Zhao Zhiqian (1829-1884), a famous calligrapher, painter and seal carver in the Qing Dynasty of China. Han nationality, from Shaoxing, Zhejiang. At the beginning, it was named Yifu, named Lengjun; later it was changed to Shushu, named Bei'an, Mei'an, Wuban, etc. Zhao Zhiqian's seal cutting has made great achievements and has far-reaching influence on later generations. Modern masters such as Wu Changshuo and Qi Baishi have benefited a lot from him.
Zhao Zhiqian's first name was Yifu, and his name was Lengjun; later he changed his name to Suishu, and his nicknames were Tiesan, Hanliao, Bei'an, Wuzan, Mei'an, etc. The residence is called "Er Jindie Tang" and "Bitter House". He was an official in Poyang, Jiangxi, and Fengxin County. He was good at poetry and calligraphy. Don't be out of fashion. Good at painting, flowers have changed after learning from Shi Tao, which is the pioneer of freehand flowers in the late Qing Dynasty. Beginners of seal cutting learned from the Zhejiang school, followed the Qin and Han seal seals, and then participated in the Song, Yuan and Anhui schools, and obtained Qin edicts, Han mirrors, spring coins, Han inscriptions and inscriptions to be printed. In his youth, he was famous all over the country for his talent. His attainments in calligraphy are multifaceted, and he can integrate the strokes of real, cursive, official script and seal script into one, complement each other and complement each other. Zhao Zhiqian once said: "Independence is expensive, the world is huge, many people say everything, independence is hard to find." He made unremitting efforts in poetry, calligraphy, painting and meaning all his life, and finally became a master of his generation.
Since he was a child, he has been reading and practicing calligraphy, and he has learned a lot. He used to make a living by painting and calligraphy. Participated in 3 trials, all failed. At the age of 44, he was the editor-in-chief of "Jiangxi Tongzhi", and served as the county magistrate of Poyang, Fengxin, and Nancheng, and died in office. Good at figures, landscapes, especially flowers and plants. At the beginning, he painted in a beautiful style, and later learned from Xu Wei, Zhu Da, and the Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou. Yan Zhenqing, his master of calligraphy at the beginning, later borrowed from the inscriptions of the Northern Dynasty. Zhao Zhiqian first imitated the Eight Schools of Xiling in seal cutting, and later pursued the Anhui School, and participated in imperial scripts, Han mirror inscriptions, coin inscriptions, tile inscriptions, sealing mud, etc., forming a unique style with varied rules and fresh artistic conceptions, and created Yangwen inscriptions , whose art organically combines poetry, calligraphy, painting and printing, and had a great influence on the art scene in the late Qing Dynasty. Many of his calligraphy and painting works have been handed down from generation to generation. Later generations edited and published a variety of albums and collections, including "Sorrowful Layman Essays", "Sorrowful Layman Poems", "Yonglu Xianjie", "Bu Huanyu Visiting Stele Records", "Six Dynasties" "Bieziji", which is printed with "Second Kingdie Hall Seal Book". In addition, Zhao Zhiqian wrote the "Chronology of Duke Zhang Zhonglie", which narrates the life of Zhang Huangyan, a famous general who fought against the Qing Dynasty in the late Ming Dynasty, in the form of chronology.
Second, collect everyone
There are many secret volumes in the collection. There are libraries in the family called "Er Kingdie Hall" and "Looking Up at Thousand Seven Hundred and Twenty-Nine Crane House". The book collection is printed with "Zhao Zhiqian", "Book Collection of Er Jin Die Tang", "Bending for Five Buckets of Rice", "Helu", "Records of Er Jin Die Tang Double Hooks and Two Han Dynasty Stone Carvings" and so on. According to the collection of books, there is "Looking Up at Thousand Seven Hundred and Twenty-Nine Hezhai Series" (referred to as "Hezhai Series"), with 6 episodes and 38 kinds. The first scriptures, miscellaneous histories, epigraphs, notes, etc. are all short and rare The book of biography. Among them, the book "The History of England's Entry into the City of Guangdong" was the latest historical record at that time. He is wild in nature and good at painting freehand flowers. Together with Ren Bonian and Wu Changshuo, he is known as the "Three Great Painters of the Late Qing Dynasty". The two kings of calligraphy and Yan style have created a unique style of simplicity and simplicity. He is also good at compiling and engraving, and the printed text is simple and vigorous. Good poetry. He is the author of "Continued Notes on the Succession of Masters of Sinology in the National Dynasty", "Interview Records of Buhuanyu Monument", "Gossip in Yonglu", "Secrets of Erjindietang", "Ji Yatang Poetry Talk", "Mei'an Collection", "The Poetry of Bei'an Layman" "wait.
3. Calligraphy career
Zhao Zhiqian recorded in "Zhang An Za Shuo": "Before the age of 20, I studied "Family Temple Stele", five hundred characters a day." It can be seen that he worked very hard in his face and style. However, with the changes of the times, the study of calligraphy has gradually declined, and the study of steles has flourished. The historical trend is irresistible. Just as Kang Youwei said: "The prosperity of stele learning and the decline of calligraphy learning are also due to the prosperity of gold and stone... The Bao family in Jing County, with the capital of precision and sensitivity, when gold and stone flourished, passed on the method of whiteness, and uniquely acquired the essence Ao. The secret collection of Daqi, written as "An Wu Lunshu", showing the new stele, and proclaiming the brushwork, so this study is in full swing. As far as Xian and Tong, the study of steles has been widely spread. A child of three feet, a society of ten rooms, there is no exception. Oral Beibei, writing in Wei style, is still a thing of the past." Zhao Zhiqian is in this situation, with his character, he will never be left behind, and with his talent, he will definitely become a trend-setter of the times.
After Zhao Zhiqian fled Wenzhou, he read "An Wu Lun Shu" in his free time, and was deeply impressed by Bao An Wu's theory. In "Zhang An Za Shuo", we can see his mentality of being in love with the ancient engravings of the Six Dynasties: "The ancient engravings of the Six Dynasties are wonderful because they can be watched. When they are encountered suddenly, the humble husband is horrified, and the wise man is stunned. Stare for a long time, but see a wave of scorpions, together Falling is all created by heaven and earth, and it cannot be moved easily. You must write the scale, and you will know where you can’t start. I have never read all the joys and sorrows in this book, and I don’t understand it." He also said: "An Wu Baoshen Bo said that he once saw the rubbings of the Southern Tang Dynasty "Mr. Dongfang" "Painting Praise" and "Luo Shen Fu" are all written in the same style as Han Li. However, the two kings' books handed down in modern times can be known. The emphasis on the two kings' books began with Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty. Today, there are steles of Taizong's imperial books, and there are many books about the two kings printed in the world. It is different. It is possible to say that Taizong’s book is the second king’s book. You must know that Taizong’s emphasis on the second king, the ministers wearing Taizong, and Mole’s affairs became pandering. Therefore, calligraphers who have been regarded as ancestors for hundreds of years lost their true colors first. It is a pity that the 80 million eyes were narrowed by this cloud of dust. This theory is true for thousands of years, and no one dares to speak it out. Let’s just say it. Ruan Wenda said that the book is based on the Tang Dynasty. , and it is not expensive, it is the same as the rest of the meaning." It is the same with Yu Shu who is not satisfied with the two kings. So, he started to learn calligraphy, and gradually parted ways with the Erwang system. After he went to Beijing, he got together with Shen Junchu, Hu Ganbo, Wei Jiasun, etc. All of them were addicted to gold and stone. favorite. Around the age of 35, for more than a year, I wandered to and from Liulichang every day, admiring and analyzing my doubts, morning and evening.
Zhao Zhiqian gradually abandoned Yan style calligraphy completely and turned to Northern Wei calligraphy. At the age of 36, he wrote regular script for Qi Jiwen and composed twelve volumes of poems, which can be said to be the classics of his early learning of Northern Wei calligraphy. And a year ago, Zhao Zhiqian still kept his calligraphy style, but in just one year, his calligraphy style has undergone a qualitative change, which is unimaginable for ordinary people. From then on, he abandoned his face and entered the Wei Dynasty, and there was no end to it. At the age of 37, he wrote in a letter to Hu Peixi (Zi Ji): "My younger brother has been reading "Yi Zhou Shuang Ji" for five years, and the more he thinks about it, the more he thinks about it. Since I came here, I saw the stele written by Zheng Xibo, and I first realized the volume. Seeing Zhang Wanlin's book, I realized the turning point. Seeing more than a hundred kinds of authentic works by Deng Shanren, I realized the setback. However, I always couldn't understand the four characters of "Dragon Leaping Tiger Crouching" and Yan Yanxiang (Han Jun, named Delin, one of the disciples of the Bao family) Come on, watching his calligraphy is a great realization of all kinds of horizontal and vertical waves. Yan has been studying this for thirty years, and his secret is very secret. Although my younger brother stole it for a moment, I suspect it suddenly came in. But among the current schools, there are not many. Let it go. At this point, the book is too big to carry in the pavilion, and my younger brother and others are no longer able to serve, so we might as well do our own thing." "Yi Zhou Shuang Ji" is the guiding theory for Zhao Zhiqian's transformation from Yan style to Northern Wei calligraphy. Zheng Daozhao's stone carvings made him comprehend the "juanfeng" writing method. Zhang Wanlin's (named Qi, 1764-1833) calligraphy also broadened Zhao Zhiqian's horizons, making him know that Zhen and Li's calligraphy could be used interchangeably. And Deng Shiru's calligraphy made him realize the rhythm of strokes. In addition, Zhao Zhiqian also praised Zhang Qi's daughter Zhang Lunying (1780~?) in particular, thinking that "there is no calligrapher in the country, but Ms. Zhang Wanchuan of Yanghu is named Lunying, and Zheng Xibo is the only one after Zheng Xibo". Zhang Lunying was good at the Beibei Stele, using Zheng Daozhao as his method. Comparing with Zhao's works, we can clearly see her influence on Zhao.
However, looking at Zhao Zhiqian's books after the age of 35, or even around the age of 40, although the style has initially formed, it lacks writing power. Just as he said in his letter to Wei Jiasun: "At this time, my younger brother realized the five characters of serious illness in his own writing, saying: the beginning and the end are not clean." I.) If you get rid of this disease, then there are those who cannot be seen by Deng and Bao, and those who are not familiar with themselves." This five-character disease of "starting and ending is not clean" is more obvious in running script. It is gradually resolved after about 40 years old. To be exact, it was around the age of 44 when he went to Jiangxi to take office, and the frame was perfected. After the age of 50, it was finally completed and reached the state of "everyone is old", which is close to the masters of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, which is obvious to all. Just as it claims: "There was such a person after the Han Dynasty and before the Sui Dynasty", I believe it!
Tracing back to the Qin and Han Dynasties, and opening up the atmosphere, the integration of seal script and official script
Zhao Zhiqian's study of seal script, or because of his study of seal cutting, originated from Deng Shiru and Wu Rangzhi, and was secondly influenced by his colleague Hu Shu. The seal cutting at that time was all printed in Xiaozhuan. Zhao Zhiqian also learned this and is only good at Xiaozhuan. There are very few works of Dazhuan, and what can be seen is only a banner, so it is not enough to discuss. In the Qing Dynasty, Deng Shiru was the number one person who was good at seal script, which has become a conclusion in Zhao's era. Other masters of seal script such as Wang Shu, Hong Liangji, Qian Wei, Sun Xingyan, etc., all emphasize jade tendon seal script, lack of changes, which is not in line with Zhao Zhiqian's character, so they are not valued by Zhao Zhiqian. After Deng, Zhang Huiyan, Wu Rangzhi, and De Lin passed on their seal script. Hu Shu, a colleague and friend, has expertise in this field. At the age of 54, Zhao wrote for his disciple Qian Shilin's "Yishan Stele": "The stone engraved on Yishan was lost in the Northern Wei Dynasty, and the engraved version of Zheng Wenbao handed down today is very clumsy. In the seal script of the dynasty, Deng Yubo was the first, and the closest people after the uncle were Wu Xizai of Yangzhou and my friend Hu Xizai of Jixi. Xizai was old, and Xifu was trapped in Hangzhou, and his life and death were unknown. Xifu is still alive, so I dare not write seal script. Today Xizai I just don’t know where to go. Qian Sheng’s next search for the seal method must be based on what he knows, that is, he can use Deng’s method to interpret the mountain script, which may be better than the history of Wen Bao’s banknotes.” All kinds of information are revealed in this, and the fundamental The most important thing is to learn from Deng Shiru. However, the biggest difference between Zhao Zhiqian and Wu Rangzhi is that he does not stick to the rules, learns from Deng Shiru and does not stick to Deng's law, and uses others for his own use. He commented on Deng Shiru, four in talent and six in manpower; while Bao Shichen had three in heaven and seven in man; Wu Rangzhi had one in man and nine in man; Talent is above all others. Therefore, from the bottom of his heart, he also disobeyed Deng Shiru, thinking that after hard work, Deng and Bao Jun could not get rid of the five-character disease of "unclean at the beginning and end".
At the age of 34, Zhao Zhiqian came to the "Yishan Monument" volume and his seal script works before and after. The structure is between Deng Shiru and Hu Shu, and the writing power is still not as strong as Shen Xiong. In the middle age, Li Yangbing's "Town God's Temple Monument" and other seal scripts in the seal script of the year of the crane have beautified the structure to an extreme. It is unique in addition to Deng Shiru, Wu Rangzhi, and Hu Shu. And this novelty mainly lies in the beauty of "structure". For Zhao Zhiqian, official script is, in a sense, an incidental script. He once said: "In my life, I was able to write official scripts because I learned seal script, and I was able to write official scripts only after learning official scripts." It paves the way for the study of Zhengshu. Of course, this is just a theory, but in fact Zhao Zhiqian's seal script is as mentioned above, and the official script is also self-contained.
Zhao Zhiqian has studied a lot in official script, and we can know what he has learned from his handed down works. There are: "Ode to the Stone Gate", "Fan Min Stele", "Sangong Mountain God Stele", "Liu Xiong Stele", "Fenglong Mountain Stele", "Wu Rong Stele", "Wei Yuanping Stele", "Chengyang Lingtai Stele" "etc. From the age of 35 to the age of 50, there are all those who are close to the steles of Han Dynasty in their works. After entering Beijing at the age of 35, he searched widely for inscriptions. He once made a detailed textual research for Shen Junchu's collection of "Liu Xiong Bei". Based on the Tianyi Pavilion Song rubbings and Weng Fanggang's engraving of Jiangqiu Shibayu's double hook copy as the base, he collated them one by one and wrote an explanatory inscription. He also invented the method of double hooks, and a large number of hooks imitated the stone inscriptions of Han Dynasty. Among them is "Ten Kinds of Han Steles with Double Hooks in Two King Butterfly Halls", all of which are rarely inscribed with inscriptions on stones. At the age of 45, Li Wentian copied 96 characters of the incomplete version of "The Monument of Huashan Temple in Xiyue". Because of the "old double hook version", it can be seen that he also sketched "The Monument of Huashan Temple in Xiyue" in his early years. When he was 35 years old, "The Seal of Zhao's Double Hook in Kuaiji", he wrote the inscription: "If you can't ring, you can double hook, I hope the words will be kept for me, and future generations will come to ask for it." It can be seen that Zhao Zhiqian is diligent in official script and diligent carry on!
Zhao Zhiqian first learned from Deng Shiru, and then traced back to the Han stele. With Zhao's character, he doesn't stick to one law, let alone stick to a certain style, or even a certain monument, so he learns from the Han Li and eventually becomes his own style. His early works can be seen around the age of 35, which are not yet ready, or just look like ancient people. The middle-aged "Wei Youtang Official Script Seven Characters" (40 years old), "Clerical Script Zhang Heng Lingxian Four Screens" (40 years old), "Weixu Zhai Lin Dui Longshan Stele Four Screens" (41 years old) have entered the Han Chinese room, but the running pen still has the will of Deng Shiru. In his later years, he was like official script, like seal script, calm and old-fashioned, simple and luxuriant. The style of writing is between the seal script and the official script, the center is the main one, and the side is also used. The running brush combines the circle with the square, combining the square and the circle. The body is flat and square, tight on the outside and loose on the inside, wide and natural. In the middle of the level, there is a tendency to lean to the right, and the odd and the right are born together.
Zhao Zhiqian has the most works and the most widely handed down is the running script. Before the age of 35, there are many running scripts in his works, all of which are self-styled. After careful examination, they are similar to those of He Shaoji, gentle and elegant, vigorous and free and easy. At the age of 35, I wrote a couplet of running script and seven characters for Houfu in April: "It is good to be in love with dreaming from dreams, and there are many joys after going through hardships." Still face-saving, and one month later, he wrote a couplet of running script and eight characters for Zichun: "Spring The clouds are cloudy, and the night is suspicious outside the window; the afternoon nap is not enough, and the fairy is in the pillow." Then I began to alienate "Yan Feng". Dot and dash has not completely broken away from "Yanfeng", but has changed from quantitative to qualitative. After the age of 36, this kind of cursive calligraphy will no longer be done. Around the age of 37, he tried to write running script using the Beibei method, which was far-fetched. His self-assessment of the five-character disease of "the beginning and the end are not clean" can be clearly seen at this period, the turning point is unnatural, and the writing power is also weak. As we all know, Zhao Zhiqian's Northern Wei Fengxingshu is his original creation, which is unprecedented. Deng Shiru developed the style of calligraphy in the Northern Wei Dynasty, but his cursive strokes were not centered, but curled and wrapped. The same is true for Bao Shichen, but the font is not out of the style of the Tang people. Only Zhao Zhiqian began to directly apply the brushwork of the Northern Wei Dynasty to running script. Therefore, it has no "reference objects" left by the predecessors, and because of the unique method of using the pen in the Northern Wei Dynasty: the roll forward plus the side forward is converted into a center forward, it is difficult to be coherent. In this regard, Zhao first solved it in the small running script of the "manuscript", or the inscription in small characters. The inscriptions around the age of 40 are naturally mature without any bluntness at all. Although the writing strength is not strong enough, the writing is no longer smooth. In a sense, the full maturity of his running script works was later than that of official script, seal script and official script, and it was the last to be able to emerge. After the age of 45, with both mind and hand, he can do whatever he wants, so he is natural, free from pen and ink. Zhao Zhiqian once claimed: "I have never learned running script, I can only draft books." In fact, running script accounts for 80 to 90% of Zhao Zhiqian's works in his later years, which is the focus of his works. It's just that Zhao Zhiqian is discussed in the official script of the Northern Wei Dynasty, while other styles are ignored, so that the Fengxing script of the Northern Wei Dynasty is regarded as "Zhao Zhiqian's Northern Wei Shu", without distinction. All successful calligraphers must enter their own correct scripts and end with running scripts. Wang Xizhi, Yan Zhenqing, Su Dongpo, Zhao Mengxuan, Dong Qichang... are all like this. In modern calligraphy, scrolls are often hung on the wall to appreciate, and more attention is paid to running script works. Although Zhao Yibei's stele is famous throughout the world, running script is still the most handed down. This is probably what the world requires of calligraphers.
If a person's calligraphy style and various calligraphy styles can be unified in the end, it must have a unique style. After the age of 50, Zhao Zhiqian, especially his works in his last years, has reached the state of "everyone is old" in various calligraphy styles. It is a pity that Zhao Zhiqian seldom wrote cursive script in his life. Judging from the middle-aged cursive script "Wei Qianting Cursive Script Collection of the Preface to the Holy Teaching", it is simple and elegant, and it all comes from the brushwork of the Northern Wei Dynasty.
4. Painting career
Know where the predecessors are everywhere, see where the predecessors are not-Zhao Zhiqian's painting
I once saw the painting that Zhao Zhiqian collaborated with Ren Xiong (Wei Chang) (1823-1857). If we compare Zhao Zhiqian's 31-year-old Atlas of Flowers and Fruits for Yuan Qing (collected by Shanghai Museum) and Uncle Ying's Atlas of Flowers and Fruits (collected by the Palace Museum) with Ren Xiong's Poetic Intentions of Yao Damei Comparing the "One Hundred and Twenty Books" (collected by the Palace Museum) with the "Flower Scroll" (collected by the Palace Museum) made in the Dabishan Pavilion, it is not difficult to find many similarities between the two. The painting methods of flowers such as peonies are almost the same. Coloring after outline, the method is the same. All kinds of flowers are densely interspersed, and the layout is very similar. The painting techniques and painting concepts of the two are interlinked. Zhao wrote in "The Twelve Openings of the Atlas of Flowers and Fruits for Yuanqing": "Ren Wei will die forever, and I will talk to him." Both of them are from Zhejiang, and they have a common friend - Ding Wenwei (word blue), the owner of the Dabishan Pavilion. Uncle, 1827-1890). Ding and Ren are from the same hometown, both from Xiaoshan. Ding and Zhao Zeng sworn brothers. Uncle Ding Lan was good at poetry, calligraphy and painting. It can be inferred that Zhao was influenced by Ren in his early years, and he painted together and discussed painting principles with each other.
Learn about classical painting
From the inscriptions in his paintings, we can see that the painters he adopted include: Wu Zhen, Li Wei, Zhang Yan, Ma Yuanyu, Yun Shouping, Zhang Wei, Wang Wu, Jiang Tingxi, Chen Hongshou, Jichen, Li Fangying, Xu Wei, Zou Yigui, Zhou Zhimian, Lu Zhi, Shi Tao, Bian Shoumin, Wang Meng, Qian Zai, Wang Chen, Shen Xiang, etc. Among them, Li Wei was mentioned the most, followed by Yun Shouping, Xu Wei and so on.
In early Qing Dynasty flower and bird paintings, represented by Yun Nantian, studied the boneless method and followed Xu Chongsi's painting style in the Northern Song Dynasty. The elegant and bright colors set a new trend of the times. For a while, the "Nantian School" was formed. The release of "Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou" has washed away the delicate atmosphere of the late Nantian School, and painted with freehand brushwork, with a magnificent momentum. They learned from Xu Qingteng, Chen Baiyang and Bada Shanren, using calligraphy as painting, pursuing the effect of writing, emphasizing the spirit and despising the form, which became popular among the people for a while. After the "Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou", freehand painting also tended to decline. During the Daoguang period, the painting world was quite quiet. Zhao Zhiqian was born during this period. Around the first year of Tongzhi (34 years old), he made four screens of running script for Youxi, one of which recorded a poem when he was 10 years old, saying: "This servant inscribed the painting "Pine Moon Births Cool Picture" when he was ten years old." According to this It can be seen that Zhao devoted himself to painting when he was young. Judging from his handed down paintings, he has worked hard on Yun Nantian's boneless painting method. His ability to draw lines, set colors and sketch shapes is very good. Reviewers said that he "learned Yun Shouping's painting style when he was young".
But Zhao Zhiqian is better at analysis and synthesis. He combined Yun Nantian's boneless painting method with the freehand painting method of "Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou". In particular, it draws on the technique of Li Futang's (eel) small freehand brushwork, and uses "Nantian" to highlight it. Combining the two major schools of flower-and-bird painting in the Qing Dynasty into one, a new style was created. Due to his profound calligraphy skills and precise grasp of lines, he outlines with this kind of golden and stone-like brushwork, which is extensive, thick and full of wit. He uses various fonts to write inscriptions, and is good at poetry and rhyme. This is also an important factor for him to surpass other painters in the late Qing Dynasty and become a master of painting. He is a model of the organic combination of poetry, calligraphy, painting and printing.
Looking at Zhao's handed down paintings, the most admirable thing is his painting subjects, which have never been painted before. At the age of 33, he lived in Wenzhou to avoid the war. He saw novel flowers and seafood there, and he wrote what he saw into his paintings, thus greatly expanding the subject matter of painting. His "Picture of Different Fish", "Volume of Products in Ouzhong", "Four Screens of Plants and Trees in Ouzhong" and so on have become immortal masterpieces in the history of Chinese painting.
Due to his superb artistic achievements, Shanghai-based artists, especially the new generation such as Wu Changshuo, were influenced by Zhao Zhiqian and gradually formed a new genre—Shanghai School of Painting. Pan Tianshou wrote in "History of Chinese Painting": "Uncle Zhao Zhiqian of Kuaiji, made flowers with the fun of gold and stone calligraphy and painting, magnificent and ancient, and opened the precedent of the former Shanghai School." In fact, Zhao Zhiqian's influence was not limited to the sea. , Chen Shizeng and other Northern School masters were also influenced by him.
5. Seal cutting career
Don't use seals to pass on the knife in the prime of life - Zhao Zhiqian seal carving
Although Zhao Zhiqian carved less than 400 square seals in his life, he has reached the pinnacle of seal cutting in the Qing Dynasty. Many of the historical classics have influenced Wu Changshuo, Huang Mufu, Qi Baishi, Zhao Shuru, Yi Dachang, and the entire history of seal cutting for more than a hundred years.
(The art of seal cutting in the modern sense) began in the Ming Dynasty and flourished in the middle of the Qing Dynasty. Represented by Ding Jing and Deng Shiru, they established two schools: the Zhejiang School and the Wan School. There are eight Xiling Schools in the Zhejiang School. When Zhao Zhiqian first learned seal cutting, Zhao Cixian and Qian Song were still alive, and there was Wu Rangzhi in the Wan School. Zhao Zhiqian's family is in Shaoxing, not far from Hangzhou. Under the traffic and social environment at that time, influenced by the region, it was inevitable to start with the Zhejiang School. In fact, Zhao Zhiqian started by learning from Chen Mansheng. When he was 36 years old, he said: "Yu Shao learned from Mansheng, and after a long time, he knew what was wrong, so he abandoned it." Zhejiang school. Before he met Wei Jiasun in Fuzhou at the age of 34, he had always imitated the works of Zhejiang School. There are nearly a hundred works handed down during this period. The earliest works that can be seen now are the 24-year-old two parties: "Bow to Shame" and "Reasonable Peace of Mind". At this time, the style of printing was obviously Zhejiang style, but it was soon discovered that Deng Shiru's Wan style appeared. "Taoshan Avoiding Guests" engraved around the age of 26 said: "After learning the works of Baishan people. This kind has become extinct in recent days. The vulgar eyes are entrusted to the school of Wenhe, and the engravers are also familiar with the times. I don't know why. It's a pity." The "Huzi" engraved at the same time is also imitated by Deng Shiru, while the other side's "Seal of Yu Maochen" is said to be "slightly autumnal." The "Yiyu White Notes" engraved around the same year and the "Guo Chengxun Seal" engraved at the age of 27 are obviously Han Yin style. It can be seen that the works of this period are between the Zhejiang School, the Wan School, and the Han Yin School, and they are vacillating. However, he was not satisfied with the Zhejiang School, the Anhui School, and the Han Yin School. Instead, while seeking the combination of the Zhejiang and Anhui Schools, he traced back to the Qin and Han Dynasties, and then extended his tentacles to the Han Monuments, Han Mirrors, and so on. The breadth of its approach is unprecedented.
In Xin Youdong, Zhao Zhiqian, who was avoiding chaos in Wenzhou, sailed to Fuzhou at the invitation of Fu Jiezi, an old friend who was an official in Fujian. In March of the following year, Wei Jiasun came to visit, and the two hit it off immediately and became friends with each other. The friendship between the two is of profound significance to Zhao Zhiqian's seal cutting art.
Although Wei Jiasun did not engrave seals, he had a good understanding of seal studies and was good at collecting seal records. Zhao Zhiqian's name is out there, and Wei Zao is fond of him. When they met each other, they gave each other manuscripts of poems, and Zhao Wei made paintings and calligraphy. Afterwards, discuss the theory of seal together, and ask Zhao to engrave it for him. Zhao Zhiqian is proficient in seal cutting, but not good at engraving seals, "because there are few combinations" ("He Chuanzhu Yin"). Even if you meet a bosom friend like Wei Jiasun, you don't take the sword lightly. Wei Jiasun knew very well that he was a human being, so he used the method of aggressive generals to force him to engrave the seal. First of all, Wei proposed to collect the printed genealogy for Zhao and search for Zhao's old works, but the collection was only a few dozen squares, which was not enough to form a genealogy. And facing the old works, Zhao Zhiqian himself can't be satisfied. For this reason, Zhao Zhiqian started the most batch engraving in his life, engraving for himself, for Wei Jiasun, and for Fu Jiezi and other friends. Secondly, when the two were discussing seal theory, Wei Jiasun may have deliberately compared Zhao with Ding Jing, Huang Yi and other senior masters, thinking that Zhao was inferior to Ding Huang, which aroused Zhao's creative psychology of competing with the ancients. When Zhao Zai engraved "Wei Xizeng" and "Jiasun" for Wei, he engraved the inscription: "Jiasun Muyu is printed under Ding and Huang, and this may be under Ding and above Huang." The engraved inscription of Zhao Zhiqian's Seal says: "Longhong is not so peaceful, and Wanbai is not so powerful." On the other side of the "Zhao Zhiqian Seal" engraved it says: "Wanbaishan people engraved small seals, it is not as good as this work." There is even an inscription in the "Songjiang Shuyong's Examination of Tibet": "The method is taken between the Qin Dynasty and the Han lamp, and it has established a door for the imprinting family for six hundred years." Send but not receive. He said in a letter to his friends: "My younger brother felt that calligraphy, painting and seal cutting were useless when he was around 30. After Renxu, he devoted himself to opening up a new path and opening a new situation." This desire for innovation should be said to have something to do with Wei Jiasun's promotion. It is a key opportunity to compile and print scores for Zhao.
Wei Jiasun's collection of "Er Jindie Tang Yinpu" for Zhao began in the summer of Renxu. Zhao Zhiqian's large number of creations also began at this time. It took about half a year to complete the first draft. In the autumn and winter of the following year, Wei Zhijing lived for a while, added some works, and then sent them at any time. It was not until the year of Jiazi that the printed score was completed. In the three years of Renxu, Guihai, and Jiazi (34 to 36 years old), Zhao carved more than 20 prescriptions for Wei Jiasun, nearly 20 prescriptions for Hu Shu, an old colleague of the same year, and Shen Junchu (should be read as rhyme), a friend of the Jinshi family. At the beginning) more than 30 squares were carved. Including the seals for personal use and the seals engraved for other friends, more than 200 squares were engraved in three years, accounting for more than half of Zhao Zhiqian's engravings in his life.
The direct reason for the large-scale and meticulous creation should be to supplement the "Second King Butterfly Hall Seal Book", and the other reason is the existence and stimulation of Wu Rangzhi, a senior seal carver.
Friendship with Wu Rangzhi