The calligraphy of the Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties continued to strengthen the upward trend of the development of calligraphy in the previous dynasties as a whole. In particular, the regular script of the Tang Dynasty is still the most widely used field for calligraphy scholars. The most widely recognized four regular script styles - Yan, Liu, Ou, Zhao, the first three all appeared in the Tang Dynasty. As mentioned earlier, during the Han and Wei dynasties, today’s character structure has been initially formed, while the calligraphy style before the Qin and Han Dynasties has gradually become the reserved book type of calligraphers. Since then, almost every era has some specialized or concurrently Calligraphers who attacked oracle bones, bronze inscriptions, and seal script were mostly mediocre, but the situation changed in the Tang Dynasty, and there appeared Li Yangbing, a master of seal script who could stand shoulder to shoulder with Li Si.
The time gap in the Sui Dynasty was extremely short, only more than thirty years. Calligraphers Ouyang Xun, Yu Shinan, and Chu Suiliang in the early Tang Dynasty all entered the Tang Dynasty from the Sui Dynasty. However, in the Tang Dynasty, because each generation of emperors loved calligraphy, the style of calligraphy flourished, and calligraphy was included in the official system of education and appointment. Even the Japanese envoys sent to the Tang Dynasty also studied calligraphy as much as possible, and the Japanese monarch was also influenced and became good at calligraphy. In terms of achievements, the Tang Dynasty was comprehensive. Although regular script is usually the strongest in the Tang Dynasty, cursive script and the seal script mentioned above have famous works handed down from generation to generation. Especially the big grass (wild grass), which Tang had never seen before.
However, the theory of "advocating the law in the Tang Dynasty" is indeed aimed at the regular script of the Tang Dynasty. The regular script of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, under the appearance of personalized creation, has shown the effort to explore the principles of regular script. By the Tang Dynasty, regular script entered a mature stage of development, with a high degree of integration of personality and law. The complete regular script was so precise that it was impeccable, so that Jiang Kui in the Southern Song Dynasty criticized this: "The real book is fair and good. , This secular theory is the loss of the Tang people." ("Continued Book Book") However, the Tang Dynasty did produce a considerable number of classic and timeless regular script models.
Calligraphy in the Tang Dynasty is divided into three periods: Early Tang, Middle Tang, and Late Tang. In the early Tang Dynasty, there were the so-called four masters, namely Yu Shinan, Ouyang Xun, Chu Suiliang and Xue Ji. In addition, there is Sun Guoting, a cursive script writer and theorist.
In the early Tang Dynasty, there was another important phenomenon in the calligraphy world, that is, Tang Taizong Li Shimin's special love and admiration for the calligraphy of the "two kings", which made the "two kings" particularly prominent in the long history, and gradually regarded as "two kings" in people's minds. Calligraphy orthodox. An objective evaluation of the achievements of the "two kings" is enough to mark the enduring generations, not just because of Long Yan. However, there are many books written by Jin people around Xixian, but they are rare because they are not as highly treasured as the "two kings". Down. It is also due to Li Shimin's credit that the "Lanting Preface" of Shubao Wangshu, which is still cherished by the world today, has many kinds of scripts. See the look of Wang Shu's boutique.
In the mid-Tang Dynasty, immortal calligraphers such as Yan Zhenqing, Liu Gongquan, Li Yangbing, Zhang Xu and Huai Su emerged. In addition, there are He Zhizhang, Li Yong, Xu Hao and others.
Yan Zhenqing (709~785), courtesy name Qingchen, was born in Jingzhaowannian (now Xi'an). Kaiyuan Jinshi, the first official was the prefect of Pingyuan, and later the minister of the Ministry of officials, the prince grand master, and the title of Duke of Lu County, known as "Yan Pingyuan" or "Yan Lugong". Yan Zhitui, the ancestor of the Five Dynasties of Zhenqing, once wrote "Yan's Family Instructions" on philology, and his later father, Yan Weizhen, was also a famous calligrapher. Therefore, Zhenqing is known for his family education, erudite and excellent Ci. Being a man and an official is upright and upright. When An Lushan rebelled, Zhenqing launched an army to crusade, and contacted his brother Gaoqing, and fought hard. Nearly 70 counties responded together and were promoted as the leader of the alliance. During Dezong's time, Li Xilie mutinied again and sent Zhenqing to persuade him, but was killed by Li Xilie, Wen Zhong.
When Duke Lu traveled to Chang'an in his twenties, he was taught by the great calligrapher Zhang Xu for two years. At the age of thirty-five, he went to Luoyang to seek advice from Changshi (Zhang Xu) again, and he learned the wonderful brushwork. He wrote "Twelve Ideas on Zhang Xu's Changshi's Brushwork".
Yan Zhenqing's calligraphy also benefited from the "two kings", also studied the four schools of the early Tang Dynasty, and established a wide range of folk calligraphy relics since the Southern and Northern Dynasties, gradually establishing its own appearance. Yan Zhenqing is good at authentic script (regular script) and also proficient in cursive. The regular script is dignified and majestic, with bold style, known as "Yan style"; the running cursive script is vigorous and vigorous, integrating the brushwork of seal script into the proposal, thus making a change in the "Second Five" tradition. "Orchid Pavilion Preface" is equally famous. The most famous works include "Magu Fairy Altar", "Contesting for a Seat Post", "Book with Cai Mingyuan", "Yan Qinli Monument" and so on.
Liu Gongquan (778~856), whose character is Chengxuan, was born in Jingzhaohuayuan (now Yaoxian County, Shaanxi). Yuanhe Jinshi, Secretary of the calendar official, Shulang of the Provincial School, Minister of the Ministry of Industry, and Prince Shaoshi. Good at Zhengshu (kai), running script, especially in the title of Zhengshu. He once wrote the "Diamond Sutra Monument" in Ximing Temple, which has the styles of Zhong, Wang, Yu, Ou, Chu, and Lu, so its name is great. Cheng Xuan is a man of integrity. At that time, Mu Zong summoned him and said: "I saw Qing's handwriting in the Buddhist temple, and my heart is upright and my pen is upright." After hearing this, Mu Zong knew that Gongquan was admonishing with his pen. Liu Gongquan served in the three dynasties of Muzong, Jingzong and Wenzong, and Wenzong praised him as "the resurrection of King Zhong". His regular script is called "Liu Ti", which is also known as Ou and Yan. In terms of physique, there has always been a saying of "face, tendons and willow bones". His works include "Mysterious Pagoda Stele", "Shenshu Military Stele", "Mengzhao Post" and so on.
Li Yangbing, whose date of birth and death is unknown, whose courtesy name is Shaowen, was born in Zhaojun (now Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province). He was the magistrate of Jinyun County during the Qianyuan period of Emperor Suzong. Gongli seal script, and seal script is the most famous. After studying Xiaozhuan for 30 years, he learned from Li Si's "Yishan Carved Stones" and formed a family of his own. Li Yangbing boasted that he was very tall, and said, "After Siweng, he went to Xiaosheng." But Li Yangbing did not lie, since seal script is no longer used, there are few people who study it, and there are even fewer people who study it intensively. It's really not easy to have high achievements. At that time, if one had Yan Zhenqing's stele, one would have Li Yangbing's inscription on it, which was called Lianbi. The remaining writings include "The Story of Three Graves", "The Story of the Town God's Temple" and "The Story of Qi Xianying".
Zhang Xu, courtesy name Bogao, was born in Wu (now Suzhou, Jiangsu). From official to Jinwu Changshi, known as Zhang Changshi. Although the date of birth and death is unknown, but Yan Lugong was taught by his teacher, so it can be seen that he was the elder at the same time as Yan. Zhang Xu's cursive script, the swan song of the world, changed the style of calligraphy in the Wei and Jin Dynasties, and his brushwork was indulgent and uninhibited. Zhang Xu's cursive script, together with Li Bai's poems and Pei Min's Nongjian, were collectively called the "Three Wonders". From the perspective of the relationship between emotion and law, Zhang Xu's cursive script, which is different from Tang Kai, pays more attention to the catharsis of emotions, and is no longer like the refined "Shang Yun" line. Therefore, he often runs wildly after drinking, indulges his emotions, and even often writes with ink and ink. At the same time, he also has a unique understanding of the principles of cursive script. Later, he learned the meaning of the brushwork, and later saw Gongsun's sword dancing and got the spirit." Later generations of storytelling always spoke highly of Zhang Xu, and he seldom criticized him, which is also rare in the history of calligraphy. His handed down works include "Four Posts of Ancient Poems", "Stomach Pain Posts", "Lang Guan Shi Ji" and "Thousand Character Essay".
Calligraphers in the late Tang Dynasty mainly include Liu Zongyuan, Shen Chuanshi, Lu Hongxuan, Yang Ningshi and so on. Among them, Yang Ningshi is the most important calligrapher. However, Yang Ningshi was an official in the late Tang Dynasty, and also served in the Five Dynasties (Liang, Tang, Jin, Han, and Zhou), so when it comes to calligraphy in the late Tang Dynasty, it is mostly described in conjunction with the Five Dynasties.
The Tang Dynasty was an era when poets and writers gathered together, and there were still many good calligraphers, such as poets Li Bai, Gao Shi, Bai Juyi, Du Fu, Han Yu, Song Zhiwen, etc., were also temporary calligraphers, and there were many unknown calligraphers and writers. The classics have left immortal works for future generations. I won't list them one by one here.