The calligraphy of the Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties continued to strengthen the upward trend of the development of calligraphy in the previous dynasties as a whole. In particular, regular script in the Tang Dynasty is still the most popular field among calligraphers. The four most widely recognized regular script styles—Yan, Liu, Ou, and Zhao—all appeared in the Tang Dynasty. As mentioned earlier, during the Han and Wei dynasties, today's writing pattern has initially taken shape, and the calligraphy styles before the Qin and Han Dynasties gradually became the reserved type of calligraphy. Since then, almost every era has some specializing in or part-time calligraphy. Most of the calligraphers who specialized in oracle bones, bronze inscriptions, and seal scripts had mediocre achievements. However, the situation changed in the Tang Dynasty, and seal calligraphers like Li Yangbing appeared who could rival Li Si.

  The time difference between the Sui Dynasty and the Sui Dynasty was very short, only more than thirty years. The calligraphers of the early Tang Dynasty, such as Ouyang Xun, Yu Shinan, Chu Suiliang, etc., all came to the Tang Dynasty from the Sui Dynasty. In the Tang Dynasty, because every emperor was fond of calligraphy, the style of calligraphy flourished, and calligraphy was included in the official system of education and official recruitment. Even the Japanese envoys sent to the Tang Dynasty began to study calligraphy, and the Japanese monarch was also influenced by it and became fond of calligraphy. In terms of achievements, the Tang Dynasty is all-round. Although regular script is usually the strongest of the Tang Dynasty, there are famous works in cursive script and the aforementioned seal script that have been handed down to the world. Especially the big grass (crazy grass) was something that Tang had never seen before.

  However, the saying that "the Tang Dynasty promoted law" is indeed aimed at the regular script of the Tang Dynasty. Regular script in the Southern and Northern Dynasties, under the surface of personalized creation, has shown efforts to explore the theory of regular script. By the Tang Dynasty, regular script had entered a mature stage of development. Personality and legality were highly integrated. The complete regular script was so precise that it was so precise that Jiang Kui of the Southern Song Dynasty criticized it: "The true script is to be fair and upright." , this secular theory was lost to the people of the Tang Dynasty." ("Sushu Pu") However, the Tang Dynasty did produce a considerable number of unparalleled and timeless regular script models.

  The calligraphy of the Tang Dynasty is divided into three periods: the early Tang Dynasty, the middle Tang Dynasty and the late Tang Dynasty. In the early Tang Dynasty, there were the so-called Four Masters, namely Yu Shinan, Ouyang Xun, Chu Suiliang and Xue Ji. There is also the cursive calligrapher and theorist Sun Guoting.

  In the early Tang Dynasty, there was another important phenomenon in the calligraphy world, that is, Emperor Taizong Li Shimin's special love and admiration for the calligraphy of the "Two Kings", which made the "Two Kings" particularly prominent in the long history of history, and they were gradually regarded as Calligraphy is orthodox. An objective evaluation of the achievements of the "Two Kings" is enough to mark the course that will last for generations, and it is not just because of Long Yan that this can be achieved. However, there is no shortage of Jin people's books written by Xi Xian, but because they are not as treasured as those of the "Two Kings", they are rarely circulated. For example, Wang Xun's "Bo Yuan Tie" is by no means as talented as the "Two Kings". Down. The "Lanting Preface" written by King Shubao, which is still cherished by the world today, has many different scripts. It is also the credit of Li Shimin. Otherwise, after the "Lanting Preface" was buried with him in Zhaoling, the later generations would not be able to reproduce it. See the exquisite works of Wang Shu.

  In the middle of the Tang Dynasty, immortal calligraphers such as Yan Zhenqing, Liu Gongquan, Li Yangbing, Zhang Xu and Huai Su emerged. In addition, there are He Zhizhang, Li Yong, Xu Hao and others.

  Yan Zhenqing (709~785), courtesy name Qingchen, was born in Jingzhao Wannian (now Xi'an City). A Jinshi in Kaiyuan, he first served as the governor of Pingyuan, and later became the minister of the Ministry of Personnel, the prince and grand master, and was granted the title of Duke of Lu County. He was known as "Yan Pingyuan" or "Yan Lu Gong". Yan Zhitui, the ancestor of the Five Dynasties of Zhenqing, once wrote "Yan Family Instructions", which discussed philology. His later father, Yan Weizhen, was also a famous calligrapher. Therefore, Zhenqing has a good family education and is erudite and refined in poetry. He was an upright official. When An Lushan rebelled, Zhenqing launched an army to attack him. He contacted his brother Gaoqing and fought hard. Seventy nearby counties responded and was elected as the leader of the alliance. During Dezong's reign, Li Xilie rebelled again and sent Zhenqing to advise him, but he was killed by Li Xilie. Wen Zhong was killed.

  When Lu Gong was in his twenties, he traveled to Chang'an and studied under Zhang Xu, a great calligrapher, for two years. At the age of thirty-five, he went to Luoyang to seek advice from Chang Shi (Zhang Xu) again, and learned the wonderful writing skills of Zhang Xu. He wrote "Twelve Meanings of Zhang Xu Chang Shi's Writing Method".

  Yan Zhenqing's calligraphy also benefited from the "Two Kings", studied the four early Tang Dynasties, and widely established folk calligraphy relics since the Southern and Northern Dynasties, gradually establishing its own look. Yan Zhenqing was good at regular script (regular script) and also practiced cursive script. The regular script is dignified and majestic, with a bold style, and is known as "Yan Ti"; the cursive script is vigorous and vigorous, integrating the meaning of the seal script into the proposal, thus changing the "Two Five Year Plan" tradition. "Lanting Preface" is equally famous. The most famous works include "The Story of Magu Immortal Altar", "The Competition for Seats", "A Letter to Cai Mingyuan", "The Stele of Yan Qin's Ceremony", etc.

  Liu Gongquan (778~856), courtesy name Chengxuan, was born in Huayuan, Jingzhao (now Yaoxian County, Shaanxi Province). Jinshi of Yuanhe, official secretary of the provincial school, minister of the Ministry of Industry, and prince's young master. He is good at regular script (regular script) and running script, especially in regular script titles. He once wrote the "Diamond Sutra Stele" in Ximing Temple, with Zhong, Wang, Yu, Ou, Chu and Lu styles, and his name became famous. Chengxuan is a man of integrity. At that time, Mu Zong summoned him and said, "I saw your handwriting in the Buddhist temple. If your heart is right, your writing will be correct." After hearing this, Mu Zong knew that Gong Quan was admonishing with his pen. Liu Gongquan served as an official in Mu Zong, Jing Zong and Wenzong three dynasties. Wen Zong praised him as "the resurrection of King Zhong". His regular script is called "Liu style", together with Ou and Yan. From a physical point of view, it has always been said that "the muscles are strong and the bones are strong". His works include "Mysterious Pagoda Stele", "God's Book of Military Stele", "Mengzhao Tie" and other works handed down from generation to generation.

  Li Yangbing, whose birth and death dates are unknown, named Shaowen, was born in Zhaojun (now Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province). He was the magistrate of Jinyun County during the Qian and Yuan Dynasties of Emperor Suzong, and served as a prisoner until he became a general. It is said that he was the nephew of the great poet Du Fu. Gong Li seal script, and seal script is the most authoritative. After studying Xiaozhuan for thirty years, he learned the method from Li Si's "Yishan Carved Stones" and became his own family. Li Yangbing prided himself on being a very high-ranking person, and once said: "From the beginning to the young, he was a young man." However, Li Yangbing was not lying. His own seal script is no longer used, there are few researchers, and there are even fewer people who study it intensively. Shao Wen can be good at small seal script It is indeed not easy to have high achievements. At that time, if you could get Yan Zhenqing's calligraphy tablet, you would definitely get Li Yangbing's forehead inscription, which is called Lianbi. The remaining writings include "Three Tombs", "City God's Temple" and "Xixian Yingji".

  Zhang Xu, courtesy name Bogao, was born in Wu (now Suzhou, Jiangsu). When he was an official in Jinwu for a long time, he was known as Zhang Changshi. Although the dates of birth and death are unknown, Yan Lugong was taught by a master, so it can be seen that he and Yan were the elders at the same time. Zhang Xu's cursive script, the masterpiece of the world, changed the calligraphy style of the Wei and Jin Dynasties. His writing style was uninhibited and unruly, seemingly without any modification, but he used the script to convey hidden rules, which was called Da Cao (crazy cursive script). It had a great influence on later generations. Zhang Xu's cursive script, Li Bai's poems and essays, and Pei Min's swordplay were collectively known as the "Three Wonders" at the time. From the perspective of the relationship between emotion and law, Zhang Xu's cursive script is different from Tang Kai script, which pays special attention to the catharsis of emotions, and is no longer like the elegant "Shang Yun" line. Therefore, he often shouts and runs wildly after drinking, letting his emotions go as he pleases. He even often uses his hair as a thread to soak in ink and write madly. At the same time, he also has a unique understanding of the theory of cursive calligraphy. He once said, "I first heard that the princess was arguing with her husband." Later, I saw Gongsun's sword dance and got the meaning of it." Later generations of commentators always spoke highly of Zhang Xu and rarely criticized him, which is also rare in the history of calligraphy. His handed down works include "Four Posts on Ancient Poems", "Tie on Belly Pain", "Lang Guan Shi Ji" and "A Thousand Character Essay".

  The calligraphers of the late Tang Dynasty mainly include Liu Zongyuan, Shen Chuanshi, Lu Hongxuan, Yang Ningshi, etc. Among them, Yang Ningshi is the most important calligrapher. However, Yang Ningshi served not only in the late Tang Dynasty but also in the Five Dynasties (Liang, Tang, Jin, Han, and Zhou Dynasties), so the calligraphy of the Late Tang Dynasty is often mentioned together with the Five Dynasties.

  The Tang Dynasty was an era when poets and writers gathered together, and there were many good calligraphers. For example, the poets Li Bai, Gao Shi, Bai Juyi, Du Fu, Han Yu, Song Zhiwen, etc. were all calligraphers at that time, and there were many unknown calligraphers and calligraphers. They have all left immortal works for future generations. I won’t list them all here.