strong technical characteristics, it must have such a special reading method. Reading thousands of books aims to make oneself a connoisseur first. As the saying goes, "The eye is high but the hand is low", it seems to have a derogatory meaning. In fact, this is a truth with universal significance, especially for calligraphers. Because if the eye is low, the hand is even lower. Especially for calligraphers, appreciation is the guide of creativity. There is always a greater than sign between appreciation and creation. And taste is based on the amount and breadth of reading.

Great calligraphers are all great scholars, and first-rate calligraphers are all first-rate scholars. Those from small families, second- and third-rate people, are all inferior in reading and knowledge. Throughout the ages, this iron law has wiped out so many romances! This second stage cannot be crossed. We can only go forward one step at a time, and there is no shortcut.

In the first realm of creation, life accumulation plays a relatively obvious role in promoting it. Life is the source of creation, and the art of calligraphy is no exception. Extensive and profound life accumulation, profound life experience, and familiarity with the life content and natural ecology shown in his works are the conditions that promote the calligrapher's desire to create and create good works. With these accumulations, it is possible to programmatically select and refine the content, subject matter and even form of his works. In the first realm of creation, life accumulation often becomes the most active factor, which can even make up for the lack of artistic expression.

Only when a calligrapher crosses one realm of creation step by step can he reach a higher realm.

In the same realm, calligraphers reach different heights on each ladder. Any one of the three ladders may have an advantage in a certain calligrapher's creative factors. A first-class calligrapher and a generous calligrapher, he has advantages in all three stages. Pure scholars do not have their artistic temperament and sensitivity, their rich life accumulation and experience, and their overflowing passion; ordinary calligraphers lack their kind of artistic temperament and sensitivity. Scholar quality. This is everyone's style. The so-called second-rate and third-rate calligraphers are often not at a high point on a certain ladder, or they make unwise choices, or they lack merit in their books, or they have insufficient accumulation. Looking at ancient and modern times, the reasons for the high and low of calligraphers are just like this.

"Last night the west wind withered the green trees, and I climbed up to the tall building alone and looked across the road to the end of the world." This is really meaningful.

Looking with one's limbs is not as good as climbing high to see something; thinking about it all day long is not as good as learning in a moment. The word "looking to the end" will make everyone feel ashamed, a small family will shrink, and everyone will be excited.

"My clothes are getting wider and I will never regret it, and I feel haggard because of the beauty." - If the first realm of creation is strictly considered to be just the preparation stage, then in the second realm, it is almost reflected as a concrete The substantive creative practice stage, including experimental exploration. In this realm, calligraphers have suffered unprecedented suffering. The signboard reads: This is the only place to be.

Extraordinary perseverance, patience, loneliness and hard work constitute all of this realm. There are several stairs here as well.

The first step: long-term and unremitting artistic practice, including copying and creation. The value of a calligrapher will ultimately be reflected in his works. In the first realm, he made self-selection, broke through thousands of books, and went deep into all aspects of social life. The purpose was to mold all these into his own works of art, and the only way to achieve this purpose was to Just write. Without practice, you will only get what you know and see, but only through practice can you get true knowledge, known knowledge, and deep understanding. Whether in creative or non-creative processes, writing is a long-term basic skill that calligraphers must adhere to. Because the gap between appreciation and creativity can only be shortened by this kind of training. Otherwise, even if you read thousands of books, this "like the pen of God" will still be just wishful thinking. When the great calligrapher Yan Zhenqing emerged in the calligraphy world, he was already in the age of knowing his destiny. At that time, he had decades of study and creative practice in the art of calligraphy. This long-term training and exploration is an important reason for his success.

The psychological mechanism of maintaining a creative state is a characteristic of this realm, and it is also a ladder. Calligraphy creation is also a very complex spiritual production activity. Of course, it is difficult for us to strictly make mechanical divisions into the entire process of a calligrapher's creation. The creative state I am talking about here refers to a sense of expectation. Because inspiration only comes to those who are prepared.

Su Shi, one of the four masters of calligraphy in the Song Dynasty, once said in a poem: "When you write poetry, you are in a hurry to catch up with the enemy. Once the scene is lost, it is difficult to copy it." In fact, this was not the case with his calligraphy and painting! Li Rihua of the Ming Dynasty recorded in "Notes of Liuyanzhai": "Although Mr. Dongpo is naturally talented, he is deeply interested in calligraphy and painting, and he always carries his pen and inkstone with him everywhere. An old lady from Hainan saw him breaking the paper I wrote words on lamp paper... When I was in Huangzhou, I happened to see an old forest tree among the people, which was the side of the chicken roost. It is overflowing, and there is nothing more than asking for a sibling." Jin Shengtan of the Qing Dynasty once said: "The best thing about the article is that it is seen by the spiritual eyes at this moment, so that it can be caught by the spiritual hands at this moment, and the power is not seen at the moment before. He disappeared a moment later, just for some reason, but suddenly he was seen. If he didn't catch it, he wouldn't be able to find it... So he was thrown into the sea and never heard from again."

The reason why literary and art masters like Su Shi have such extensive and huge artistic achievements is largely because they are always in an extremely sensitive creative state, so that the inspiration and impulse that passes by them are retained. , truly became the wisdom of his artistic creation. The heartstrings of "searching for him a thousand times" make him the darling of inspiration.

The situation when conceiving a work is very different between the creative state and the non-creative state. When a calligrapher is in the creative state, he gets signals from details: pen, ink, knotting, paper, seal, signature, content, layout , etc. The fifth whimsy is all concrete; in non-creation In this state, what appears are concepts, non-plot and experiential general ideas, which are a kind of expectation accumulated in primitive life, or called "wishful thinking". The The former is mainly image thinking, while the latter is more rough, vague and rational thinking.

Calligraphers in this state are under heavy psychological pressure at this time. On the one hand, his creative desire, emotional line, and intelligence are at the highest point; on the other hand, his self-confidence is often at the lowest point. The pain caused by this contrast is the most unbearable. It is inevitable to feel ashamed of his appearance, not knowing what the "time" is, whether the location is favorable, the eyebrows are dark and dark, ugly duckling, ugly daughter-in- law, Cinderella. Doubt and self-blame are accompanied by his social expectations and run through the entire process of his creation. ——How can one not feel haggard!

The crowd looked for him thousands of times, but when he suddenly looked back, he was there at the lighted fence - this state is the highest for all calligraphers. The pursuit has results, and the sweat and hard work are rewarded with autumn fruits.

As a result, when the calligrapher reaches a relatively free state, he will find that what he thought was far away is actually so close to him, and what he is seeking so hard turns out to be what he already possesses.

In this realm, calligraphers can have a far-sighted vision. He stepped onto the first step first, usually without stopping, and he suddenly fell into a state of spiritual inspiration. The first birth is always difficult, and the second and third births often become natural births. This situation almost always happens to most calligraphers. Both gratifying and worrisome. For those who are gratifying, producing works is a good thing and a sign of achievement; for those who are unworthy, having too many children will inevitably lead to roughness, and it is not as good as accumulating work. According to my observation and research, there are many second- and third-rate calligraphers who stay at this stage. They seem to get a good sense of themselves from the excitement of performance, but they forget that they should be at the lighted fence. This is very common. pity. Of course, this is in comparison, after all, not many people have reached this level.

The higher step of this realm is enlightenment, which reaches a certain degree of perfection in ideological and moral cultivation. He neither pursues fashion nor follows the old ways, regards fame, wealth, and honor as dirt, is unfazed by favors and humiliations, does not lose integrity, is not kitsch, and does not bow down to five buckets of rice; he has accumulated a lot of experience in creation, somewhere between writing and not writing; in art, he returns to his original nature, from complexity to simplicity , and changes The pretentiousness and deliberate effort in the early stages were seen as haphazard and careless. This is already a generous home.

The three realms are the same in the entire creative process of calligraphers, and they are also the same in works of art.

There are different ladders in the realm, it depends on which level you are on. I always feel that some people have not read enough books and have insufficient understanding. Therefore, although they have set foot in the three realms, they are always on the lower ladder. However, it is not difficult to get started and enter the country. The difficulty lies in stepping on it. On what ladder.

Three tastes of calligraphy works

Under different realms of calligraphy creation, different realms have different steps. This is mainly in terms of calligraphy cultivation. What if we look at it from the perspective of appreciation of works?

Ancient people have always had the habit of ranking calligraphers and calligraphy works. Yu Jianwu of the Southern Liang Dynasty classified more than 100 calligraphers and their works from the Han Dynasty to Qi Liang in his treatise "Shu Pin": "Shang Shang Shang, Shang Zhong Zhi, Shang Xia Zhi, Zhong Zhi" Upper, middle in the middle, lower than the middle, above the lower, lower in the middle, lower than the lower" nine grades. Li Sizhen of the Tang Dynasty's "Shu Houpin" is further divided into: "Transcendent and Yipin, upper and upper grade, upper and middle grade, upper and lower grade, middle and upper grade, middle and middle grade, middle and lower grade, lower and upper grade, lower and middle grade, and lower and lower grade". There are three grades of "Shen, Miao and Neng", and then it is divided into five grades of "Shen, Miao, Neng, Yi and Jia". Bao Shichen said: "Peaceful, simple and pure , beautiful and natural, it is called divine product. There is no trace of brewing, it is similar horizontally and straightly, it is called wonderful product. It is called Nengpin when it sticks to the source of poverty and has the best thinking and power . Chu tune is self-singing, and it is not wrong. Elegance is called a good product, and there are signs of being conservative. Elegance has a gate, and it is called a good product."

("Yizhou Double Collection·Guochao Shupin") Kang Youwei divided it into "divine grade, wonderful grade, upper grade, lower grade, high grade, upper grade, lower grade, fine grade, upper grade, lower grade, good grade, upper grade, lower grade, capable "Good quality, good quality" 11th grade.

The differences between works of art cannot be as rigidly uniform and clear-cut as competition in sports. The evaluation of works of art can be said to be basically subjective and a personal experience. I think work A is good, but you think work A is not good. The same calligraphy work will have a hundred different evaluations in the eyes of a hundred people, and may even produce completely opposite and completely different evaluations. Therefore, an objective and fair evaluation is almost a relatively consistent divine meeting. The classification of calligraphers and calligraphy works' tastes relatively clearly describes this extremely subtle artistic grade. Bao Shichen's five-grade classification of "Shen, Miao, Neng, Yi and Jia" is relatively pertinent. Gao Lian in the Ming Dynasty once proposed the "Three Interests " when discussing calligraphy and painting, saying: "The interest of nature is the spirit; the interest of human beings is the interest of life; the interest of things is the form." His point of view can explain the five aspects of calligraphy. differences in products. Divine products and wonderful products are obtained by nature, which are the products of the highly perfect unity of nature and mind, aesthetic objects and aesthetic subjects. They are like a stroke of God, made naturally and without any trace of artificiality . Nengpin and Yipin gain human interest. Human interest is inferior to natural interest, because although there are human emotions, business, whims, and philosophies, it is also artificially carved, so the aesthetic focus is biased towards the original side, and the style that is in line with nature is lost. . What you get with good quality is material interest. The interest of things is the lowest among the three interests, so we stick to the signs and have a certain elegance. We are only successful in the form similarity and the appearance that corresponds to the object, but we have not yet gotten rid of the limitation of being "subjugated to things".

Famous calligraphy masters are deeply aware of the three flavors, and this can be seen in their artistic practice and their works. Wang Xizhi attached great importance to learning the true meaning of calligraphy from natural objects. According to legend, he also liked to observe geese very much, and exchanged handwriting for white geese. He also said that when writing calligraphy, the index finger should be as high and slightly bent as the goose's head. The strokes of the pen should be like the two palms of a goose working together to push water, and the knotting of words should be like a goose piercing water willows. His famous "goose" character is like a creation of heaven. "The whole body is full of energy. When setting the platform, first place the two feet. When you understand the power of the geese walking in the water, you will know that it is difficult to use all the strength of the five fingers." (Bao Shichen's poem) is written by Wang Xizhi's unique perception of natural objects.

When Yan Zhenqing was young, he studied under Zhang Xu. After a few months of training, Zhang Xu only asked Yan Zhenqing to "double-process" the handwriting of the previous generations of famous artists, repeatedly try to figure it out, and asked him to pay more attention to the natural phenomena. Yan Zhenqing could not help but be disappointed. If you want to obtain the subtle secrets of calligraphy and find a shortcut, you can spend all your time saying "doubling the learning" and "understanding nature ". Why should you come to seek help from a teacher? One day, he expressed his thoughts to Zhang Xu with full resentment. Zhang Xu was very unhappy after hearing this, but he still enlightened Yan Zhenqing and said: I often say that I noticed the meaning of calligraphy when I saw the princess and the carrier fighting for the way, and I saw Gongsun dancing with the sword and got the charm of falling ink. In addition to studying hard, I learned from nature. What's the trick? Yan Zhenqing still thought it was an excuse, so he grabbed Zhang Xu's clothes and asked for tips on his brushwork. Zhang Xu angrily rebuked: "Anyone who seeks any secret will never achieve anything." After saying this, he walked away and ignored Yan Zhenqing . It was from Zhang Xu's lessons that Yan learned the art of calligraphy. From now on, he no longer looked for shortcuts, but studied hard and practiced hard, integrating the charm he understood from all natural phenomena into his pen, and finally became a master of calligraphy.

It can be seen that the mind-taught creation is a very high state of calligraphy art. The so-called high-grade, medium-grade and low-grade products, divine and wonderful products, and excellent and excellent products all depend on the extent to which one has understood and mastered the art of creation and creation. "Everything is a guest" (a sentence from Zhang Xiaoxiang's "Niannu Bridge: Crossing the Dongting"), this sentence very accurately expresses the close relationship between the artist and nature . Li Yangbing, a calligrapher of the Tang Dynasty, "From the heaven, earth, mountains and rivers, we get the shape of a square and round shape; from the sun, moon and stars, we get the longitude and latitude of the world ; from the clouds and clouds of grass and trees, we get the appearance of falling cloth and vines; from the clothing and cultural relics, we get the body of bowing and circling; from the eyebrows of men The mouth and nose are divided into joy , anger, misery and comfort; for insects, fish, and beasts, they are able to bend, stretch, and fly; for the bones, corners, and teeth, they are positioned for chewing." (Volume 1 of "Peiwenzhai Calligraphy and Painting Manual") Calligraphers of all dynasties He attaches great importance to applying some beautiful lines observed in nature to the art of calligraphy. The words "house leak marks" are used to describe lines that are naturally round and subtle; "wall bump" is used to describe lines that are dangerous and vivid; "broken hairpin strands" and "long live withered vines" are used to describe lines that are round, hard and strong; "Zhen" is thinner and stronger than the line. Pen disease is also known as "cow head", "rat tail", "wasp waist", "crane knee", "bamboo joint", "edge", "broken wood", "firewood load", "silkworm head and rat tail" , " pork and duck", "withered bones and broken firewood", "plots and chessboards", "spring earthworms and autumn snakes", etc. as metaphors for images.

Jiang Baishi, a connoisseur of calligraphy and painting in the Song Dynasty, compared the strokes of calligraphy to various parts of the human body: dots should be like the eyes and eyebrows that look forward; vertical and horizontal should be like the even bones; strokes should be like the telescopic limbs; steps. When comparing calligraphy between people, there is also Bao Shichen of the Qing Dynasty. He said in "Yizhou Shuangji": "The sizes of ancient calligraphy are quite different, such as an old man traveling with his young grandson. The lengths are uneven, but the true meaning of affection is , Pain and itching are related." Cen Zongdan of the Song Dynasty said when talking about Yan Zhenqing's calligraphy: "Zhen Qing is sincere and sincere, so he is as thick as Zhou Bo" (Zhou Bo was the founding hero of the Han Dynasty, and Liu Bang said that his "thick and thick prose"). It is really concise and concise. The former vividly describes the blood relationship between words and words, lines and lines, and the pen breaks the meaning; the latter reveals the purpose of calligraphy style from human temperament. -

It is truly a blessing to be a calligrapher. Almost all famous people have benefited from this.

Huaisu "heard the water of the Jialing River at night" and "watched the many strange peaks in the summer clouds, and often tried them", so his writing was like a snake and a dragon, and it was like a sudden rain and strong wind; Zhang Xu saw the princess and her husband fighting for the road, so he got the meaning of the layout of the calligraphy. , watching Lady Gongsun dance her sword and understanding the rhythm and charm of calligraphy, etc. This can be said to be a supremely beautiful artistic realm that is created by the mind. This is common to all art categories without exception. Religion and philosophy are directly artistically compatible at this point, Zhuang Zhou Buddha. Aren't we also awakened from creation? - "Zhuang Sheng is obsessed with butterflies in his dawn dream", "Tao follows nature", "Nothing in the world is as small as the end of autumn, while Mount Tai is small; no life is as long as the death of a son, and Peng Zu is the sky"; Zen sayings "The willows are green and the flowers are red", "The flowers still fall without rain, and the catkins fly without wind", "The wind comes and thins the bamboos, but the wind passes by but the bamboos leave no sound", "If you miss the broken bridge water, you will return to the moonless village with you" , "The white horse enters the reeds", "My wife is kind", "Go and have tea ", "It is a dream, not a dream", "Ordinary is the Taoist heart", etc., etc., but they are so profound in nature. philosophy. Art that is connected with nature should be of the highest quality.