Talking about the learning and teaching of calligraphy

    As the carrier of Chinese cultural inheritance, Chinese characters contain the ingenuity and rich artistic and rational thinking of our ancestors. From oracle bone inscriptions to the present, Chinese characters have experienced more than three thousand years of evolution. Over time, a set of knowledge about writing has been formed, and this knowledge directly affects or constitutes its inner soul in literature, history, philosophy and other aspects. Knowledge and accomplishment. The Qin and Han Dynasties created a unified political structure that dominated China for two thousand years, and promulgated a series of unification measures across the country, especially the unification of writing and ethics, which became an effective guarantee for the long-term unification of subsequent regimes. "Chinese characters and ethics and moral standards are still the main cohesion factor of the Chinese nation at home and abroad to this day." China's multi-ethnic country relies on cultural ideas and writing as a link. Students' writing skills are related to their future development. As literate Chinese, we use Chinese characters every day and cherish them. Only by writing it well can we be worthy of our ancestors.

 However, with the development of society, changes in humanistic concepts, and advancement in science and technology, especially the application of computers and copiers, writing has gradually been "downplayed" in Chinese language teaching in primary and secondary schools. I remember that in the 1950s and 1960s, primary schools had a large-scale imitation class, where primary school Chinese teachers taught primary school students to write calligraphy. Those who became literati in that era had decent handwriting. It’s no longer possible now. It’s not as good as it used to be. Most students’ handwriting is irregular, and some are even so scrawled that it’s difficult to read. It’s no wonder that students can’t write well because they just look at the teacher’s handwriting. Some are too “shy” to go to the blackboard. Meet students. There are many reasons for the low level of writing Chinese characters. Times have changed, and the requirements for students have also changed with the trend. For example, in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the system of "selecting scholars by books" was implemented, focusing on whether the handwriting is good or not. If you read well, you must have good handwriting; if you don't read well, you must have good handwriting. The handwriting is not good. Today’s measure of student excellence is the test scores of “examination-oriented education,” so good grades do not necessarily mean good handwriting. Most of the outstanding high school graduates apply for prestigious universities such as Peking University, Tsinghua, Renmin University, and Nankai University, while the poorer ones apply for vocational and technical colleges, art schools, etc. The calligraphy has little impact on them. It seems that the inheritance of Chinese calligraphy art And development depends on the university calligraphy major and the calligraphy circle. As far as writing tools are concerned, brushes were used in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and now hard pens are used. Writing Chinese characters with hard pens is an innovative revolution in writing tools, which has epoch-making significance. However, it also poses problems for writers to write well. The tradition of traditional calligraphy must be inherited. As for writing, it is really difficult to write the characters as beautifully as the ancients' calligraphy.

  Perhaps education experts have recognized the above phenomenon and taken remedial measures: First, in order to develop students' interests and hobbies, broaden their knowledge, cultivate their specialties, and improve their language ability, they included "Chinese Characters and Calligraphy" and "Dialectical Development of Ancient Writing" Compile elective course textbooks. Many textbooks contain calligraphy works by famous artists such as Wang Xizhi and Wen Zhengming. Its purpose is self-evident. Secondly, the Chinese language proposition of the new college entrance examination puts forward requirements for "words". The composition is 60 points, including 20 points for the development level and 40 points for the basic level (20 points for expression, words are expressions). The first-class fonts are neat, and the second-class fonts are neater. The third-class handwriting is clear, while the fourth-class handwriting is illegible. It is very appropriate to include words here as expressions. Writing is a lyrical art that expresses expressions. There is no requirement for beauty from an artistic point of view, perhaps because of the current writing situation of the candidates. Candidates cannot express themselves verbally in the examination room, but can only express themselves with a pen. To compete for grades, candidates must write well, but there are still those who cannot write well. Over the years, it is not uncommon for candidates to lose points due to handwriting.

  How to practice calligraphy well? Posting is the most convenient way. Throughout the history of the development of calligraphy in my country, from the Wei and Jin Dynasties to the middle of the Qing Dynasty, it was basically a development history with calligraphy as the mainstream. From ancient times to the present, everyone who has become a calligrapher or has made achievements in calligraphy has grown up under the nourishment of calligraphy. They either master the art of one family and imitate other families, or they learn from both and then form their own family. The handwriting of today's middle school students is not so much free style as wild style, and does not stand out from a certain school or school. Zhong Yao of the Cao Wei Dynasty transformed official script into regular script. Wang Xizhi of the Eastern Jin Dynasty learned from the strengths of others and made regular script more perfect. His representative works in regular script, "Huang Ting Jing", "Le Yi Lun" and "Stele of Filial Daughter Cao E" have been published for more than 1,600 years and have been regarded by calligraphers of all generations. For the study of top-quality, exquisite, and model works, such as the temporary work "Huang Ting Jing" that remains in the museum, the authors include Anonymous in the Tang Dynasty, Zhao Mengzhaoye in the Yuan Dynasty, Zhu Yunming and Dong Qichang in the Ming Dynasty, Wang Duo in the Qing Dynasty, etc. Modern calligraphers believe that those who study regular script without studying the "Huang Ting Jing" will fall into the wild ways. The Tang monk went to the West to obtain scriptures and obtained the true scriptures. He obtained the scriptures in regular script. The true scripture is the "Huang Ting Jing". Wang Xizhi's writings are China's outstanding cultural heritage, which still radiate with dazzling brilliance and can be inherited as such. His calligraphy is a calligraphy calligraphy, which students can copy. Hard-brush calligraphy is derived from calligraphy, and the writing method can only follow the rules of calligraphy. No matter how many schools of calligraphy there are, the rule is still the origin of Wang Xizhi, "Nothing can change without its origin." ". The ancients paid attention to the eight ways of writing the character "Yong", which is the current point, horizontal (Le), vertical (Nu), short (pecking), long (plundering), pick (ce), hold (甔), The writing methods of the eight strokes such as hook (误) must be done according to Wang Xizhi's rules. As for "Lanting Preface", it is also a must-read for calligraphers.

  Zhuge Liang's "Execution of the Master" is a famous article through the ages. Mr. Liu Xiaoqing, the author of the regular script "Preface to the Master", is a famous middle-aged calligrapher and theorist in my country. His works are steady and neat, handsome and beautiful, with profound artistic conception and are suitable for both refined and popular people. He once performed calligraphy for Mr. Clinton. He attaches great importance to traditional methods and regular script. Following the example of Wang Xizhi, who had unique experience in Tang regular script, this post is especially suitable for beginners to learn regular script and is an excellent model. As long as students practice two to three hundred words, regular script will be able to reach a higher level. When doing homework, the words will be natural and neat. Teachers will be happy when they see the words on the composition grid.

  The calligraphy circle emphasizes "the literary accomplishment of calligraphers". The author believes that calligraphy is the essence of Chinese culture and the quintessence of the country. Only those who have both calligraphy and writing can become an excellent calligraphy teacher. Professor Ouyang Zhongshi gave a speech at Shandong University last year. He said: "For example, in a hotel, a calligrapher's calligraphy "Go back, come back" is hung on the door. He means that the guests will come back to stay in the future, but These four words clearly mean that you should go home quickly, we will not welcome you here." When writing, you must consider the content of the writing, the people you serve, the environment you are in, etc. There are cultural issues and literary accomplishments involved. In addition to the skills required for calligraphy, calligraphers must also have considerable literary accomplishment and literary writing ability, which is the same as calligraphers must have philology and aesthetic accomplishments. Mr. Li Kuchan, a master of traditional Chinese painting, once said: "If a calligrapher or painter makes a mistake or paints poorly, he will be looked down upon by others." He also said: "On top of painting there is calligraphy, on top of calligraphy there is literature, on top of literature there is music. What is calligraphy and painting?" The knowledge of the family? This is it." The word is "facade". If the facade is not well decorated, it will be difficult to attract people. Therefore, we need to solve the problem of "book", improve writing efficiency, write scientifically and standardly, and the artistic realm focuses on beauty. Therefore, you must write beautifully so that students can accept it, be willing to read it, like your words, and like you as a person. The teacher's handwriting has a great influence on the students. If you write well, maybe the students' handwriting will be like yours. This is called subtle influence. Calligraphy can not only reflect a teacher's artistic skills in the classroom, but also reflect his or her personality to a certain extent.