"Qi and rhyme" are often mentioned in both calligraphy creation and calligraphy appreciation. Although this is a virtual realm of metaphysical association, it seems to have nothing to do with calligraphy creation. In fact, it is not the case. Qi is the origin of the aesthetic vitality and creativity of the subject of calligraphy art. . This actually directly involves the creation of calligraphy, the relationship between calligraphy subjects and calligraphy objects, and the understanding of the art of calligraphy.

1. Qi is a very complex and all-encompassing cultural connotation

"Qi" is a philosophical concept with rich connotations and complex content in Chinese cultural thought. The basic category of this philosophy originated from the ancestors’ observation of the natural world and their experience of the ontological movement of human life in ancient times. "The clear air rises and becomes the sky, and the turbid air descends and becomes the earth." "The sky has six qi... The six qi are yin, yang, wind, rain, darkness, and light." ("Zuo Zhuan·Year of Zhaogong") Xu Shen's "Shuowen Jiezi" explains that Qi Yun "Qi, cloud Qi". Around the Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou dynasties, philosophical concepts such as Yin and Yang, the Five Elements, and Six Qi were widely applied and became the main category of human life consciousness, and Qi also became a A philosophical concept with materialistic ideas.

In Chapter 42 of "Laozi" there is: "Tao gives birth to one, gives birth to two, two gives birth to three, and three gives rise to all things. All things bear yin and hold yang, and the energy is in harmony." Zhuangzi's "Zhibeiyou": "The life of man , the accumulation of Qi. When it gathers, it leads to life, and when it disperses, it leads to death." In the Han Dynasty, Dong Zhongshu regarded Qi as the intermediary of "the interaction between heaven and man". Wang Chong further believes that everything in the universe is "born with Qi". Different people's Qi, as well as the thickness and nature of their Qi, will produce different temperaments, characters and thoughts. Since the category of "Qi" is all-encompassing, the concept of Qi can be seen everywhere in ancient Chinese classics. Whether it is nature, social phenomena, human physiology, pathology, or even spiritual morality, thought, religious art, philosophy, etc., they all contain different words and various explanations of Qi. For example: weather, earth qi, mountain and forest qi, cold qi, summer qi, yin qi, yang qi, dry qi, moisture, liver qi, evil qi, righteous qi, menstrual qi, happy qi, angry qi, spiritual qi, delicate qi, gold and stone qi, temple qi, Mountain and wild energy, scholarly energy, husband energy, boudoir energy, village energy, morale, essence energy, strange energy, vitality energy, true energy... The concept of "energy" is further blurred from the image, and gradually forms a pure form of energy without substance. All things are born from Qi, and all things contain Qi. It further demonstrates the aesthetic role of Qi in artistic creation and artistic aesthetics.

2. Qi in the art of calligraphy

In Chinese art aesthetics, Qi is a deep-seated aesthetic with life connotations. It was first seen in "Yue Ji". It is believed that music is produced by the Qi of heaven and earth, and the Qi of musical works is in response to the Qi of the human body. Cao Pi first introduced Qi into literature: "Literature is mainly based on Qi. The clear and turbid Qi has a body, and cannot be overpowered by force." And to..." pioneered the theory of "nourishing qi" in Chinese literature and art and the aesthetic theory of work style; Liu Xie's "The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons" is a very important work on the systematic study of the harmony of qi in the history of Chinese aesthetics. In later literary and artistic theories, Qi was mostly introduced into aesthetics. Xie He's "Paintings", Wang Sengqian's "Praise for the Brushwork", and Yu Jianwu's "Books" all put forward the aesthetic ideas of Qi such as charm, taste, and spirit. In calligraphy, there are also many contents such as He Shaoji's idea of ​​integrating nourishing qi and true nature, Liu Xizai's overall aesthetic concept of yin and yang integrating qi.

Qi and calligraphy creation

Qi is the origin of calligraphy creation. "The animal of Qi is the moving thing, so it shakes the temperament and forms various dances and chants." (Zhong Rong's "Poetry") made a clear statement on artistic creation. "Articles express the emotions of all things." (Ye Xie's "Original Poetry") The same is true for calligraphy, which is based on expressing human temperament. "Qi source" and "object image" shake the temperament and form the desire to create. "All images are qi." (Zhang Zai's "Zhengmeng·Qian Sheng") Through object images, people perceive them and transform them into creative impulses, showing the passion during creation. In the "Book Book", there are "five combinations" of creative states: "the mind is happy and leisurely", "the benefits are beneficial to the knowledge", "the time is harmonious and the energy is moist", "paper and ink are in harmony", and "occasionally desire to write". This is the best mental state for calligraphy creation.

There are two realms of calligraphy creation in the true sense:

One is that before the creation of calligraphy, the body's Qi and the invisible Qi of spirit and emotion form complex changes. The Qi transforms into tangible lines through the movement of pen and ink. At the same time, the movement of the lines follows the emotions of the calligraphy subject. There are ups and downs due to changes in the body and the changes in the essence of the whole body. In the process of creation, the different "qi" of emotional impulse and rational thinking constitute the contradiction in the creative process of the main body of calligraphy. This contradiction in turn transforms the metaphysical virtual realm of "qi" into a real realm - tangible Mirror.

The second realm is the highest realm, which is the Taoist realm of "the unity of nature and man" and "the assimilation of things and myself". As Su Dongpo said, "As far as a reed is concerned, the vast expanse of land is at a loss. It is as vast as riding on the wind without knowing where it stops, and fluttering as if leaving the world alone, becoming immortal and ascending to immortality..." Such a state of selflessness... . Creation is a completely natural state of writing.

Among the three ideological pillars of traditional culture: "Yin Yang and Five Elements Theory", "The Theory of Correspondence between Heaven and Man", and "The Thought of Neutral Harmony", the aesthetics of calligraphy takes "nature" as the highest aesthetic realm, so it is also consistent with the "correspondence between nature and man" That is, the relationship between "harmony of nature and man" is the closest. Taoism attaches great importance to Qi. Taoism emphasizes tranquility, breathing and thoughts, and a state of integration with nature. Calligraphy creation emphasizes that the creative subject should be "calm and relaxed", relaxed and calm, reaching a state of selflessness and connected with nature, so that the "vital energy" can be smoothed and the techniques can be better utilized. Therefore, "qi" is not only the essence of life, but also forms the origin of calligraphy creation.

2. Qi in calligraphy works















Qiyun is closely related to momentum, weather, style, meaning, atmosphere, interest, etc. In fact, these aesthetic categories are all born from Qi. Qi Mo is the combined concept of "qi" and "momentum". "Qi" is more internal, and "shi" is more external. They both focus on strength, strength, and power. Cai Yong's "Nine Moments": "The momentum is irresistible, and the momentum is irresistible..." The aesthetics of momentum are widely used in traditional Chinese poetry, calligraphy and painting. For example, Li Bai's poem is evaluated as "the hungry eagle flies down, and the air flows across the sky"; Emperor Wu of Wei's poems are full of domineering power; commenting on Mi Fu's calligraphy as "like a celestial horse taking off its title" and Wang Xizhi's calligraphy as "a dragon leaping over the Tianmen, a tiger crouching on the Phoenix Tower" are all aesthetics of momentum.

In contemporary calligraphy creation, the emphasis on the formal sense of the work and the exhibition hall effect actually emphasize the importance of momentum in calligraphy creation and calligraphy aesthetics. Therefore, calligraphy creation should emphasize the strong and refreshing lines, the momentum of the characters flying, and the grand atmosphere of the work, which is the emphasis on "qi"; the pen should be precise, varied, and rich in artistic language, which is the emphasis on the work. The emphasis on "charm". Only by deeply feeling the charm can we have a profound understanding and improvement of calligraphy creation. There are also He Shaoji’s thoughts on the integration of nourishing qi and true nature, Liu Xizai’s overall aesthetics of yin and yang qi, and many other contents.