"Qi and rhyme" are often mentioned in both calligraphy creation and calligraphy appreciation. Although this is a virtual realm of metaphysical associations, it seems to have nothing to do with calligraphy creation. In fact, it is not the case. Qi is the origin of the aesthetic vitality and creativity of the calligraphy art subject. . In fact, this is directly related to the creation of calligraphy, the relationship between the subject of calligraphy and the object of calligraphy, and the understanding of calligraphy art.
1. Qi is a very complex and all-encompassing cultural connotation
"Qi" is a philosophical concept with rich connotations and complex contents in Chinese cultural thought. The basic category of this philosophy originated from the observation of nature and the experience of human life ontology by the ancestors in ancient times. "Clean qi rises to form the sky, and turbid qi descends to form the earth." "There are six qi in the sky...the six qi are yin, yang, wind, rain, darkness, and light." ("Zuo Zhuan Zhaogong Year") Xu Shen's "Shuowen Jiezi" explained Qi and said "Qi, cloud Qi". Around the Western Zhou Dynasty and Eastern Zhou Dynasty, philosophical concepts such as yin and yang, five elements, and six qi were widely applied and became the main category of human life consciousness, and qi also became a A philosophical concept with materialistic thinking.
In the forty-two chapters of "Laozi", it is said: "Tao produces one, one produces two, two produces three, and three produces all things. All things bear yin and embrace yang, and the qi is harmonious." Zhuangzi's "Journey to the North": "The life of man , the gathering of qi. When it gathers, it leads to life, and when it disperses, it leads to death." In the Han Dynasty, Dong Zhongshu used qi as the intermediary of "interaction between heaven and man". Wang Chong further believes that everything in the universe is "born with qi", and that different people's endowment qi, the thickness and nature of the endowed qi will produce different temperaments, characters and thoughts. Because the category of "Qi" is all-encompassing, the concept of Qi can be seen everywhere in ancient Chinese classics. Whether it is nature, social phenomena, human physiology, pathology, or even spiritual morality, thought, religious art, philosophy, etc., all contain different words and various explanations with spirit. For example: weather, earth qi, forest qi, cold qi, summer qi, yin qi, yang qi, dryness qi, dampness, liver qi, evil qi, righteous qi, meridian qi, joyful qi, anger, spiritual qi, delicate qi, gold and stone qi, temple qi, Mountain qi, scholarly qi, husband qi, boudoir qi, village qi, morale qi, essence qi, extraordinary qi, vitality, true qi... The concept of "qi" is further blurred from the image, and gradually forms a pure physical qi with no form. Everything is born of Qi, and everything contains Qi. In the artistic creation and artistic aesthetics, it shows the aesthetic effect of air.
2. Qi in Calligraphy Art
Qi in Chinese art aesthetics is the deep aesthetics of art with life connotation. It was first seen in "Yue Ji", which believed that music is produced from the air of heaven and earth, and the air of musical works is in harmony with the air of the human body; Cao Pi first introduced air into literature: "Writing is mainly based on air, and the air is clear and turbid. It cannot be strong. And to..." started the theory of "nourishing qi" in Chinese literature and art and the aesthetic theory of work style; Liu Xie's "Wen Xin Diao Long" is a very important work on the study of the harmony of qi and harmony in the history of Chinese aesthetics. In later literary and artistic theories, Qi was mostly introduced into aesthetics. Xie He's "Paintings", Wang Sengqian's "Praise of Brushwork", and Yu Jianwu's "Books" all put forward aesthetic ideas such as charm, taste, and spirit. In the calligraphy, there are also many contents such as He Shaoji's idea of nourishing qi and true temperament, Liu Xizai's overall aesthetic concept of yin and yang and two qi.
Qi and Calligraphy Creation
Qi is the origin of calligraphy creation. "The spirit of animals, the moving things, so the swaying temperament, the shape of the dance chant." (Zhong Rong's "Poetry") made a clear expression of artistic creation. "Articles express the emotions of all things." (Ye Xie's "Original Poems") The same is true for calligraphy, which is based on expressing people's temperament. "Qi source" and "object image" shake the temperament and form the desire for creation. "Every image is full of energy." (Zhang Zai's "Zhengmeng Ganming") Through objects, perception is transformed into the impulse of creation by people, showing the passion of creation. In "Shupu", there are "five-in-one" creation states: "spiritual pleasure", "feeling favors and knowing", "time and energy", "paper and ink together", "occasionally want to write". This is the best state of mind for calligraphy creation.
There are two realms of calligraphy creation in the true sense:
One is that before calligraphy creation, the air of the human body and the invisible air of spirit and emotion form complex changes, and the air is transformed into tangible lines through the movement of brush and ink. At the same time, the movement of the lines follows the emotions of the calligraphy subject. There are ups and downs due to changes and changes in the spirit of the whole body. In the process of creation, the different "qi" between emotional impulse and rational thinking constitutes the contradiction in the creation process of the main body of calligraphy. mirror image.
The second state is the highest state, which is the Taoist state of "unity of man and nature" and "assimilation of things and self". As Su Dongpo said, "As long as a reed is stretched, it is like a vast expanse of land. The vastness seems to be controlled by the wind, without knowing where it stops, and it is floating like the independence of the world, and it becomes a fairy..." Such a state of ecstasy . It is a completely natural state of writing in creation.
Among the three pillars of thought in traditional culture, "Theory of Yin-Yang and Five Elements", "Theory of Correspondence between Heaven and Man", and "Neutralization Thought", calligraphy aesthetics regards "nature" as the highest aesthetic realm, so it is also in line with "correspondence between Heaven and Man". That is, the "harmony between man and nature" is the most closely related. Taoism attaches the most importance to qi, and Taoism emphasizes tranquility, breathing, and mindfulness, emphasizing a state of integration with nature. Calligraphy creation emphasizes that the main body of the creation should be "spirited and relaxed", relaxed and calm, to achieve a state of ecstasy, to communicate with nature, so that the "vigor" is unobstructed and the techniques can be better utilized. Therefore, "qi" is not only the essence of life, but also the origin of calligraphy creation.
2. Qi in calligraphy works
Qi is the origin of the life of works of art. It is inseparable from the image of calligraphy works - dots and lines. It is the spiritual state expressed by calligraphy itself and a virtual environment of the life of works composed of "qi". Calligraphy works lack air and become the body of Chinese characters with brushes. As Yao Nai said: "Writing is like human speech. It has energy to fill it. Even after a hundred generations, it is like setting up a person and speaking here. If there is no energy, words will only accumulate." "Book") Cai Xizong of the Tang Dynasty said in "Fa Shu Lun": "Every character must have a strong backbone, and it must have the momentum of flying..." Liu Xizai also said in "Book Overview": "Books must have both yin and yang. , generally calm and depressed, it is Yin; it is unrestrained and unrestrained, it is Yang. High rhyme and affectionate, firm and heroic, one cannot be a book without one.” It can be seen that “Qi” is a state of life and aesthetics of vitality in calligraphy works . In the creation and aesthetics of works, "Qi" is manifested in the transformation from material to function, from appearance to connotation, and from form to spirit.
Specifically, we can feel the existence of different "qi" from ancient calligraphy works.
For example: Wang Xizhi's book is permeated with the energy of true vitality, and the energy of different scriptures is different. "Orchid Pavilion Preface" has a scholarly spirit, morale, and talent; ", "Kong Shizhong Tie" has the spirit of aggressiveness, true energy, and Confucianism, and "Quick Snow and Sunny Tie" and "Fengju Tie" have the spirit of peace. Yan Zhenqing's books are masculine. "Draft for Sacrifice to Nephew" has a sense of grief, indignation and vitality, and "Draft for Seat Contest" has awe-inspiring spirit. Mi Fu's calligraphy is refreshing, heroic and heroic. Dong Qichang's calligraphy has a clear air. Zhao Mengfu and Xian Yushu's calligraphy has a young woman's air. Song Huizong's thin gold book has the spirit of a talented woman in a boudoir. "Zhang Qian Stele" and "Ritual Vessel Stele" have a temple atmosphere. "Ode to Shimen", "Yanghuai Biaoji", and "Lunjingshu" have a wild atmosphere. "Shi Ping Gong" and "Yang Big Eye" have the spirit of gold and stone. Wang Wenzhi's calligraphy is full of pink and black. Master Hongyi's calligraphy has a quiet atmosphere. Lin Sanzhi's calligraphy has the spirit of immortality. etc. The study of monuments has the spirit of gold and stone, and the study of calligraphy has the spirit of books. When we appreciate the inscriptions of past dynasties, we will have different aesthetic feelings of Qi.
3. Partial feeling
Bloated lines show turbidity, strong lines show refreshment, thick lines show seal and clumsy air, weak lines show sickness, slender and erratic lines show weakness, strength Straight lines express arrogance, slender lines express coquettishness, loose lines express immortality, powerful lines express vigor and vigor, free and easy lines express chivalry, and slippery lines express habits...
The dignified structure shows righteousness, the changing structure shows strangeness, the proper deformation shows childishness, the excessive deformation shows wildness, the deformation is incapable of wine, the density shows joy, and the sparseness shows joy An air of depression is expressed, a stretched structure expresses a refreshing air, a cramped structure expresses a sorrowful air, a stable and positive structure expresses harmony and benevolence, and a strange structure expresses heroism and righteousness.
The black and bright ink color shows the essence, the elegant ink color shows the calm air, the dark ink color shows the turbid air; the proper use of light ink shows aura, otherwise it is bad luck; Village atmosphere and vulgarity; dry ink expresses boundless atmosphere, swelled ink expresses Sanskrit and clear atmosphere, broken ink expresses chaotic atmosphere; whole ink color change expresses vitality, single ink color expresses vitality of life and death. Therefore, the ink used in calligraphy should be "moist when it is dry, and dry when it is thick."
The art of calligraphy pays attention to "both form and spirit", and "form" and "spirit" are often compared in art. Wang Sengqian of the Southern Qi Dynasty said in "Praise of the Brush" that "the wonderful way of books is the spirit, followed by the shape and quality." Yuan Yang Weizhen said: "Therefore, when discussing the quality of paintings, there are forms and spirits. Those who convey the spirit are vivid and vivid. "("Preface to the Preface to the Treasure of Drawings") Art is based on the depiction of the gods. To achieve "vivid charm" is called vivid.
3. The "qiyun" in the art of calligraphy
"Qi" exists in oracle bone inscriptions, while "yun" appeared later, in the Han and Wei Dynasties. In Cai Yong's "Qin Fu" in the Eastern Han Dynasty, it is said that "complex strings are suppressed, and elegant rhyme is revived". The complicated sounds are gone, and the harmonious music will be pleasant to the ear. Cao Zhi has "the clear rhyme of listening to the elegant piano" in "The Fu of the White Crane". Xu Shen's "Shuowen Jiezi": "Rhyme, harmony." The original meaning of "Rhyme" is the harmony of music. "Rhyme" and "Qi" are actually a whole. Zong Baihua believes: "Qi Yun is the harmonious rhythm of the 'Qi' that agitates all things in the universe." ("A Preliminary Exploration of Important Issues in the History of Chinese Aesthetics") Qian Zhongshu believes that "qi" means "angry", and "rhyme" means "far away", and "the one with more meaning is called rhyme". There is a Tang poem: "Where is your family, and my concubine lives in Hengtang. Let me ask you about moving the boat, maybe you are from the same village." It has a lot of charm. Chinese aestheticians generally believe that "Qi" refers to the momentum, vitality, strength, and rhythm of life; "Yun" refers to harmony, musicality, aftertaste, and aftertaste. In the aesthetics of art, Qi Yun and Guan are more complete. "Qi" is Yang, and "Yun" is Yin. Beauty and masculinity are opposites and unity of artistic aesthetics.
From the aesthetic point of view of dynamic and static art, "Qi" is the vitality of life in the dynamic and momentum of all things; "Rhyme" is the vitality of static and static life. Stillness and stillness are not motionless, but refer to the harmonious state of life movement. "The static one is still and moves, not motionless." (Wang Fuzhi's "Thoughts and Questions · Inner Chapter") "Vivid air and charm" just embodies the artistic aesthetics of moving from unbalanced to balanced, from discordant to harmonious yin and yang, and unity of movement and stillness in complex contradictory movements. After all, the deep aesthetic of this kind of art is conveyed by the image to convey the connotation, and the artistic aesthetic is transformed from the real to the virtual. Therefore, it needs to spread the wings of association in the context of Chinese traditional culture to obtain it.
Qiyun is closely related to imposing manner, weather, temperament, meaning, breath, and taste. In fact, these aesthetic categories are all born of Qi. Momentum is the combined concept of "Qi" and "Position". "Qi" is more internal, and "momentum" is more external, both of which are more about strength, strength, and vigor. Cai Yong's "Nine Potentials": "The momentum is unstoppable, and the momentum is unstoppable..." The aesthetics of momentum is widely used in traditional Chinese poetry, calligraphy and painting. For example, the evaluation of Li Bai's poems is "a hungry eagle plunders down, and the air flies across the sky"; Emperor Wu of Wei's poems are domineering; when he commented on Mi Fu's words "like a horse taking off its title", and Wang Xizhi's words "a dragon jumps over the gate of heaven, a tiger crouches under a phoenix", they are all aesthetics of momentum.
In contemporary calligraphy creation, emphasizing the sense of form of the work and the exhibition hall effect are actually emphasizing the importance of momentum in calligraphy creation and calligraphy aesthetics. Calligraphy creation should emphasize the strong and crisp lines, the flying momentum of knotted characters, and the great atmosphere of the works, which is the emphasis on "Qi"; Emphasis on "flavor". Only by having a deep feeling for the charm can one have a deep understanding and improvement of calligraphy creation. There are also many contents such as He Shaoji's thought of nourishing qi and true temperament, Liu Xizai's overall aesthetic view of the integration of yin and yang and two qi.