The year of birth and death of Huang Xiang is unknown. He was born in Jiangdu, Guangling, Wu State during the Three Kingdoms period. His courtesy name was Xiu Ming, and he served as a Shizhong and Qingzhou Governor. Good at Bafen, Xiaozhuan, especially Zhangcao. His chapters and chapters are so wonderful that he is sometimes known as the "Sage of Calligraphers". His cursive calligraphy, together with Cao Buxing's paintings and Yan Wu's Go games, are collectively known as the "Eight Wonders". They are "like the sting of a dragon and a cockroach, stretching out the disk to move again" ("Shu Shu Fu" by Dou Xun of the Tang Dynasty), "like the sound of singing lingering around the beams, "The Emblem of the Qin Man's House" ("Ancient and Modern Book Reviews" by Liang Yuan Ang of the Southern Dynasties), is simple and ancient, calm and cheerful, literary but not flashy, quality but not wild. The ancients spoke highly of Huang Xiang's calligraphy. Zhang Huaiguan of the Tang Dynasty said: "Youjun's official script uses one shape to form many shapes, and all the characters are different; Xiu Mingzhangcao, all the shapes are the same, and all the characters are the same, and each has its own perfection." It can be seen that he created the idea of ​​"these are many but form one." " calligraphy style is of great significance in the history of calligraphy. The handwritten writings handed down from ancient times include "Tianfa Shen Prophecy Stele", "Wenwu Tie", "Jijiuzhang", etc.

Pei Songzhi's annotation of "Three Kingdoms·Wu Zhi·Zhao Da Biography" quoted "Wu Lu" and said: "Huang Xiang's courtesy name was Xiu Ming, a native of Jiangdu, Guangling. He was written by You Gong. At that time, there were Zhang Zibing and Chen Liang Funeng writing. He hated being stubborn and Jun. When Xiang considered it, he found something very wonderful, which cannot be matched by Chinese calligraphers." Jin Gehong's "Baopuzi" praised Huang Xiang as "a peerless master of his generation". Yang Xin of the Song Dynasty in the Southern Dynasty said: "The emperor of Wu is capable of grass, and he is known as calm and happy." Bao Shichen of the Qing Dynasty even said: "The cursive script is only royal, and the Suo Jing pen is vigorous and dense, almost beyond the reach of the right army." Tang Dynasty Zhang Huaiguan listed his Zhangcao as a divine product.

Zhang Huaiguan of the Tang Dynasty commented in "Shu Duanzhong": "Wu Huangxiang, whose courtesy name was Xiu Ming, was a native of Guangling Jiangdu, and he was an official in Shizhong. Gong Zhangcao learned from Du Du. First there was Zhang Zibing, and then there was Chen Liangfu, who was also called Neng Shu. . However, Chen Henshou and Zhang Henjun, Xiu Ming considered them and found out how wonderful they were. Together with Yan Wu, they were called the Eight Great Masters, and the world said they were calm and happy. Baopu Yun said: "The sage of calligraphy is the emperor." Huai Guan thought that Youjun was the official calligrapher. , with one shape and many features, and all the characters are different; although Xiu Mingzhangcao, although there are many shapes but one shape, all the characters are the same: each creates its own extreme. It is practical but not simple, and the writing is not gorgeous. His writing in "Spring and Autumn" is the most Exquisite. Eight points of talent and effort are inferior to those of Cai Yong. However, if the coquettishness is not enough, Tongyi will be hurt by Suo Sui. Xiu Ming Zhang Cao is fascinated by the spirit, the eight points are wonderful, and the small seal script is capable."


The "Tianfa God's Prophecy Stele" was built in the first year of Wu Tianxi (AD 276). It is also called the "Tianxi Commemorative Monument Stele". It was broken into three stones before the Song Dynasty, so it is also called the "Three Broken Stele". It is said to be written by Hua (He)wen, Huangxiang, and Su Jian. Because the inscription is incomplete, there is no way to verify it. It used to be in Zunjing Pavilion in Jiangning, Jiangsu Province. It was destroyed by fire in the 10th year of Jiaqing in the Qing Dynasty (1805).

The calligraphy on this stele is neither official nor seal script, and the seal script has a heavier meaning. It is majestic and strong, with a powerful edge. The strokes are mostly square in shape and the closing strokes are mostly in a pointed shape. The turning, square and circle are used together, the structure is tight at the top and loose at the bottom, the font is slender, and the image is strange and majestic. His brushwork and posture are unprecedented and unsuccessful in the history of calligraphy. It is an important material for studying the stone inscriptions of Soochow.

Since the original stele was destroyed long ago, few rubbings have been circulated. Especially the Song rubbings before the rupture are extremely precious. The rubbings selected here are the only rubbings from the Song Dynasty collected by the Palace Museum. The handwriting is clear and the ink color is mellow.

"Ji Jiu Zhang", formerly known as "Ji Jiu Pian", is a literacy textbook compiled by Huangmenling Shi You under the order of Emperor Yuan of the Western Han Dynasty for children. It is named after the word "jiji" at the beginning of the chapter. "Jijiupian" uses different characters to form three-, four- or seven-character rhymes, covering various aspects such as name, organization, biology, rituals and music, official positions, etc. It is like a small encyclopedia. This text has been the main literacy textbook circulated in society from the Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty. At the same time, the standard and elegant copy also serves as a model for writing. After the Tang Dynasty, the position of "Jijiupian" as the leading elementary school textbook was replaced by "Thousand-Character Classic", "Hundred Family Surnames" and "Three-Character Classic".