1. Some characters adopt the cursive method

   The neat Xingkai basically does not reduce strokes, such as "Lanting Shu". There are also many characters in the "Nephew Memorial Draft" that retain the strokes of regular script. Such as "Yuan", "Nian", "Ci", "Shu", "Wu", "Ji", "Geng" and so on in one line. Generally speaking, the "Jie Nephew Draft" has more characters with reduced strokes than "Lanting Shu", and the speed of the strokes is faster, and there are more joints. It also adopts some cursive ellipsis methods and uses some cursive characters.

1. Reduce strokes. Some characters in the "Nephew's Sacrifice" retain every stroke of the regular script, while some characters only retain the frame of the regular script, connecting two adjacent strokes into one. Such as "dimension", "year", "month" in the first row. Some strokes are obviously omitted, such as the left side of "Suo" in the second line is saved a little, and the box in the middle of the right side of "Shi" in the second line is saved several strokes. On the 21st line, the vertical line is omitted on the right side of "Fu". Saving strokes is the basic method of forming cursive characters, and in taking other cursive methods, it is also inseparable from the basic method of saving strokes.

2. Borrow a pen. "Ze" in the 19th line, the upper right borrows the middle to replace the upper. The borrowed strokes are not only a part of this radical, but also a part of another radical. There is me in you, and you in me. On the right side of the "shift" in line 19 is borrowing silk.

3. Take half. For "Ze" in the 19th line, the horizontal and vertical crosses at the bottom are half of the horizontal and vertical. The box on the right side of the line "dip" in line 16 uses the method of taking half. The radicals of some characters are saved in half, such as the top of the right side of the 4th line "county".

4. Replace radicals with strokes or cursive symbols. The lower left of the 4th line "all" replaces "日" with a dot; "Qing" and "che" replace the frames with strokes; The "day" under the 20th row "person" has used "mouth characters", and more "one character" has been used, that is, a radical is replaced by a horizontal line, such as "mouth" in the middle of the 18th row "sorrow".

2. Use cursive characters or adopt half-line and half-cursive writing

   In this post, some cursive characters are used, and there are more half-line and half-cursive characters (half-line and half-cursive characters are acceptable in running script, but not suitable in cursive script).

The word "dry" in line 1

The "day" in the 2nd row is a cursive character.

"使" in the third line uses a horizontal line instead of a frame, which is half a line and half a cursive. "Chi" is a cursive character, written in cursive calligraphy. "Zhu" is used on the left side of "Zu characters" and "Zu characters" in cursive script are often mixed with empty picks, and a horizontal line is used to replace the frame at the bottom right. This character is a cursive character.

Line 4 "Qing, Che" is a cursive script written in cursive script. "Du", "Wei", and "Xian" are half-line and half-cursive, with more strokes than standard cursive characters, and a lot less strokes than regular script. The lower left of "都" is replaced by a dot, and the upper left of "Wei" is "Factory Character", with two horizontal strokes omitted in the middle, and the writing method of the lower two dots is the same as that of cursive script.

The fifth line "Hou" is a cursive character, which is relatively close to cursive script in terms of writing. "Zhen, Qing" omits the strokes, and the associated meaning is the same as that of cursive script. "Yi" is a cursive character. "Qing" has combined strokes on the left side and lower right side. "Jiu" is a cursive character. "Sacrifice" is written in cursive script in running script, with rounded strokes, and is written in cursive script in running script.

Line 6 "nephew" is a cursive character.

"De" in line 7 is a habitual saving pen. "Temple" may be a variant character at that time.

In the eighth line, the upper left side of "微" has omitted strokes, and the dots seem to be there or not.

"Valley" in line 9 is a traditional character.

The "provocation" in line 10 is half a line and half a grass.

"Shou" in the 11th line is half a line and half cursive with a horizontal instead of flat treasure cover; "Yi" is a cursive character.

Both "er" in line 12 are cursive characters. The cursive characters are the same as the simplified characters, and many simplified characters are determined according to the cursive characters.

The "solitary" in line 15 is half a line and half cursive; "death" is written in cursive.

"Incline" in line 16, the page on the right is similar to grass. The "egg" is half a row and half a grass. "Disaster" saves a lot of pen.

In the 17th line of "Atonement", the flat eye in the middle of the right side is replaced by a horizontal line, which is a cursive method.

"Ming Huai" in the 18th line is a cursive character; "Wu" is half a line and half cursive, with a horizontal line below to replace "口".

The "river" in the 19th line is a cursive character, which is so intentional that the pen can't reach it.

"Zai" in the 20th line is a cursive character, which saves a vertical line. The lower right of "depression" is the grass method.

"Fu" in the 21st line saves the vertical.

The "same" in the 22nd row is a cursive character.

"Zhen" in line 23 is similar to cursive characters.

The "knowledge" in line 24 and the "mouth" on the right side are replaced by a dot.

Line 25 is basically cursive.

   When writing cursive script, pay attention to the unity of style, that is to say, when using regular script in the same work, you should make more turns, and when writing cursive script, pay attention to the closeness of running and regular script, and do not form large miscellaneous paintings of different calligraphy styles. Yan Zhenqing's "Draft for Nephew" handles it very well.

3. Use the round pen as the main method and use a variety of methods

   Yan Zhenqing's calligraphy has his unique style and brushwork. Introducing seal characters into the line, using round pens at the center, good use of dry pens, vigorous and textured, and the style of using round pens to seek muscle strength is called "Yan Jin" by later generations.

   Some characters in this post are all drawn with round-turned strokes, which is in sharp contrast to Wang Xizhi's good use of square brushstrokes: 1 "Sui", "Nine", 4 "Yang", 5 "Sacrifice", 9 "Xian", 13 "Jiu" ". In addition, 3 "hold, festival", 4 "kai, country", 7 "su" and so on.

   The square and circle in calligraphy are a pair of contradictions that the ancients abstracted from the universe. Tang Li Yangbing said: "In the world, the mountains and rivers, you can get the shape of square circle." The ancients often believed that the sky is round, the earth is square, and the square circle covers the universe. Under this kind of thinking, the spirit of the universe and nature is integrated into calligraphy middle.

   Fangyuan is used not only in strokes, but also in the structure and composition of characters. Kang Youwei made a good exposition in "Guang Yizhou Double Oars" (the oars are oars), "The square pen is convenient for official scripts, and the round pen is convenient for cursive. However, this is a big comparison. There is no delay (sound: Dang, meaning: procrastination) of leisure, and if there is no square brush in cursive, there will be no strong and powerful god, and it will be used for mutual benefit." "The beauty lies in the combination of square and round, whether it is square or not round, round and square, whether the body is square and the circle is used, or the body is square and the body is square, or the brush is square and the structure is round, the spirit is clear, and it depends on the person." Zong Jiang Baishi "Continued Book Book" says: "The square ones take part in the circle, and the round ones take part in the square." It is also said that "it comes out from time to time", "it cannot be revealed, it must be concealed, and it comes from nature".

    The brushwork of Yan Ti benefited from the experience of the stele. What Wang Xizhi left behind were all works of letters and slips, and there was not a single stele left, so there was no need to erect a stele at that time. And Yan Zhenqing has a lot of steles (according to statistics, he wrote 40 steles between the ages of 57 and 70. He has rich experience in steles. I can't bear it for a long time, and now I would like to use a large book of stone broken nests... ". The broken nest book was created by him. To write the broken nest book is bound to make the characters support the squares, the middle palace is loosened, and the blanks between the rows are also changed. This style of writing is broad and grand and has similarities with seal script, so Mi Fu commented that Yan's cursive script "has the spirit of seal seal". Thick and thick, with the thick and heavy brush of seal script and official script, it adopts the style of seal script, dense on the outside and sparse on the inside, so that the carved stele can be preserved for a long time, and can withstand the erosion of wind and rain. The work makes it have the awe-inspiring righteousness of gold and stone, and natural and simple things flow under the pen.

Yan Zhenqing is good at using round brushes, not blindly round, but Fang Yuan also possesses.

   Characters with square strokes: 1 "Wei" on the left, 1 "Geng" and 15 "Gu" are the most obvious.

   The hard folds are mostly in places with small angles. 13 "Ji" and 16 "No" are unintentionally square; the same is true for the hard folds at the end of 17 "Tu".

   It is difficult to write without frustrating: the first stroke of 6 "season", 15 "solitary", and the completion of the stroke 16 "regret"

   The strokes are mainly curved, and the changes are straight. The two "Tumen" of 13 have obvious changes in the brushwork. This obvious change due to the unconscious pursuit of change shows that the writer has a lot of effort, and is between conscious and unconscious under the control of the subconscious.

The square pen is folded, and the running pen is broken and restarted; the round pen is turned, and the running pen is continuous. The square pen gives people force, and the circle gives strength, each with its own characteristics. Yan Zhenqing's calligraphy is just like the person himself, using Zhengfeng from beginning to end, and using other strokes occasionally. When entering the pen, the stroke is upright and downward, without intention to hide the front, but has the effect of hiding the front, such as the first stroke of 15 "Father", "Son", and 16 "Qing", just like the beginning of the seal script, it seems that you want to go down first, go up, In fact, there is no hidden front.

    The brush is not straight down like Wang Xizhi's. Some of Yan Zhenqing's strokes are written with a brush, 4 "history", full of astringency. Yan Zhenqing's "roof leak mark" is not obvious in this post, but it is astringent and powerful. It has the same effect as "roof leak mark" and is more dynamic. Yan Zhenqing is good at using brush strokes to write 3 "States", "Army", and "Things". There are twists and turns in the straight lines, and there are no obvious horizontal and straight paintings throughout the text. The organic combination with the elasticity of the folded hairpin is really wonderful.

 4. Vigorous penetration

    In "The Manuscript for Sacrifice to Nephew", it is manifested that there is a kind of qi, a kind of anger, which runs through the whole text, making the veins and blood vessels of the work unobstructed and full of spirit. The ancients said that "the overall situation of a book is based on qi", and when the qi is strong, the shape will follow the trend, and the stippling will be attached to it. Vibrant and energetic, the viewer can appreciate the rhythm of life from the frozen and still paper. Chen Shen said in "Guangzhou Book Postscript" that "this post is full of pen and ink, and it spreads thousands of miles... Its wonderful solution is almost made by nature." Tips provides technical support.

    Running script can be connected or not, but in terms of technique, the whole text must have a cohesive spirit, and the characters can only be alive, create artistic conception, and express temperament. The connection of spirit and charm is not only expressed by connecting, for example, the two "doors" in line 13 have no meaning of connecting with the next word. The coherence of spirit and rhyme is also reflected in the coordination of the whole text and the progressive relationship between ink and color. In terms of connection, such as intentional connection, pen connection, and flying crossing:

Italian mostly: between the strokes of the word, 2 "three", 10 "er"; between words: 23 "mourning heart", 16 "dumping eggs".

Pen even:Between the strokes of the characters, there are 6 "nephew", 15 "death"; between characters: 3 "Shi Chi", 5 "Zhenqing", 6 "Gift from the dead nephew", "Jiming" and 18 "Wooooo" between.

Fly:Between the strokes of the characters: 1 between the last two strokes of "Yuan", 6 between the second upper right horizontal line of "Zan" and the apostrophe, 12 between the left and right of "I", 8 the left and right of "comfort", 6 "big" ", "husband" between the horizontal and left, left and right; between words: 15 "dead nest" between the gestures.

Linked back to pen:Between the strokes of the characters, there are 10 "criminal", 13 "ji", and 14 "kun".

Pull the wire and go outside:6 "gift", 21 "榇"; and the trend of joint and several goes outside: "and". Most of the upward connections are outside routes, and the downward connections are mostly internal routes. For example, the first horizontal connection of 24 "House" is connected downwards, and the second horizontal connection is upwards. There are also special cases, that is, the internal line (kai) is used when crossing the upward flight, and the external line is used when the horizontal connection is flying down, such as the word with the prefix "factory".

Pull the silk and go inside, 13 "ji" between the left and right sides, 10 "weigh".

Retrograde wire drawing: 10 "Shun" and 21 "Nian" are at the end of the middle.

Wire-drawing adjustment structure: 6 "nephews".

Drawing silk instead of strokes: 15 "death", 16 "Qing".

Density adjustment by wire drawing: 16 "tilt"

Change the strokes together, for example, the Na of 9 "people" changes from counterclockwise to clockwise. It also caused the hook to change its direction: 24 "home".

Five, pay attention to cloth white

1. Between one word: the space between words is intentionally changed, and the space between 4 "kai, country", 9 "tu", 13 two "kai", 8 "ting" and other words all have changes in density. Most numbers have obvious changes in density and density, while the blanks of few numbers have uniform density. This uniformity is the change of change, which is to use the same to seek change. This has a dialectical method. For example, 8 "blue" means uniform white. Yan also pays attention to the small blank: 23 "Yan", 5 "Zhen, Qing", 7 "Temple", 8 "Step", 9 "Period", 17 "Hundred".

Where there is ink is important, and where there is no pen is equally important. Wang Xizhiyun: "The real place is the law, and the empty place hides the spirit. The outward tension of the facial structure is mainly due to the sufficient space in the middle palace, which gives people a masculine and masculine beauty. The white color has a great influence on the style. Its regular script is especially obvious.

2. Between the lines: including the upper and lower characters, such as 5 "Yi Qing Jue" is relatively sparse, and some places deliberately leave blank lines 10.11 and 16.18, which may be to leave room for modification and achieve good results. Between the lines, Yan Zhenqing's consciousness of change is not obvious, but due to the addition of some characters between the lines, some places between the lines are denser. This kind of unintentional density is more natural.

6. Rich ink color changes  

    In this post, you can clearly see the changes in weight and shade, and you can see the history of thirsty pens. It allows people to see the process of running the pen and the subtlety of the change of strokes, which is of great benefit to learning cursive script.

7. The structure is dignified and full of changes

(1) Yan's running script has seal meaning.

Mi Fu commented that Yan's cursive script "has the spirit of seal and seal" in two aspects:

1. It is outer reality and inner space: 1 "dimensional", "gan", 2 "shuo", 3 "holding", 5 "yi, qing, judging". Stay away and get together. This is more conducive to reflecting the broad-mindedness and magnanimity of the author. Yan characters spread out horizontally, tight on the outside and loose on the inside, which is especially obvious in regular script, and its running script also has this feature.

2. It is a circle of strokes.

(2) Pay attention to the conclusion

    Paying attention to the structure of the characters does not mean that Yan Zhenqing was particular about the structure of the characters when writing this post. The structure of the characters is the main content of the style, and the style has a certain stability. The whole text is relatively flat, with side-to-side changes in between, such as 5 "Zhenqing". Some words are structured in a unique way. 6 The apostrophe under "Like" is unique. 14 "thief" and 17 "redemption" left-handed and left-handed. The angle of the horizontal strokes of the last stroke is drooping 24 "soul" last strokes. The overall level is flat, but there are many changes in the subtleties. This is the same as Wang Xizhi, manifested in blanks, horizontal and vertical intersections, and angles.

    Knotting is a basic skill accumulated over a long period of time. Yan Zhenqing was born in a distinguished family. The previous generations of the Yan family were the famous first calligraphy family in the Tang Dynasty, and they were also a family of philology. His great-grandfather, Yan Shigu, was the assistant minister of Tang Taizong Zhongshu, and his father, Yan Weizhen, also had a literary name and a book title. He lost his father at the age of three, and his family was neglected. He learned calligraphy by sweeping the walls with loess, and was taught by his mother Yin. With deep savings and excellent conditions, coupled with Yan Zhenqing's literary intelligence, he can stand out as a master who can create "Yan Style" in the history of calligraphy, and his "Nephew's Manuscript" can become the second best running script in the world. His achievements are inseparable from the above objective factors.

    He had a very solid foundation in his youth. At the age of 29, he wrote "The Monument of Yin Luzhi's Wife Yan", at the age of 44, "Duobao Pagoda", and at the age of 45, "The Stele of Praising Dongfang Shuo Painting". His regular script skills are profound, but the style of these early regular script works has not yet been finalized and has changed greatly. From the sixty-two-year-old book "Magu Mountain Immortal Altar" and "Ode to the Great Tang Dynasty", to the seventy-one-year-old book "Yan Qinli Stele" the style was determined, and the often-called "Yan Jin" was revealed. Regular script is a late bloomer. This style is indeterminate, which shows his constant pursuit of art. This constant pursuit is manifested in his constant absorption of new nutrition and negation of himself, so that he can reach the pinnacle of his art step by step. This is why he can become everyone in the Tang Dynasty. reason. His regular script could have matured earlier, but he did not mature until his later years, which is related to his calligraphy practice. He has very solid basic skills, which is why he can write so many steles. However, he was engaged in government affairs in his middle age, so it is impossible for him to spend a lot of time dedicated to calligraphy, especially writing regular script less after all, so his regular script matured late.

    In running script, Yan Zhenqing wrote the glorious chapter "Draft for Nephew" at the age of forty-nine, which indicates that his running script has matured. His running script was earlier matured than his regular script, which shows two problems: first, running script is an easy-to-use style of writing, and there are many opportunities for writing; second, regular script is the foundation of running script, but it is not necessary to practice regular script to practice calligraphy I went to practice cursive script. The two book styles can promote each other and develop alternately.

(3) dignified and generous

    The characters are horizontal and stable. Natural without embellishment. The writing and conclusion are straightforward and decisive, simple and innocent, real and upright. Words are like people.

    Yan Zhenqing's style is related to his personality. Influenced by the pragmatism of Confucianism, Yan Zhenqing has formed his upright, straightforward, loyal and honest character. He will not be obsessed with carving and embellishment. The pen is drawn in the air, the edge is hidden in the stippling, clean and neat, although not as beautiful as the two kings, it greatly enhances the thick, simple and simple atmosphere of the brush strokes, simple and unsophisticated, using the simplest, most natural and most convenient technique , but shows the deepest connotation. In terms of regular script and running script, he created an unprecedented full and vigorous artistic style. Pay attention to dignified, broad and powerful, majestic, with clumsiness as beauty and simplicity as China.