Cai Yong was a writer and calligrapher of the Eastern Han Dynasty. The courtesy name Bozhe was born in Chenliuyu (now south of Qixian County, Henan Province). He was an official of Situqiaoxuan at first, and went out to Buping River Chief. During the reign of Emperor Ling, he was appointed as a doctor, and the editor was in Dongguan, and he moved to Yilang. Later, due to the impeachment and robbery of the eunuchs, He was framed and exiled to Shuofang. After being pardoned, he did not dare to return home and lived in exile for more than ten years. During the reign of Emperor Xian, Dong Zhuo took full power and forced all the people in Yong to serve as censors and worship General Zuo Zhonglang. After moving the capital to Chang'an, he was granted the title of Gaoyang Township. Hou. After Dong Zhuo was executed, he was also arrested and died in prison. During the reign of Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty, he worshiped General Zuo Zhonglang, so later generations also called him "Cai Zhonglang".

  When Cai Yong was young, he studied under his tutor Hu Guang and was very knowledgeable. He was well versed in the classics and history, liked numerology and astronomy, was good at playing music, was good at drums and harps, and was good at painting. He was good at diction, and was good at seal script and official script. He was especially famous for his official script. He is good at summarizing the experience of his predecessors in using pens, integrating them and forming his own style. His book has a neat structure, dots and paintings, and can be changed freely. It has the reputation of "various changes in style and exhaustion of spirit, unparalleled in ancient and modern times" ("Book Break" by Zhang Huaiguan of the Tang Dynasty). Emperor Wu of Liang Dynasty in the Southern Dynasty also called his book "insightful, penetrating, and refreshing." He has divine power" ("Reviews on the Pros and Cons of Ancient and Modern Scholars").

  In the fourth year of Emperor Xiping of the Han Dynasty, Cai Yong and others corrected the text of the Six Classics of Confucianism. Cai Yong believed that there were many errors in these scriptures due to the attachment of secular Confucianism. In order not to hinder subsequent learning, he petitioned for the rectification of these scriptures. After the edict was approved, Yong personally wrote the elixir on the stele and ordered workers to engrave it and set it up outside the gate of Taixue. There are 46 stele. These stele are called "Hongdu Stone Classic", also known as "Xiping Stone Classic". (See below)

  The old site of Taixue is in today's Luoyang City, and a monument is erected in front of the gate of Taixue. It is said that after Shi Jing was established, he watched and copied more than 1,000 cars every day.

According to legend, he once visited Hongdu Gate and saw craftsmen using brooms to sweep away white powder to write on the wall. He was inspired and returned home to create "Fei Bai Shu". This style of calligraphy has white lines in the strokes, as if it were written with a dry pen. It is a unique style of calligraphy. When Zhang Huaiguan of the Tang Dynasty commented on Cai Yong's white calligraphy in his "Book Break", he said, "The flying white is wonderful and unparalleled, and the combination of movement and movement is magical."

Cai Yong was not only a great calligrapher of the Eastern Han Dynasty, but also the master of calligraphy theory in the Han Dynasty. The handed down calligraphy treatises include "Zhuan Shi", "Bi Fu", "Bi Lun", "Jiu Shi", etc., especially "Bi Lun" and "Jiu Shi", which occupy an important position in the history of Chinese calligraphy. In the opening chapter of his "On Writing", he puts forward the famous assertion that "calligraphers are scattered", and discusses the artistic nature of calligraphy to express feelings, as well as the mental state that calligraphers should have when creating. Then it discusses the methods that calligraphy works should adopt to express various vivid and beautiful objects in nature, emphasizing that the art of calligraphy should pay attention to the beauty of images. "Nine Positions" first puts forward the important idea that "calligraphy originates from nature, when nature is established, yin and yang are born; when yin and yang are born, the situation is born", reveals the philosophical basis of the beauty of calligraphy, and elucidates the aesthetic factors contained in the structure of Chinese characters. . Then, he elaborated on eight rules of writing, requiring the use of writing to express vivid and powerful gestures. Therefore, there is also the title "Nine Movements and Eight Characters Jue". These important thoughts and views of Cai's have great guiding significance and laid a theoretical foundation for the development of Chinese calligraphy.

Both "Bi Lun" and "Jiu Shi" were included in the book "Shu Yuan Jinghua" written by Chen Si in the Song Dynasty, and they have been preserved and passed down to this day.

  Because Cai Yong was so famous, there were many forgeries in later generations that attached some inscriptions and treatises to Cai Yong's name. It is said that its original work was rare in the Tang Dynasty.


"Xiping Stone Classic" is said to be written by Cai Yong. There are 46 steles in total. After several turmoils, the original steles have long since disappeared. Since the Song Dynasty, remnants of stone have often been found. It is said that more than 8,000 characters have been collected. The font is square and the structure is rigorous. It was the standard font popular at that time.  

[Exchange items]
  Zheng Piao of the Yuan Dynasty: Cai Yong and Hongdu's "The Stone Classic" is an unpublished classic in ancient and modern times. Zhang Zhi and Zhong Yao learned its way. ("Yanji")
  Kang Youwei of the Qing Dynasty: "The Book of Stone" has different fonts. In addition to Cai Yong and Tang Xi Dian, at the end of "Gongyang" there are "Chen Zhao Yu, Yi Lang Chen Liu Hong, Lang Zhong Chen Zhang Wen, Chen Su Ling, Chen Fu Zhen". The last title of "The Analects of Confucius" reads, "The edict and the doctor Zuo Li and the doctor Sun Biao". ("Guangyizhou Shuangji")