[Abstract] Although the Kangli native, who was born in the Semu family, was a great calligrapher of the Yuan Dynasty, many modern scholars such as Chen Yuan have paid attention to him; "Related articles came out. For this reason, based on the collected materials, this article conducts a more in-depth investigation on his family background, official shoes, works and other items, so as to provide readers with relevant and detailed fragments. It should also be pointed out that in the inheritance of calligraphy in the Yuan and Ming dynasties, Xiongju has a very important position. As a member of the Northwest tribe, his bold and unrestrained character is enough to bring new connotations and characteristics to calligraphy, one of the "traditional" arts in the Central Plains, and make it a dazzling star in the relevant history of China. He is a member of the scholar-officials of the Borjiji clan, and he has "extensive" "friends" with him. Among the people who interacted with him were not only poets Ma Zuchang and Yang Zai, but also writers Xu Youren, Huang Mo, Hu Zhu and Gong Shitai.


   "History of the Yuan Dynasty" Volume 143 "Biography of 巎巎": "巎巎, the word Zishan, Kang Lishi. The father does not ignore the tree, and the ancestor Yanzhen". [1] "Kangli", Song Lian's "Song Wenxian Collection" Volume 41 "Kangli Huihui Shinto Monument": "Kangli is also the ancient Gaoche country. My emperor Taizu personally conquered it and decided the place. Therefore, people from his country often come and go. Emulate Xunyong, so that you can show your glory." [2] His great-grandfather, Hailan Bo, was originally a Kangli nobleman who was attached to the Kelie tribe. He captured the "Wang Khan" Tuowolianle and was defeated. Zhao Mengfu's "Songxuezhai Collection" Volume 7 "Buhumu Shinto Monument": "The public taboo is not Humu. He came up from his grandfather Hailan Bo, and he is the master of Kanglibu. Fleeing away, Emperor Taizu captured all of them and returned. The tenth son Yanzhen, who was more than ten years old, bestowed on the Empress Dowager Zhuangsheng (Suo Luohuo Tatini). He was respectful in nature, good at making bows, and served Emperor Shizu. Left and right. Matched with a Korean beauty, named Jangji, surnamed Jin, had five sons, and the second is the public." [3] Since his grandfather Yan Zhen, he has been trusted by the Great Khan one after another, and he has become the "family" of the color and eyes of Bor Jiji. In this regard, sometimes people exaggerate it on the title of "family tree" written by him. Yang Zai's "Yang Zhonghong Collection" Volume 4 "Title of Kangli's Genealogy": "The country has a wide map, and the family genealogy is detailed. The sound of galloping wild geese, and the expansion of the wilderness. Fighting for thousands of miles, come to conquer one side. Fen Going back to the day, setting up the halberds to shine on the clear frost. Harvesting bamboos to gather cities, and dividing the grass to give the territory. Brothers are all powerful, and fathers and ancestors are strong. The seals are still in order, and the soldiers are changed and hidden. It has passed three beds. It has reached Shu Zong Er, but it is still suitable for Ji Taichang. Later generations can inherit it, and there will be brilliance for thousands of years." [4]

   Huan Xuan's father did not neglect the wood, and he served in the two dynasties of the ancestors and Chengzong. This official, who was a student of Guozijian, became famous for his Confucianism-based and supportive governance. "Songxuezhai Collection" Volume 7 "Buhumu Shinto Monument", Volume 10 "Kangli Buhumu Portrait Praise": "From the time of the central government to the Yuan Dynasty, the people were prosperous, and they knew the joy of life. General Gai participated Yao, Shun and the four and three dynasties, at that time, there were people who served the emperor according to the Tao, not being cunning or not, and helping the world at the time. Yong Ruogao, Kui, Ji, Qi, Yi, Fu, Zhou, and Zhao were those who acted, and the Duke Wenzhen of the State of Lu was his people too". "Duke Yu Weilu, the hero of ten thousand husbands. Study hard and practice hard, choose the mean. Meet the ancestors long ago, Mingliang meets each other. Serve the king with the way, and bow to the enemy. If you don't say anything, you don't follow. If you don't do good, Diseases and evils are like the wind. Punish and weed the weeds, millet and rice. The bandits are slack all day long, and success is ruled by success." [5] Hu Zhu's "Chunbaizhai Manuscript" Volume 8 "Shangsi, Cong Kangli Ziyuan Bailu Guowenzhen Cemetery": "Zaimu Sensenma's seal is solemn and respectful as if he is a public. The Han court has a group of virtuous people, The state of Lu is adorned by hundreds of generations. I want to see the heroic spirits around the North Pole, and think about the time sequence to lay the east wind. I come to accompany and pay homage, and the virtues will continue forever." [6] Su Tianjue's "Yuan Mingchen Shilue" Volume 4 "Pingzhang Lu Guowen Zhengong": "The public is the prime minister, the left and right dynasties, and the military state. Book, self-titled Jingde. Winning a king but not relying on it, winning a man but not being dissatisfied, being in a high position is not enough. The world regards his body as advancing and retreating, and it is ten years for the temple. "The public classics is deliberate, clear and sincere, and moves the leaves and scales, but it is not close to the name. As for the old meaning, it will not change for a long time. The award of outstanding scholars must be recorded every inch. Its industry performance will last forever. ". [7]

   Huan's mother, Wang Shi, is Buhumu's second wife; she is a lady from a famous family with "Yi De". "Songxuezhai Collection" Volume 7 "Buhumu Shendao Monument": "Mrs. Kou and Wang are both wives of the State of Lu. The ex-deceased of the Xi family gave birth to Huihui, and are now the visiting envoy of Huaixi Lian. Wang, Yushi Zhongcheng, Ji The daughter of Duke Wen Zhengshou of the state gave birth to a son, Xiuan, who is now a virtuous waiter." [8] Wu Cheng's "Wu Wenzheng Public Collection" Volume 37 "Wang's Epitaph": "Lu Guotai's wife, Wang, is a senior official, the son of a former imperial censor, a prince, a scholar of Zhaowenguan, doctor Ronglu, Ping Zhang Jun State Affairs, Xingyu Shi Zhongcheng, gifted to pure and sincere assistants and heroes, Kaifu Yitong Sansi, Taifu, Shangzhu Kingdom, Lu Guo Wenzhen Gong Kangli's wife who is not neglectful, Jiayi doctor, Taichangqing Huizhi Stepmother too. Wang Zheng is honest and easy-going, and she is a person of the time. His wife grew up in a famous family, with a pure and beautiful nature, a model of father and mother, and learned from experience and knowledge. Yide has been accomplished for a long time, just like an ancient lady. Years and characters, I would like to choose her home. Duke Huikang At the beginning of the funeral, the discussant said: "Noble ministers are important ministers, capable of doing and learning, but a wife is better than a husband. So I returned my wife. The wife is quiet and reticent, honest and thrifty, restrained and obedient, official affairs are not violated, and she is respectful to the family. Marriage, benevolence is in the imperial concubine, inside the boudoir, Yong Yong is like that. Ji Kangli Gongfu, who lives in a room, is called a surviving person, and will not go outside the door unless he returns. The male is called 峱 (巎), and the female is called Yitong. Treat your ex-wife and son as one." "The day of birth is from Xinyou in June to Yuanyihai; the day of death is from Guiwei in March of Gengxu in Dagengxu. After seven days, you will be ugly and ugly. Taichangqing and Yuyou, Yu Guozishi, and Yiguo The child is born. Please say: It is suitable to be my mother's inscription. It is the inscription." [9]

   Huan's grandfather was Wang Shou, who served as Zhongshu Zuocheng, Yushi Zhongcheng, and Jixian University scholar. "Yuan History" Volume 176 "Wang Shou Biography": "In the ninth year of Dade, he participated in the Zhongshu to save trouble. In the tenth year, he was changed to the Minister of the Ministry of Officials. In the eleventh year, Wu Zong ascended the throne. Russia returned to pay homage to Yushi Zhongcheng. In March of the second year of the university, he was sick and asked for his replacement. In the summer of the third year, he moved to the prince's guest and Jixian University scholar. [10] Su Tianjue's "Zixi Manuscript" Volume 22 "Wu Yuangui's Journey": "At the beginning of Wu Zong's heir, the Privy Council was appointed by Qian Shu to worship the Deputy Envoy of the Privy Council, and Zhao Gong (Wu Yuangui) and Yushi Zhongcheng Wang Shou discussed political affairs in Zhongshu "If you cherish the power of the people, use talents, strictly select elections, save money, raise tributes, teach farming and mulberry, eliminate redundant staff, and change gifts, all these things, the imperial court will hold them." [11] Wang Shou's younger sister, also known as the "grand aunt" of Xi'an, like her mother, also received praise from contemporary scholars for "keeping festivals". Volume 9 of Ma Zuchang's "Shitian Collection" "The Preface to Mrs. Wang's Chastity": "Jixian waited for the system, and the ancestral aunt Wang outside the military department Langzhong Kangli, so it was given to the daughter of Shanghu Jun and the Duke of Langya, so Yushi Zhongcheng and Ji The younger brother of Guowen Zhenggong, the wife of Liu Tianrui, a doctor in Shaanxi Province. The wife married Liu Tianrui at the age of fourteen, and after another sixteen years, her husband died. In another twenty-six years, there was a supervisor who worked in the prime minister's house, and she was well-attended. Woohoo! It’s too much. Courtesy can be good and vulgar. In ancient times, when a woman’s husband died, she called herself a surviving person, and she wanted to die. Today, Mrs. Wang is a prominent official woman and wife, and she respects her affairs all night long. Dress up the work appearance. If the husband is gone, the quilt will be sparsely clothed, and if you will cry for life. Woohoo! The behavior of a woman is exactly like that of Mrs. Wang, so is there anyone who is not good at vulgarity?" [12]


   The official shoes, birth and death of Xie Xie, "Yuan Shi" Volume 143 "Biography of Xie Xie": "Yi Xie studied Chinese studies when he was a child, and he learned a lot of books. He attacked Suwei". "At the beginning, Cheng Zhilang was awarded the system of Jixian waiting for him, and he was moved to the doctor of the Ministry of war, and transferred to the secretary Jiancheng". "Change to work in the Taichang Ritual Institute, pay homage to the supervisory censor, promote the deputy envoy of Hedong Lianfang, but not, move to the secretary and eunuch, and promote to the ceremonial envoy. Find and promote Zhongshu Yousi Langzhong, move to Jixianzhi Bachelor, transfer to Jiangnan Xingtai governs the book to serve the censor, worships the minister of the Ministry of Rites, and supervises the group jade department." "Moved to understand the affairs of the same library, Shangshu, Jianqunyu Neisi as before. Looking for a banquet official, and resuming Jiangnan Xingtai Zhishu to serve as a censor, but did not go, and stayed as a bachelor of Kuizhangge Academy of Sciences, still part-time economics Banquet official, promoted to a Bachelor of Servant, and learned about Yanshi. He was promoted to a bachelor of Kuizhangge Academy of Sciences, and learned about Yanshi. Except for the visiting envoy of Lian in West Zhejiang, he was reinstated as a bachelor, and learned about Yanshi. Seek to worship Hanlin A bachelor accepts the decree, knows how to make patents and also studies national history, knows the scriptures and banquets, and promotes Xuanwen Pavilion and Chongwen Supervisor." "Since then, I will pay homage to the political affairs of Pingzhang in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. Next year, I will be called back by the order of Hanlin scholars. At that time, Pingzhang was a member of Zhongshu, and my close ministers wanted to recommend them for use, so as to express the emperor's intentions. The emperor said: Pingzhang has passed There is such a man, and the journey is halfway. The near ministers know that the emperor's intentions are in the 巎巎, and they will not recommend him again. After seven days in Beijing, he caught a fever and died of illness. In fact, it was Xinmaoye in May of the fifth year, and he was fifty-one years old." [13] Served as "Secretary Supervisor" and "Secretary Eunuch" respectively in July of the seventh year of Yanyou and August of the second year of Taiding. Volume 9 of "Secretary Jianzhi" : "Secretary Jiancheng: 巎巎, in July of the seventh year of Yanyou, to serve as a doctor [, doctor of the Ministry of War]". "Secretary eunuch: 巎巎, Zishan, from Kangli. In August of the second year of Taiding, he was appointed as the deputy envoy from Hedong Lian to visit the doctor by Zhongyi." [14]</p> <p>   The conferment of "Jiangnan Xingtai Zhishu Shi Yushi" should be in November of the first year of Yuantong. Jie Xisi's "Jie Wen An Ji" Volume 12 "Dong Shouzhong's Shinto Monument": "In the eleventh month of the first year of Yuantong {several} [since] Wang, Kuizhang Pavilion, a bachelor minister Shalaban, summoned Xi Si to the Academy, It was passed down to the ministers who wrote the story. Zhengfeng the doctor, Jiangnan and Hubei Daosu government and honest visit envoy Dong Gong (Shouzhong) Shendao stele, don't order the Xinnantai government book to serve the imperial historian 巎巎 to write his essays, and the Hanlin scholar respects the imperial minister Seal its forehead". [15] The arrival of the "Kuizhangge Servant Scholars" and the first arrival of the "Hanlin Scholars Chengzhi" were respectively before the November of the first year of the Yuan Dynasty and before July of the second year of the Zhizheng Dynasty. "Gui Zhai Ji" Volume 16 Zhang Qiyan "Ouyang Xuan Shinto Monument": "On the 30th day of the 11th month in the winter of the Yuan Dynasty, Kuizhangge University scholar Sha La Ban played: Hanlin Zhishi [Ouyang] Xuanzhi Hanlin, on Thinking about labor, making and presenting the inscription of the three ranks of examiners, nobles and marquises, and wanting to write it, the light will be moved to grace. He is the scholar of the Hanlin, the doctor of Tongfeng, the history of the same country who knows the imperial edict, and the minister who knows the scriptures and banquets Zhang Chen Qiyan Author, Kuizhangge Academy Bachelor of Servant, Doctor of Zhongfeng, Minister of Tongzhi Jing Banquet, Shudan, Bachelor of Kuizhangge Academy of Chengzhi, Doctor of Zhongfeng and official of Jingyan, Shangshi Jianzhuan. Said: "Yes." [16] Volume 2 of Zhou Boqi's "Near Light Collection" "Tianma Xing, should be made": "On the 10th and 8th day of the seventh month in Renwu, the second year of Zhizheng, the Folang Kingdom in the Western Regions sent an envoy to present a horse. It is a day, and the sky is clear. In the Qing Dynasty, the ministers played and went to the Royal Court of Mercy, and admired it. Then they were ordered to raise it in Tianxian, and fed it with meat millet and wine. Still ordered the imperial scholar to draw the picture, and directly The scholar minister Jiexi praised it." [17]</p> <p>   The commendable "achievements" of Xi'an in the officialdom have seen opposition to the abolition of the "Kuizhang Pavilion Academy" and suggestions for the restoration of the imperial examinations, the revision of the three histories, and the trips to the countryside to drink and study Chinese culture, and to reward Tang and Song sages. Volume 162 of "Zouyi of Famous Officials of Past Dynasties": "In the time of Emperor Shun, it was discussed that officials such as Kuizhangge Academy of Sciences and Art and Literature Supervision established by the previous dynasty should be dismissed. Bachelor Kang Lizishan (巎) memorial said: The people have a wealth of gold, Even if you set up a family school to extend the guest, how can there be a majestic dynasty, with four seas in it, and a school can't accommodate it? The emperor deeply understands." [18] "Yuan Shi" Volume 143 "Biography of 巎巎": "Since the imperial examination was discontinued at that time, 巎巎 calmly said to the emperor: In ancient times, there must be an imperial examination to recruit talents for the benefit of the world. Why should it be abolished? The emperor adopts his theory , looking for the old system. One day, I read Sima Guang's Zizhi Tongjian, because he said: the country should compile the three histories of Liao, Jin, and Song at that time, and it may be missing at the age of the year. He also asked Xingxiang to drink wine in Chinese studies, so that the people would know that they are inferior, and please present Liu Fen of Tang Dynasty and Shao Yong of Song Dynasty as a sign of moral integrity. The emperor obeyed his request and issued an edict." [19] In addition, after the "Nanpo Incident", he wrote a letter together with Ding Ha Basuo, Xu Youren, etc. as the "supervising censor" on the crimes of "rebelling against the party" such as Lie Tiesu. Xu Youren's "Guitang Manuscript" Volume 11 "Hasbuse's Lament": "Hasbuse (Ha Bashi) took his father's surname Ding, the word Wenyuan, and a native of Khotan. Gu'an Prefecture, Zuo Division, except the head of the Ministry of Rites. Yu Zuoli Ministry, so there are many followers. He changed the secretary's writings, worshiped the supervisory censor, and was the same official as Yu. The change in Nanpo, Xiaoxie Party and Lieju Jin Yao, Wenyuan, Kala (Kangli) Zishan (巎) are listed in the same way, and the relocation department member Wailang". [20]</p> <p>   When Emperor Shun looked at the paintings, Xie Nian carried out "satire and remonstrance" of "according to the situation". "Yuan Shi" Volume 143 "Biography": "After Emperor Shun ascended the throne, he cut off the power and traitors, thought about more governance, served the feast of scriptures, and advised the emperor to study, and the emperor learned from it. Teacher etiquette, it is impossible to speak forcefully. For the emperor to interpret the Taoism contained in the Four Books and Six Classics, the words must be eloquent, move the emperor's heart, and express the will. If Liu Zongyuan's "Zi Ren Zhuan" and Zhang Shangying's " "On the Seven Officials", You Xi recited it." "When the emperor wanted to view ancient famous paintings in his spare time, he took Guo Zhongshu's "Bigan Picture" to advance. Because he said that the king of Shang would not listen to the advice of his loyal ministers, he perished his country. The emperor admired Song Huizong's paintings in one day and praised them as good. Xie Jin said: Huizong is capable of many things, but there is only one thing he can't do. The emperor asked: What is one thing? Confrontation said: "I can't be the ear of the king, the body is humiliated and the country is destroyed, all of which are caused by not being the king. A man is worthy of being a king, and he is not worthy of it." Or in case of changes in the sky and disasters of the people, you will be worried about the color, and then you will speak to the emperor and say: "Heaven's heart is benevolent and loves the king, so change it as a warning. For example, if a loving father loves his son, teach him to warn him, so that the son can respect him." Filial piety, the father's anger will be released. If the king practices sideways, the will of heaven will return. The emperor observes his sincerity and humbly listens." [21] Cheng Minzheng's "Huangdun Collection" Volume 37 "Book First Wen Jiangong Song Shiben Biography": "The husband imitated his mother with the appearance of a concubine and arrogance, so this chapter presents it. The words of the ancestors are also negative. Yuan {Wen Zong} [Emperor Shun] wanted to see ancient famous paintings, and the scholar Xie Zishan took Guo Zhongshu's "Bigan Picture" to advance. This is exactly the same. Zishan's generation of sages, how could they wish Is his ruler a tyrant? Looking at it from this point of view, Zhang Xian did not dare to criticize the young master throughout his life. Those who use rules to control actions are a public figure, and there is a way to fill up his evil intentions with yin." [twenty two]</p> <p>   three</p> <p>   In terms of literature, since the anthology has been lost, there are only a few of Xie Xuan's works left. The compilations obtained today include: eleven essays and six poems. Wen Han: Volume 19 of "Shuhuwang" "Postscript to Wulan Pavilion", Volume 20 "Inscription on Yongchan Stone Pagoda of Huadu Temple", [23] Volume 13 of "Shiqu Baoji" "Book titled Jin Wangxi Stele of Cao E", Volume 30 Record "Shu Yan Zhenqing Describes Zhang Xu's Brushwork", Volume 32 Record "Title of Yan Lide's Painting of Wang Hui", "After Zhou Lang's Painting of Du Qiuniang", [24] "Postscript to Calligraphy and Painting" Volume 8 records "The Book of Liu Zihou's Relegation to the Dragon", [25] "The True Story of Calligraphy" Volume 5 "Xueyan" records "Nine Life Methods", [26] "Shuidong Diary" Volume 11 "Yu Wenjing Zhu "Yiren's Tomb" records "The title of the book written by Secretary Yu Ji's tomb", [27] "Song and Yuan Chido" records "and Zhang Yanzhong's book"; [28] Poetry: "Yuan Fengya" volume five "Title "Taiwan", "Send Gaozhongcheng Nantai", [29] "Shiqu Baoji" Volume 14 Record "Title of Mrs. Guan Daosheng Cong Yutu", [30] "Shigutang Calligraphy and Painting Collection" Volume 20 Record "Ancient Poetry Cloud: What is the purpose of my life? There is no end to things. If you count less, people will laugh at my clumsiness, but if you ask me too much, people will laugh at me. The embankment flowers are dense and sparse, and the creek willows are long and short. If you want everything to be in order, you will not be able to do it. When the secret government is not in order. Only the first two sentences are not called, because I feel that the person is still obedient, because it is hidden." [31] "Shuidong Diary" Volume 2 and 4 records "Da Jianshan's servant moved to Shaoxing to be the general manager, and all centimeters wrote poems, and the farewell was obtained. "Qingfeng Ridge is for the Fu Qingfeng Chapter", [32] "Autumn Night" recorded in "The Grand View of Chinese Calligraphy in Past Dynasties". [33] More than half of the above poems and essays have been transcribed and preserved because they are "attached" to the "calligraphy" collection.</p> <p>   According to Chen Yuan's Calligraphy Works, Volume 5 "Fine Arts" of "Yuan Western Regions People's Hua Hua Kao", compiled from "Ji Gu Lu", "Huanyu Visiting Stele Records", etc., there are: Qu Yuan's "Fisherman's Speech", Huai Su's "Self-narration", Yan Zhenqing's "Book Theory", Liu Zongyuan's "Zi Ren Zhuan", "The Legend of the Dragon", Huang Mo's "Yang Zai's Epitaph", Bo Shu Lu Chong's "Yang Junshiqing Monument", Jie Xisi's "Zhuwentai Monument>, <□Gong Monument>, <Yigong Tower Inscription>, <Murong’s First Tomb Monument>, Wang Shixi <Chao Gong Shinto Monument>, Yu Ji <Dadu Town God’s Temple Monument>, <General Bian’s New Temple Monument>, Ouyang Xuan< Qufu Xuansheng Temple Monument, Zhang Sizhong Monument, Wang Shide Monument, Master Bodhidharma Monument, Wang Jie Fu Monument Yin Qingfeng Chapter. [34] In addition, there is Huang Mo's "Lu Deyuan Epitaph" in Volume 2 of "Wu Xiazhong Tomb Posthumous Works". [35] Ji, Chen Lv's "An Yatang Collection" Volume 8 "Fuzhou Wenshu Temple Records": "In the southeast of Futang County, there is a temple called Manjusri". "Yuantong Jiaxu, the teacher's disciple Zong Mao was sensitive and willing, and traveled to the capital several times. The nobles and dignitaries were more elegant and respectful. The famous officials of the family of Kang Ligong (巎), a scholar of Kuizhangge University, were cautious and did not take things rashly, and wrote books. It is famous and important in the world, and it was given to it by Dashu Temple at that time, and people are proud of it." [36] Tian Rucheng's "West Lake Tour Notes" Volume 12, "West Lake Tour Records" Volume 18: "Haihui Temple, built by King Wuyue, formerly known as Shifo Zhiguo Temple. Song Dazhong Xiangfujian, renamed Jishan Haihui Temple, Jiataijian Destroyed. To the main room, rebuilt, Pingzhang Yuzi Shanshu Dahaihui temple forehead, Yushi doctor Qingtongshu, Guanyin treasure hall forehead." "The person in the Zishan Mountain is from Kangli. In the Yuan Dynasty, he was Pingzhang of Zhejiang Province. His calligraphy is wonderful. After Songxueweng, it is rare to be able to match it. Hangzhou Bian forehead, more than his hands." [37]</p> <p>   At that time, most people appreciated the "authentic works" of Xie Xuan with "extraordinary" passion, and wrote many words of praise. "Chunbaizhai Manuscript" Volume 19 "Epitaph of Postscript Luo Jinshi": "Yu Youluo Yicheng's first doctor, Jinshijun , can be inscribed in the Hanlin Shijiao, Mr. Zishan, Pingzhang Kangli, Zhejiang Province. Jinshi Jun Taoism The descendants, the journey of filial piety, the style of chastity and escape, the writing is really good at describing and inventing; The book of Zishan Gong is famous all over the world, tracing the clock, the king, the dragon and the snake flying, it is not easy to write for others. It is enough to be a Jinshi It is the legend of the immortal king. " [38] Xu Yikui's "Shifeng Manuscript" Volume 14 "Title Kangli Gongshu Xiandusheng after the three characters": "{Kaer}[Kangli] Wen Xiangong (巎) started the world, with literary elegance Emphasis on contemporary times, but the writing and painting are particularly fine, the brushwork is round, healthy and clear, the mood is flying, and there is no worldliness. Looking at the three characters written in this volume, you can see it." [39] Volume 23 of Lin Bi's "Lindengzhou Collection" (Book Zhang Shikui's collection of Kangli Zishan Book The Snake Catcher said after the volume): "Kangli Wengong's real cursive script is a wonderful product. This volume has a strong pen and good paper. Help, so the spirit gallops, there is no stagnation, and it is the best of the best." [40] Chen Ji's "Yibaizhai Manuscript" Volume 2 "Kara Chengzhi's Left Ink": "Therefore, the imperial scholar Chengzhi Kala (Kangli) Gong (巎) left four posts, and the last two posts were published by the public in Xuan It was written by Wen Ge at the time, and the foundation was passed on to Gu Jun Zhongying. This year, Meng Chun passed the Yushan Thatched Cottage, and Zhong Ying came out to show it. Playing with it, it is like seeing the father and Wang Youjun and his son soaring above Tianmen Fengge On the other hand, Jiaolong, Luanhe and Crane came first. Jiuyuan cannot be recreated, but I was lucky enough to swim from Zhongying, and spread it out from time to time. Looking up at the past and the present, is it important to be emotional?" [41]</p> <p>   After entering the Ming Dynasty, the scholars cherished the "calligraphy" of Xi'an more than ever. Ni Qian's "Ni Wenxi Collection" Volume 24 "Ink Marks of Mount Zishan": "When Kanglizi Mountain (巎) was in Shengguo, the official went to the Hanlin to accept the order and Pingzhang in Zhejiang Province. The wind and spirit are far away, and the system is clean. In case of English debates, the Legalists will be able to surpass them. The book is widely known, Deliberately pen and ink, and is famous in the world. History says that the existence of a piece of paper, people vying for treasures, is like gold and jade. This trace is written by him in the Han Dynasty. Yan Shujian and Li Wende's Books are also written. Judging from their elegant and charming strokes and strong turning points, they are believed to be treasures. Yu Shao'an (collection) is based on the so-called prudence, prudence, and wisdom. It is for sure. " [42] Especially when it is combined with the handwriting of other celebrities, the value of the signature is even higher. Li Dongyang's "Huailutang Collection" Volume 74 "Shu Huadu Temple Tie": "When I was a child, I urgently heard that the lord of Xianyu'an Prefecture said: Huadu Temple Tie, which is wonderful from the right of Jiucheng Palace, but I have not seen it. See. See The number of crosses in your posts has been obliterated and is not impressive. I always hate it. The old post in the collection of the present master and British Zhang Gongjian is a property of the son-in-law Li Qi's family. The inscription is briefly prepared. The blank paper is marked with a seal, such as the cover used by a scribe. The sealer. Zhao Songxue (Meng Fu), Jue Manshuo (Jisi), and the princes of Chuanzi Mountain all have their inscriptions. Only Xie Duan's so-called Zangfeng and Wang Yi's so-called deep-spirited ones are the most popular.” . [43] Volume 17 of Wang Zhi's "Yan Ji" "The Preface to the Ink Marks of the Former Sages": "First examine the best book of Qiongzhou Gong, and the ink marks of the former sages , especially Baoai. Yu Yuan got five papers from Zhao Songxue's bamboo slips, Kang Lizi The two papers of Shanshan are all treasured, and those who know them will come out to play with them. Later, they lost them because they were too many. Today, Songxue and Zishan are only a piece of paper. Yongle Bingshen, the first Duke came back to Beijing with difficulty. , Every time I mention it, I repeatedly sigh that I can't get it back." [44]</p> <p>   four</p> <p>   Undoubtedly, Xi'an's calligraphy has been highly praised by contemporaries and posterity. Volume 7 of Tao Zongyi's "Book History Huiyao": "巎巎, styled Zishan, nicknamed Zhengzhai, Shusou, from Kangli. Officials to Hanlin bachelors. He is romantic and elegant, knowledgeable about the classics and the country, knowledgeable about classics and history, deliberately Calligraphy master Yu Yongxing (Shinan), cursive masters Zhong Taifu (Yao), Wang Youjun (Xizhi), the strokes are elegant, the turning is round and vigorous, and they are famous for a while. Commentators say that Guochao is famous for his books, since Zhao Weigong (Meng Fu) After that, he will reach the public." [45] Volume 9 of Ni Zan's "Qing Yu Ge Manuscript" "Title Xuan Bojiong Book": "The calligraphy of this dynasty is as wonderful as Zhao Ronglu (Meng Fu) and Yu Kuizhang (collection)'s seal, official, line, and cursive. The regular script of Fan Qingjiang (梈) and Zhang Zhenju (Yu) is fresh and unconventional; it is rarer than the grass of Fengchang (shu) and Xixiangguo, which is holy, round and lively, and flatters Yuanrong; Zhou Zuocheng (Boqi)'s seal script, How can the ancient elegance surpass the predecessors?" [46] Fang Xiaoru's "Xunzhizhai Collection" Volume 18 "Title Song Jiaren Cursive Script Thousand Characters": "The person who can write cursive script in modern times is Wu Xing Zhao Gongzi (Meng Fu). Those who are respected by the public are Xianyu Gongboji (shu ). The one who got the name later was Kangli Gongzi Mountain (巎). I have commented: Zhao Gong’s cursive script is like Cheng, who doesn’t know generals and soldiers, and his orders are strict. Yang Jianhao, full of majesty in appearance and body, but little rhyme; Kangli Gong is like a luan chick emerging from the nest, with a lovely look, but Jie is not yet ripe. Although they all have the same name, Zhao Gong is superior. After San Gong, the author, Jinhua Song Zhongheng cursive script, Just like Tianji travels in the Central Plains, thousands of miles a day, crosses the dangerous streams, does not move his strength, although if he can't trace and gallops, he must follow the rules, and he can go straight to Xianyu and Kangli. If Zhao Gong sees it, he will definitely sigh. ". [47]</p> <p>   In calligraphy, there are many students: Wang Yuqing, Jin Hara, Chen Da, Wang Gui, Zhan Xiyuan and so on. "Book History Huiyao" Volume 7, Volume Supplement: "Wang Yuqing, courtesy name Shushan, from Siming. The official went to Xingtai in the south of the Yangtze River to supervise the censor. The cursive script is very similar to that of Zhengzhai." "[Jin] Hara, the word elements, can also be gentle. He became a Jinshi, an official to the Zhongzhengyuan. He can write diction, and his book is not fast." [48] ​​Su Boheng's "Su Pingzhong Collection" Volume 13 "Chen Da's Tomb Table": "Gong (Chen Da) was enlisted in the guard at the fifteenth year. At the twenty, he studied in the public house in Kangli, Pingzhang, and waited for Du Gongben, learning poetry from Zhang Zhenju, Tianyu, and Professor Ma Bocheng. Thirty, the title of the book is about the same as that of Kang Ligong". [49] Volume 14 of "Shifeng Manuscript" "Inscribed after the three characters of Xiandu Sheng in the Gongshu of Kangli": "The birth of Xiandu includes Wang Guizhixue. At the beginning, Zhixue studied in the mountains of Xiandu, and then traveled to study Qiandu Tang Dynasty. Huiwen Xiangong (巎巎) was born as Pingzhang of Zhejiang Province, and Zhixue was admitted to his door. The public loves his policeman, and the book immortals gave them three characters. At that time, he got a piece of paper with only one character. The treasure is nothing more than an arched wall, but Zhi Xue has acquired this master, and he is worthy of envy. Linchuan Wei Neihan (Su) wrote the following question: Xiandu Mountain has a single peak, and when Zhu Wengong was in the east of Zhejiang, he was impeached. , not in line with the times, because of the screen. It is not unintentional that Gonghao Zhixue was born in Xiandu. It’s also worthy of no shame.” [50] Xie Jin's "Xie Wenyi Collection" Volume 8 "Send Liu Xiaozhang to Luling Preface": "Zhan Jun Mengju (Xi Yuan) tasted the gate of Zishan Yugong in Yuan Dynasty, and listened to the teachings in Wei (Su) , Zhou (Boqi) and Zhou (Boqi) were the first gentlemen, and they belonged to the same family." [51]</p> <p>   In the continuation of the art of calligraphy, the role of connecting the previous and the next is particularly significant. "Xie Wenyi Collection" Volume 15 "Detailed Description of the Origin of Calligraphy": "Kangli Pingping Zhangzi Mountain gets its majesty, Pucheng Yang Hanlin Zhonghong (Zai) gets its elegance, Qingjiang Fan Wenbai Gong (梈) gets its splendor, Zhongmu (Zhao Yu) created his Chunhe. Among the disciples, only Tongjiang Yuhe Zizhong wrote books. At the beginning of Hongwu, he was still behind. When Zishan was in Nantai, Linchuan was dangerous and too simple (Su) , Rao Jiezhi (intermediary) received his instruction, and Tai Pu taught Song Yu Zhongheng, Du Huan Shuxun, Zhan Xiyuan and Mengju. Meng Ju Shao personally accepted the door of Yezishan, and introduced him to teach Song Kezhongwen, and in Zhizheng At the beginning, Jiewen An Gong (Xi Si) also got his name from regular script, passed down his son Fa, and his grandson Shu, and in Hongwu, he was an official of Zhongshu Sheren, and he was as famous as Zhongheng and Shuxun." [52] "Xunzhizhai Collection" Volume 18 "Title Song Zhongheng's own cursive poems": "Modern good books are especially authored, and they are called Wuxing Zhao Wenmin Gong (Meng Fu) and Kangli Zishan (巎). Wen Min is wonderful in his practice. Yi Yi has the spirit of the Jin Dynasty, but those who lack it can't show their strength. Zishan is good at running grass with his wrists hanging, and he is gratifying, but what is lacking is lack of composure. Zhongheng, the king of Song Dynasty in Jinhua, has both the wonderfulness of the two princes, and he is handsome, like a galloping horse. , do not keep pace, but have a leisurely and beautiful spirit, and have the momentum of kicking a horse, which is now the number one." [53] Volume 21 of Yang Shiqi's "Dongli Collection" "Zhan Mengju Book": "The great book of the country, Zhan Sheren (Xiyuan) is the first, and its small characters are also fine. But there are not many in the world, and Yu Duyu has repeatedly See it. Zhan Chu got calligraphy in the Zishan Mountain, Gai Jianyu (Shinan), Ou (Yang Xun), Yan (Zhenqing), Liu (Gongquan) in the body, and the one who has the style of crown and jade." . [54]</p> <p>   Xie Xuan's calligraphy attainments, in addition to the pursuit of "elegance", [55] come from the spirit of hard work and modest attitude. Volume 4 of Yang Yu's "Shanju Xinhua": "巎巎 Pingzhang, named Zishan, nicknamed Zhengzhai Shusou, also known as Pengleisou, from Kangli. One day, I discussed calligraphy with Yu, and kowtowed someone who could do it in a day. How many characters to write? Yu said: I heard Song Xuegong say: I write 10,000 characters a day. He said: I wrote 30,000 characters a day, and I never stopped writing. almost"? [56] Volume 10 of "Shiqu Baoji": "Kangli came to Wang Xizhi's cursive script to know the cloud: I came to Shangdu last year, but I couldn't get it in case." [57] Especially those who can be commended are those who are promoted and backward, and have an open mind. Lu Shen's "Yan Shan Ji" Volume 90 "Book Series Postscript": "Only Zi Shan, a scholar of Xi'an, can be said to have the degree of a minister compared to Zhou Boqi. In the past, Kuizhang Pavilion will be changed into Xuanwen Pavilion. At that time, Zishan ordered Boqi to list dozens of seal books in the Xuanwen Pavilion every day, but Boqi didn't know it. One day, there was an order to order Zishan to write in the Xuanwen Pavilion. Mo Ruzhuan, the Xuanwen Pavilion of the imperial court should use seal script. Boqi seal script, there is no one in this world. Emperor Shun, as he said, called Boqi to write, and wrote the letter. Therefore, Boqi benefited from the reason. The ancients were indifferent , and its achievements through twists and turns, are roughly the same. A gentleman has far-reaching intentions and a benevolent heart. He knows that the world is big, and it cannot be prepared by one sibling. Therefore, small goodness must be tolerated. If you will tend to it, you will gather Is it true that people who don’t know about economic affairs? Knowing that the success of the equipment industry is not achieved by non-specialized workers. Therefore, a small skill will remain unchanged throughout life, and the death will be handed down. Is it benevolent if this is not the case? When you learn calligraphy, you will feel it occasionally, because you know it." [58]</p> <p>   five</p> <p>   Hu Xingjian's "Xi Yin Ji" Volume 5 "Preface to Fanghu Poems": "The sea and the universe are mixed, the sound teaches great harmony, the aura of Guangyue blends majesticly, and talents are born. Northwest nobles unite with Yingying, recite poems and read books, Admiring benevolence and righteousness. When entering, he seeks advice and strategies, and when exiting, he deals with Wei Bu. In modern times, it is said that the beauty of calligraphy is like that of Kangli’s Zishan and that of Zhalar’s; the beauty of poetry and prose is like that of Magong Boyong, Taigong Jianshan, and Yu Gongtingxin. Famous in time, cannot be counted repeatedly." [59] Mr. Chen Yuan also said in Volume 5 "Arts" of "A Study of the Chinese Culture of People in the Western Regions of the Yuan Dynasty": "The people of the Yuan Dynasty ruled China for less than a hundred years, and the color-eyed people were obsessed with Chinese culture. There is no shortage of people." [60] However, as a Northwesterner with a bold and unrestrained nature, once he entered the "traditional" art of the Central Plains such as calligraphy, it would have new connotations and characteristics, and thus became one of the brightest stars in the night sky related to the history of the Yuan and Ming dynasties. Wang Bomin's "General History of Chinese Art" Volume 7 "Yuan Dynasty Fine Arts" Chapter 3 "Calligraphy and Seal Cutting": "His (巎巎) calligraphy is majestic and superb, which is very different from the gentle and mellow style of calligraphy, reflecting the wild and fortitude of the northern peoples. character". [61] In addition to calligraphy, in the field of "fine arts", Xie is also a good painter. "Pei Wen Zhai Calligraphy and Painting Book" volume ninety-eight "Hua Bu'an Family View": "The volume of the painting of the great master in Xizi Mountain, the second book "Heart Sutra Calligraphy", and Chu Henan (Suiliang) "The Story of the Three Niches". Not very well done , but the state of mind is extraordinary, and the quality is also ". [62]</p> <p>   "Ding Henian Collection" Dai Liang's "Preface to Ding Henian's Poetry Collection": "As far as he is famous for his poems, Guan Gong Yunshi, Ma Gong Boyong (Zu Chang), Sa Gong Tianxi (Du La), Yu Gong Ting Xin (Que) is also a person. The commentators say that the poems of Ma Gong are like [Li] Shang Yin, the poems of Guan Gong and Sa Gong are like Chang Ji (Li He), and the poems of Yu Gong are comparable to Yin Keng and He Xun. They are like Gong Gong Yanjing (Ke Gong), Gong Zishan, Da Gong Jianshan (Puhua), Ya Gongqing (Hu), Nie Gong Gubai, Wu Gong Kezhuang, Lu Gong Zhidao, Wang Gongting Gui generation , and they are all fresh and handsome into a family." [63] It is a pity that there are too many poems and essays lost, and it is impossible to get a glimpse of the whole leopard. Even if there are a large number of inscriptions and postscripts on "cultural relics" that have not been recorded, [64] will not be appreciated due to the destruction of the pieces. Zhu Yunming's "Huaixingtang Collection" Volume 25 "Postscript Hua Guanglu Collection of Song Dynasty Relics": "There are three out of ten relics of the Song Dynasty, Yuan Zishan, Ke Jingzhong (Jiu Si), Su Changling (Da Nian), Ni Yuanzhen (Zan) All the titles and identifications are attached, and there are 18 papers. Li Buzheng and Changqi of the Guo Dynasty are detailed at the end of the scroll, and it is now in the collection of Guanglu Huagong Rude." [65] Needless to say calligraphy works, Zhao Xi's "Dongshan Manuscript" Volume 6 "Yu Ji Xing Zhang": "The public (Yu Ji) was in charge of his affairs, and the book ("Jing Shi Da Dian") was completed at the age of two years. Eight hundred volumes are available. On that day, I had a banquet at the Xingsheng Hall, received the books, and read them with great joy. I was ordered to make a small square volume at Gongzishan, Minister of the Ministry of Rites. . [66] Volume 12 of Wang Shizhen's "Chi Bei Ou Tan" "Records of Song Muzhong (Luo) Calligraphy and Painting", "In the third year of Shunzhi, a hundred scrolls of paintings were given to the cabinet ministers. , Li Zhiyi, Chen Shengzhi's posts, Kangli Zishan's seventeen posts, and Anonymous's seventeen posts." [67]</p> <p>   As a member of the scholars of the Yuan Dynasty, Xiong's friendship can be called "extensive"; this can be known from the people who "rewarded and sang" with him. Among them, there are poets Ma Zuchang and Yang Zai. Volume 4 of "Shi Tian Ji" (with the Langzhong of Gao Zishan Mountain): "Pray for rain at the Changchun Palace. Zhonglang Zhai bathes in the star officials, and the wind, horse and cloud car get off the stone altar. The empty words are louder in the middle of the night, and the spirit rain should be wet and dry in spring. ". [68] Volume 1 and 2 of "West Lake Tour Records" records Yang Zai's "Poetry on the Evening View of Wushan and Wushan Mountains in Tongping Zhangyizi Mountain": "Shanjiaohui is constructed with four vertical widths, and the upper and lower flags can be seen. The rivers and lakes are vast, and the sky is vast. The world of Lian Xingdou is cold. The Dragon Palace will lock the letters and books forever, and the Phoenix Ridge will remnant the trees in the garden. At this moment, there are no clouds covering the sun, and it is time to look forward to Chang'an." [69] Volume 6 of "Yang Zhonghong Collection" "Sending the Ministry of Households Kangli Shangshu (巎)", "Sending Kangli Gong (巎)": "Economic talent has a heavy reputation, and it has long been a trade-off in Lanzhou Province. Tang Chuzai has the same three grades , the Han worshiped Sinon and Lie Jiuqing. Ritual and music are being promoted and beautified, and the awl knife has been strictly levied. "Repeatedly travel abroad with a bag of books, and the road is poor and alone with a sable fur. Suddenly, Lu Zhi knew Han Yu, and waited for Chang He to recommend Ma Zhou. The dust and loneliness in the north, and the bitterness of the south tour. Do you want to make brocade while wandering?" "Temples are already good for politics, and the first is pure sincerity to praise great ideas. The five latitudes connect the pearls around the North Pole, and the same track will meet Zhongzhou. Clothes and clothes go to the golden palace, and the bells and drums report to the jade tower. Lu Song Zong Zhou". "Sighing that the years are passing away, and the fame and fame will not be wasted. The high talents have encountered few encounters in the past, and now the public opinion has more responsibilities. The beams are charged with energy, and the salt and plum flavors must be reconciled. Who is Lu Guoxun and prosperous? When will the history be destroyed? grind"? [70]</p> <p>   There are also Wen Bo Xu Youren, Huang Jin, Hu Zhu and Gong Shitai. "Zhizheng Ji" Volume 9 "Xie 巎 巎 Zishan Bachelor Hui Tenghua": "There are sages who live in the city, and the founder of the country left this hut. The prime minister's meritorious deeds shine on the world, and I wish you the hall to be a district. Heirlooms do not need gold It is full of poems and books besides arboriculture. The spring flowers are not blooming and the autumn is full. Sit and watch the prosperity and withering of the world. The east wind blows overnight, and the old vines are full of green lingering. Now the purple calyx is suddenly rotten, and the baskets are picked and lost. Chef. I have pity on my lungs and my heart, I hate dust, and share the sweetness with the Chinese paper. I am not a tiger-headed carnivore, and the scallops are suitable for my skin. The eyes are bright and clear, and the offerings are scattered, and the old gluttons can say goodbye to fatness. Hold it thin and feel full. I laugh at the belly, but I am ashamed of Qiongju." [71] Volume 2 of "Collected Documents" "Title Pingzhang Kangli Gong (巎) Chunri Apricot Garden West Immediate Poem": "The sound of Qiangjin Jiayu is ancient, and the stone is rushing to the spring with great momentum. Yong, spring rain and apricot blossom wind in Xiaolou". [72] "Chunbaizhai Manuscript" Volume 10 "Send Xizishan Pingzhang to Hangzhou Province": "Gongqing's ancestors went to the east gate, and the flowers, willows, and philippines began to chat. He stopped serving the Jingyan and resigned from the Forbidden Office, and shared the township of Junxiu Xiongfan. Lakes and mountains are quiet and the residents are happy, and the rivers and seas are deep and the goods are rich. Pi Zhen Confucianism and style govern the way, and eliminate Xiao Ai, Chang Lansun." "The virtue is thick, the talent is great, and the simple is known. The ice and jade are clean and the yellow leaves are reflected. The words written in the forest are really shameless, and the industry is more glorious. The wild crossing tide is flat and the boat is full. Tired gangster drying machine". [73] Volume 4 of "Wan Zhai Ji" "Shoukuku (巎巎) Zishan Bachelor": "The upper forest is full of trees and green, and the other hall is newly awarded foreign incense. Dragons and tigers are governed by the sun, and the bullfighting river Han Lie Tianzhang. Ying. The gold list bestowed by the imperial edict of the Zhou Dynasty, the bachelor's name is Gao Baiyutang. Thousands of years of peace are here today, and Wenchang Gao reflects purple light." 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