[Abstract] Although Kangli was born in the Yuan Dynasty, this great calligrapher of the Yuan Dynasty, who was born in the Semu family, has received the attention of many modern scholars such as Chen Yuan. However, so far, there has been no calligraphy that can be called "detailed". ” related articles were published. To this end, based on the collected information, this article conducts a more in-depth investigation of his family background, official career, works, etc., so as to provide readers with relevant and informative fragments. It must also be pointed out that in the inheritance of calligraphy in the Yuan and Ming dynasties, Sisiju played a very important role. As a member of the Northwest tribe, his bold and bold character is enough to give new connotations and characteristics to calligraphy, which is one of the "traditional" arts in the Central Plains, making him a dazzling star in the relevant history of China. He was a member of the scholars of the Borji family, and he had "extensive" "friendships" with him. Among the people who interacted with him, there were not only poets Ma Zuchang and Yang Zai, but also literary writers Xu Youren, Huang Shu, Hu Zhu and Gong Shitai.


   "History of the Yuan Dynasty" Volume 143 "Biography of Xisi": "Xixi, named Zishan, Kangli family. His father did not neglect the wood, and his ancestor Yanzhen". [1] "Kangli", Volume 41 of Song Lian's "Song Wenxian Collection" "Kangli Huihui Shinto Monument": "Kangli is also the ancient high-car country. I, the Emperor Taizu, personally conquered and briefly determined the place. Therefore, people from his country often come and go. To emulate the merciful and mediocre, and to achieve glory." [2] His great-grandfather Hailan Bo was originally a noble of Kangli who was attached to the Kelie tribe. He was defeated by the "King Khan" Tuo Lian Le, and his son Yan Zhensui became a "concubine" under the Mongolian Tolei throne. Volume 7 of Zhao Mengfu's "Songxuezhai Collection" "Buhu Mu Shinto Stele": "Buhu Mu, the public taboo, came from his grandfather Hailan Bo, who was a lord of the Kangli tribe. Hailan Bo served the king Khan, and the king Khan was destroyed, and he was under the command of the commander. After he escaped, Emperor Taizu captured all of them and returned them. The tenth son, Yan Zhen, was more than ten years old and was given to the Queen Mother Zhuang Sheng (Zuluo Huotatini). He was respectful and prudent by nature, good at making bows, and served Emperor Shizu and would never leave. On the left and right. He is accompanied by a Goryeo beauty, whose name is Chang Ji and whose surname is Jin. She has five sons and the second one is a male." [3] From his grandfather Yan Zhen onwards, he was trusted by the Great Khan one after another, and became the "rich family" of Bor Jiji's dynasty. This has sometimes been exaggerated in the "family tree" written by him. Volume 4 of Yang Zai's Collection of Yang Zhonghong, "Inscribed on Kangli's Genealogy": "The country has a vast map, and the family history is detailed. The sound of galloping against the wild geese has led to the wolf wilderness. After fighting for more than a thousand miles, I have conquered all the enemies. When the war returns to the day, the halberds are shining brightly in the clear frost. The bamboos are broken to collect the cities, and the grasslands are divided to grant the territory. The brothers are all strong, and the fathers and ancestors are strong. The seals are still tied together, and the military talismans are changed and hidden. The yamen fire thousands of crossbows, and Nahu After passing the third bed. It has reached the time of writing Zong'er, so it is better to record Taichang. If future generations can succeed, it will have glory for thousands of years." [4]

   Xisi's father Buhu Mu served as an official in the Ancestor and Chengzong dynasties. This official, who started his career as a student of the Imperial College, eventually became famous for his Confucianism-based and supportive governance. "Songxuezhaiji" Volume 7 "Buhumu Shinto Stele" and Volume 10 "Praise to the Portrait of Buhumu in Kangli": "Between Zhongtong and Yuan Dynasties, the people were prosperous and happy. General Gai Shen During the fourth and third dynasties of Yao and Shun, there were those who served the king according to the Way, were not cunning, and helped the world at that time. Yongruogao, Kui, Ji, Qi, Yi, Fu, Zhou, and Zhao did this, and the Wen Zhengong of the Lu State acted like this. People too”. "Gong Weilu is a hero among ten thousand men. He studies diligently and practices hard, and chooses the mean. He met his ancestors long time ago and met each other with good intentions. He serves the king with the way, and he bows to the bandits. There is no word that he can't speak, and there is no advice that he does not obey. He does good deeds as if he has left them behind. Diseases are as severe as the wind. They must be punished by weeding and weeding, and millet and millet can be pruned. They must work hard and tirelessly day and night to achieve success." [5] Volume 8 of Hu Zhu's "Chunbaizhai Manuscript" "Shangsi, from Kangli Ziyuan to the Wenzhen Cemetery of Lu State": "The slaughtered wood is so dense that the horses and beasts are ennobled, and they are solemn and respectful as if they are serving the public. The Han court is full of virtuous people. The clothes of the State of Lu have been admired for centuries. I want to see the heroic spirits around the North Pole, and they will always think about the time and order of the east wind. I come to accompany you to pay homage and pay homage, and your virtues and virtues will never end." [6] Volume 4 of Su Tianjue's "The Story of Famous Ministers of the Yuan Dynasty" "Pingzhang Lu Guo Wenzhen Gong": "The duke himself served as the prime minister, and he served in the left and right dynasties. He was in the military state and was extremely integrated. Only Confucian students were subordinated. When the duke retired, he was not abolished. Book, self-titled Jingde. He who wins the king but does not rely on him, who wins people but is dissatisfied, who is in a high position and feels inferior if he is not enough. The world will regard his advancement and retreat, and he will be regarded as the most important person in the temple for ten years." "The public scriptures are carefully considered, clear and sincere, and the moving leaves are measured correctly, but they are not close to the name. As for the old meaning, it will not change for a long time. Rewarding and commending scholars must be recorded every inch. The performance of their industry should not be forgotten for generations to come. ". [7]

   Xisi's mother, Wang, was Buhumu's second wife. She was a lady from a famous family with "Yi virtue". Volume 7 of "Songxuezhai Collection" "Buhu Mu Shinto Stele": "The wives Kou and Wang were both wives of the Lu State. The concubine died before and gave birth to a son who returned home. Now he is the visiting envoy of Lian in Huaixi. The Wang family is the imperial censor Zhongcheng and Ji. The daughter of the Duke of Guowen, who has a long life, has given birth to a son, and now it is a system of collecting talents and waiting for them." [8] Volume 37 of "Wu Wenzhenggong Collection" by Wu Cheng "Wang's Epitaph": "Wang, the wife of the Lu State, was the son of a senior official and former censor Zhongcheng Wanggong. Zhang Jun's State Affairs, Xingyu Shi Zhongcheng, presented the wife of Chuncheng to assist the meritorious officials, Kaifu Yitong three divisions, Taifu, Shangzhuguo, Lu Guowenzhengong Kangli's taboo Mu, and recommended it to the high officials and Taichang Qing. She is also a stepmother. The king is upright and easy-going, and is a good person for the times. The wife comes from a well-known family, has a pure nature, is taught by her father and mother, is accustomed to knowledge, and is well-behaved, like an ancient lady. When she is old and has a hairpin, she carefully chooses her home. Huikang Li Gong After the death of his first wife, the discussant Xian said: "Aristocratic and important ministers are well-educated and well-educated, but it is better to have a wife than a father-in-law." So he returned with his wife. She is quiet and taciturn, moderately honest and thrifty, submissive and obedient, has no violation in official affairs, and is courteous to the clan. Marriage, benevolence to the concubine, and Yong Yongru in the boudoir. When the Duke of Kangli passed away, he lived in a room and was called the widow. He would not go outside the door unless he returned home. The man was called Yi (巎), and the woman was called Yitong. I love my ex-wife and my son all the same." "The day of his birth was to Xinyou in the sixth month of Yihai in the Yuan Dynasty; the day of his death was to the third month of Gengxu and Guiwei. After seven days, he was ugly and ugly. Taichang Qing went with me to travel to the country's son's teacher, and then he went to the country. A son is born. Please say, "It is appropriate to inscribe my mother's name. Yes". [9]

   Xisi's maternal grandfather was Wang Shou, who served as Zhongshu Zuocheng, Yushi Zhongcheng, and Jixian University Scholar. Volume 176 of "History of the Yuan Dynasty" "Biography of Wang Shou": "In the ninth year of Dade, he consulted with Zhongshu to save trouble. In the tenth year, he changed the official secretary. In the eleventh year, Wuzong came to the throne and first paid homage to Yushi Zhongcheng. Not long after, he also paid homage to Zuocheng. He returned to worship the censor Zhongcheng. In March of the second year of his junior year, he became ill and begged for his replacement. In the summer of the third year, he moved to the palace as a guest of the prince and a bachelor of Jixian University." [10] Volume 22 of Su Tianjue's "Zixi Manuscript" "Wu Yuangui's Behavior": "At the beginning of Wu Zong's succession, Qian Shu served as the Privy Council Deputy Privy Envoy, and Zhao Gong (Wu Yuangui) and Yushi Zhongcheng Wang Shou discussed political affairs in Zhongshu "If you cherish the people's strength, use talents, conduct strict elections, use finances sparingly, build tributes, teach farming, eliminate redundant personnel, and make grants easily, the imperial court will carry out all these things." [11] Wang Shou's sister, Xixi's "grandmother", was praised by contemporaries for her "honoring of festivals" like her mother. Ma Zuchang's "Shitian Collection" Volume 9 "Preface to Madam Wang's Chastity": "The aunt of Kangli Xiu, a doctor in the Ministry of War, who was not a member of the imperial family, was given to the daughter of Shanghujun, the Duke of Langya County, so the imperial censor Zhongcheng and Ji The daughter of Duke Guo Wen, she was the wife of Liu Tianrui, a doctor in Shaanxi province. She married Liu Tianrui when she was fourteen years old, and her husband died sixteen years later. In twenty-six years, there was a minister who worked in the Prime Minister's Mansion, and he gave her a notice. . Woohoo! That's so. Etiquette can be good and customary. In ancient times, when a woman's husband died, she was called a survivor, because she wanted to die. Now Mrs. Wang has begun to show off her official daughter and wife, so she works hard and respectfully, Modify the work appearance. When her husband is gone, the quilt will be sparsely clothed, and she will cry as if she will die for the rest of her life. Wow! A woman behaves like Mrs. Wang, how can there be anything bad in the custom?" [12]


   Xisi's official career, birth and death, "History of the Yuan Dynasty" Volume 143 "Shisi Biography": "Xisi studied Chinese studies at a young age, and is well-versed in books. He has been in Wei for a long time." "He was first awarded the title of Chengzhi Lang, collected talents and waited for the system, moved to the Ministry of War to be a doctor, and was transferred to the secretary to supervise the prime minister." "Changed to serve as Taichang Etiquette Academy, worshiped as Supervisory Censor, and was promoted to Hedong Lianfang Deputy Envoy. Before he was promoted, he was promoted to Secretary Eunuch and promoted to Attendant Etiquette Envoy. He was promoted to Zhongshu Yousi Langzhong, moved to Jixianzhi Bachelor, and transferred to the south of the Yangtze River. He went to Taiwan to administer books and serve as the censor, worshiped as the minister of the Ministry of Rites, and supervised the internal affairs department of Qunyu." "I moved to lead the affairs of the same bureau, minister, and supervise the group of jade internal affairs officials as before. I was looking for a concurrent official of Jingyan, and he was removed from Jiangnan Xingtai to govern the book and serve as censor, but I was not able to do it. I stayed as a bachelor of Kuizhangge Academy, and still concurrently served as economics official. Yan Guan was promoted to a Bachelor of Shi Shu, and he knew the affairs of the Confucian banquet. He was promoted to a bachelor of Kuizhangge Academy, and he knew the banquet of the Confucian classics. Except for Lian's visiting envoy in the west of Zhejiang Province, he returned to be a bachelor, and he knew the affairs of the Confucian banquet. Seek to pay homage to Hanlin Scholars carry out imperial edicts, know how to formulate imperial edicts and study national history, know classics and banquets, promote Xuanwen Pavilion, and serve as supervisors of literature." "Thereafter, I went to pay homage to Pingzhang, the governor of Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. Next year, he was summoned back as a Hanlin scholar. At that time, Zhongshu wrote to Pingzhang Que, and the ministers wanted to recommend him to express the emperor's wishes. The emperor said: Pingzhang has been There is a man who is halfway through his journey. Nearby officials know that the emperor's intention is to stay in the city, so he no longer recommends him. On the seventh day after arriving in Beijing, he felt fever and died of illness. He was actually fifty-one years old at Xin Mao in May of the fifth year of his reign." [13] He served as "Secretary Eunuch" and "Secretary Eunuch" in July of the seventh year of Yanyou and August of the second year of Taiding respectively. Volume 9 of "Secretary Supervisor Chronicles" (Title): "Secretary Supervisor Cheng: Xisi, in the seventh month of the seventh year of Yanyou, to serve as a training official [Mr. Zhong of the Ministry of War]." "Secretary eunuch: Xisi, courtesy name Zishan, from Kangli. In August of the second year of Taiding, he was appointed as the deputy envoy of Lian from Hedong." [14]

   The conferment of "Jiangnan Xingtai, Administering Books and Serving the Censor" should be in November of the first year of Yuan Tong. Volume 12 of "Jie Wen'an Collection" by Jie Xisi, "Dong Shouzhong Shinto Stele": "On the eleventh day of the first year of the Yuan Dynasty, on the 11th day of the Yuan Dynasty, Kuizhang Pavilion's Shala class summoned Xisi to the academy. It was passed down that the ministers of the imperial edict were ordered to write the story, and the Shinto stele of Dong Gong (Shouzhong), the official of Zhengfeng Dynasty and the official envoy of Suzheng and Honesty of Jiangnan and Hubei Province, was ordered to write the text of the imperial censor in Xinnantai. Seal his forehead." [15] The arrival of "Kui Zhang Pavilion's Bachelor of Letters" and the first visit of "Hanlin Bachelor's Order" were respectively in November of the first year of the Yuan Dynasty and before July of the second year of the Zhizheng Dynasty. Zhang Qiyan's "Ouyang Xuan Shinto Monument" in Volume 16 of "Guizhai Collection": "On November 30th of the winter when the Yuan Dynasty was changed to Yuan Dynasty, Sha Laban, a scholar of Kuizhangge University, wrote: Hanlin Zhixue scholar [Ouyang] Xuanzhi Hanlin, on For his hard work, he was given three grades as an examiner and a noble title. He wanted to write an inscription on it, so he was so kind. He served as a lecturer in Yuan Hanlin, a doctor of Tongfeng, a fellow student of national history in Zhizhigao, and Zhang Chenqiyan, a minister of Zhijing Banquet. The author is a scholar of the Kuizhangge Academy, a doctor of Zhongfeng, and a minister of Tongzhi Jingyan, Xisi Shudan. He is a bachelor of the Kuizhangge Academy, a doctor of Zhongfeng, and an official of the Jingyan. Jian Zhuan Foreword. Said: "Yes." [16] Volume 2 of Zhou Boqi's "Jian Guang Ji" "The Journey of Heavenly Horses Should Be Made": "On the 18th day of the seventh month of Renwu in the second year of Zhizheng, an envoy from the Kingdom of Buddha in the Western Regions sent a horse as a gift. On that day, the weather was bright and sunny. In the Qing Dynasty, the prime minister came in, went to the Ciren Hall, and admired the view. Then he ordered him to be raised in Tianxian and fed with meat, millet, and wine. He still ordered the Hanlin bachelor to follow the imperial decree and ordered the painter to draw it. Scholars and ministers praised it." [17]

   His commendable "political achievements" in office include opposition to the abolition of the "Kui Zhangge Academy" and suggestions for the resumption of the imperial examination, compilation of the Three Histories, traveling to the countryside to drink Chinese studies, and commending the wise men of the Tang and Song Dynasties. Volume 162 of "Memories of Famous Officials of the Past Dynasties": "During the reign of Emperor Shun, it was discussed that the Kuizhang Pavilion Academic Academy, Arts Supervisor and other officials established by the previous dynasty should be dismissed. Scholar Kangli Zishan (厎) reported: The people have a thousand pieces of gold. If you set up a private school to extend the number of guests, how can there be a majestic dynasty? There are so many countries in the world that one school cannot accommodate them? The emperor deeply understands this." [18] "History of the Yuan Dynasty" Volume 143 "Biography of Sisi": "Since the imperial examination was discontinued at that time, Sisi calmly said to the emperor: In ancient times, to recruit talents for the benefit of the world, there must be an imperial examination, why should it be abolished? The emperor adopted his theory , looking for restoration of the old system. One day, I read Sima Guang Zi Zhi Tong Jian, because he said: The country should compile the three histories of Liao, Jin, and Song at this time, and it is feared that it will lead to failure. The actual reason is that the compilation will be done later. He also asked people to go to the countryside to drink wine and learn about Chinese culture to make the people aware of their inferiority. He also asked Liu Fan of the Tang Dynasty and Shao Yong of the Song Dynasty to praise and give gifts to them to show their moral integrity. The emperor obeyed his invitation and issued an edict." [19] In addition, after the "Nanpo Incident", he also served as the "supervisory censor" and together with Ding Ha Bashi, Xu Youren and others wrote a letter to discuss "anti-Party" crimes such as Lie Tiemei. Volume 11 of Xu Youren's "Guitang Manuscript" "Hasbuse's Elegy": "Hasbuse (Hasbuse) took his father's surname Ding and his courtesy name Wenyuan, and he was from Khotan. He was promoted to the Yimao Jinshi rank with Yu. In Anzhou, he was transferred to Zuosi, except for the head of the Ministry of Rites. He was assigned to the Ministry of Officials, so he traveled a lot. He changed the writings of his secretary, paid homage to the supervisory censor, and became the same official as him. The changes in Nanpo, the Xiaozhan Party and Li Shi Jinyao, Wenyuan, Kara (Kangli) Zishan (厎) Yushi were all in the same league, and he was moved to the Ministry of Households to be a member of the Foreign Ministry." [20]

   When Emperor Shun was looking at the pictures, Xixi gave "ironic admonishments" that "were tailored to the circumstances." Volume 143 of "History of the Yuan Dynasty" "The Biography of Xisi": "After Emperor Shun came to the throne, he cut off the powerful and traitors, Sigeng governed the people. Xisi served at the Sutra banquet, and encouraged the emperor to study every day. The emperor often taught him, and wanted to favor him. The teacher's etiquette cannot be said without hesitation. All the governance contained in the Four Books and Six Classics are interpreted by the emperor, and the words must be expressive, move the emperor's heart, and convey the will. If Liu Zongyuan's "Zi Ren Zhuan" and Zhang Shangying's " "The Theory of Seven Ministers", You like to recite it. "The emperor wanted to look at ancient famous paintings in his spare time, so he immediately took Guo Zhongshu's "Bigan Picture" to study. Because the King of Shang did not listen to the advice of his loyal ministers, his country perished. One day, the emperor looked at the paintings of Song Huizong and praised them for their good works. Xi Jin said: Huizong is capable of many things, but there is only one thing he cannot do. The emperor asked: What is one thing? The answer is: I cannot be the king's ear, and my body is humiliated and the country is ruined, all caused by my inability to be the king. It is not the king's honor to be the king. . Or if there is a sudden change in the sky and a disaster among the people, you will be worried about it. When you are riding, you will tell the emperor: "Heaven's heart is kind to others, so he uses changes to show warning. For example, if a loving father loves his son, he will teach him and warn him, so that the son can respect him. If you are filial, your father's anger will be relieved. If you turn aside and practice, God's will will return. The emperor will observe his sincerity and humbly listen to it." [21] Volume 37 of Cheng Minzheng's "Huangdun Collection": "After the Book of the Book of Xianwen Jian Gong's History of the Song Dynasty": "The husband imitated the mother-in-law with the appearance of a concubine, a tyrant, and a tyrant. This chapter is presented so that it is sparse and sparse. It is also a violation of the words of the ancestors. Emperor Wenzong of the Yuan Dynasty wanted to see ancient famous paintings, and the scholar Zishan took Guo Zhongshu's "Bigan Picture" to advance. What happened was exactly like this. How could a wise man of Zishan's generation wish to do so? Is his king a Zhou? From this perspective, Zhang Xian did not dare to criticize his young master throughout his life, and he used rules and regulations to control his actions. It was a public plan, and he used Yin to quell his evil intentions." [twenty two]


   In terms of literature, since the collected works have been lost, only a few of Xisi's works have survived. What we have compiled so far is: eleven articles and six poems. Wen Han: "Coral Net" Volume 19 records "Postscript of Wulan Pavilion", Volume 20 records "Inscription on the Yong Zen Stone Pagoda of Huadu Temple", [23] "Shiqu Baoji" Volume 13 records "Inscription on King Xizhi of Jin Dynasty" Cao E's Monument", Volume 30 "Calligraphy Yan Zhenqing's Commentary on Zhang Xu's Brushwork", Volume 32 "Inscription on the Picture of Wang Hui Painted by Yan Lide", "Afterthoughts on Zhou Lang's Painting of Du Qiuniang", [24] "Inscriptions and Postscripts on Calligraphy and Painting" Volume 8 records "The Inscription of Liu Zi Hou's Relegation to the Dragon", [25] "Calligraphy Zhengzhuan" Volume 5 "Xue Yan" records "Nine Life Methods", [26] "Shuidong Diary" Volume 11 "Yu Wenjing Zhu The Yiren Tomb Tablet is recorded in "The inscription is written by Secretary Yu on the back of Ji's Tomb Tablet". [27] The Song and Yuan Dynasty Sketches is recorded in the book "With Zhang Yan Zhongshu"; [28] The poem contains: "Yuan Feng Ya" Volume 25 "Ti Diao" Taiwan>, "Send to the Prime Minister Nantai", [29] "Shiqu Baoji" Volume 14 recorded "Inscribed on Mrs. Guan's Road to Congyu Picture", [30] "Shigutang Calligraphy and Painting Collection Examination" Volume 20 recorded "Old Poetry Cloud: What's the point of losing my life? Things in the world are endless. If I don't count too much, people will laugh at me for being stupid; if I ask for too much, people will laugh at me. The flowers on the embankment are dense and sparse, and the stream willows have long and short branches. Everything wants to be in harmony but cannot be in harmony, and the secrets of heaven and government are in disarray. Only the first two sentences are not mentioned, because I feel that the person is still surly, so I omit it. [31] "Shuidong Diary" Volume 24 records "Da Jianshan Shilang moved to Shaoxing to be the general manager, and all the publics wrote poems on them, and they paid tribute." Qingfengling is the poem "Qingfeng Chapter",[32] "Autumn Night" is recorded in "The Great View of Chinese Calligraphy in the Past Dynasties". [33] More than half of the above poems and articles have been transcribed and preserved because they were "attached" to the "Calligraphy" collection.

   Xisi's calligraphy works, according to Volume 5 "Art Chapter" of Chen Yuan's "Research on Chinese Culture in the Western Regions of the Yuan Dynasty", were compiled from "Lu Gu Lu", "Huanyu Visiting Monuments", etc., and include: Qu Yuan's "Fisher Father's Ci", Huai Su's "Autobiography", Yan Zhenqing's "Book Theory", Liu Zongyuan's "Biography of Zi Ren", "The Theory of Banishing the Dragon", Huang Shu's "Yang Zai's Epitaph", Bishu Lu Chong's "Yang Jun Shiqing Monument", Jiexisi's "Zhu Wentai" Monument>, "Gong Monument", "Yi Gong Pagoda Inscription", "Murong's Tomb Monument", Wang Shixi's "Chao Gong Shinto Monument", Yu Ji's "Dadu City God's Temple Monument", "General Bian's New Temple Monument", Ouyang Xuan's "Stele" Qufu Xuansheng Temple Stele, Zhang Sizhong Stele, Wang Shide Stele, Bodhidharma Master Stele, Wang Jie Fu Stele Yin Qingfeng Chapter. [34] In addition, there is Huang Ming's "Lu Deyuan's Epitaph" in the second volume of "Wu Xiazhong Tomb Relics". [35] Also, Volume 8 of Chen Lu's "Anya Tang Collection" "Records of Wenshu Temple in Fuzhou" states: "In the southeast of Futang County, there is a temple called Wenshu." "In the Jiaxu period of the Yuan Dynasty, Zong Mao, a disciple of the master, was smart and able to control his wishes. He traveled to the capital several times. He was a dignified and dignified man. The great scholar of Kuizhang Pavilion, Kang Ligong (厎), was a famous official from a family. He was cautious and did not accept things rashly, and wrote The name was important in the world at that time, and it was called the Great Book Temple, and people felt proud of it." [36] Volume 12 of Tian Rucheng's "West Lake Tour Notes" and Volume 18 of "West Lake Tour Notes": "Haihui Temple was built by the King of Wuyue. It was formerly known as Shifo Zhiguoyuan. In the Xiangfu Room of Dazhong in the Song Dynasty, it was renamed Haihui Temple in Jishan and Jiatai Room. Destroyed. In the middle of the year, it was rebuilt, with Pingzhang Xijizishan Shu Shu Dahaihui Temple, Yushi Dafu Qingtong Shu Shu, and Guanyin Hall." "The person from Xijizi Mountain was born in Kangli. In the Yuan Dynasty, he was the Pingzhang of Zhejiang Province. His calligraphy is exquisite, and it is rare since Song Xueweng. There are many people in Hangzhou who have flat foreheads." [37]

   At that time, many people appreciated Xisi's "authentic work" with "extreme" passion, and thus wrote many words of praise. Volume 19 of "Chunbaizhai Manuscript" "Bluo Jinshi's Epitaph": "Yu Youluo Yicheng's predecessor, Jinshijun, was inscribed in the Imperial Academy as a lecturer to Mr. Ke, and there was a great book in Kangli Zishan, Pingzhang, Zhejiang Province. Jinshijun's Taoism His descendants are filial to friends, chaste and escaping, and his writing is practical and good at describing inventions; while Zi Shanggong's books are good at naming a lifetime, tracing bells and kings, dragons and snakes flying, and they are not written lightly by others. This is enough to be a Jinshi. The legacy of your immortality is passed on." [38] Volume 14 of Xu Yikui's "Shifeng Manuscript" "Inscribed after the three characters of Kangli Gong's letter to Xiandusheng": "{Kar} [Kangli] Wen Xiangong (巎) came to the world, and he was famous for his literature. He pays attention to the contemporary world, and his calligraphy and painting are especially exquisite. His pen is round, strong and clear, his mood is flying, and there is no secular atmosphere. If you look at the three characters written in this volume, you can see it." [39] Volume 23 of Lin Bi's "Lin Dengzhou Collection" "After the Volume of the Book of Snake Catchers in Kangli Zishan collected by Zhang Shikui": "Kangli Wen Gongzhen's cursive script is a masterpiece. This volume is also praised for its strong pen and good paper. It helps, so the spirit is galloping without any sluggishness, and it is the most wonderful among wonderful things." [40] Chen Ji's Yibaizhai Manuscript, Part 2, "Kala Chengzhi's Remaining Ink": "Therefore, the Hanlin scholar, Kala (Kangli) Gong (厎), inherited the imperial edict and left four ink inscriptions, and the next two are the ink written by Gong Xuan. The writings of the Wen Pavilion were written with the foundation, and the foundation was transferred to Gu Jun Zhongying. In the spring of this year, Zhong Ying came out to see the Yushan Caotang. When he lay down and played with it, he seemed to see the Duke and Wang Youjun and his son soaring in the Tianmen Nuo Pavilion. Above, the dragon, the dragon, and the crane are the ones who come after. The Nine Plains cannot be recreated, but I am lucky enough to travel from Zhongying, where they spread out. When you look at the past and present, do you sigh with emotion?" [41]

   After the Ming Dynasty, scholars cherished Xixi's "calligraphy treasures" even more. Ni Qian's "Ni Wenxi Collection" Volume 24 "Postscripts on Sizi Mountain": "When Kanglizi Mountain (Si) was in Shengguo, the official went to Hanlin to undertake the imperial edict and Zhejiang Province Pingzhang. The wind and spirit were distant, and the conduct was solemn and clean. When it comes to adversity, no Legalist scholar can get past it. He knows a lot of books, and his calligraphy is meticulous, and he is famous in the world. History has said that the existence of scraps of paper, people compete for treasures, is nothing more than gold and jade. This trace is from the Han Dynasty where he wrote it It is also written by Yan Shujian and Li Wende. Judging from the charm of his strokes and the strength of his movements, I believe it is a treasure. Yu Shao'an (collection) said that he was interested in being clear, prudent and wise, so it is true." [42] Especially when combined with the handwriting of other celebrities, the value of the calligraphy is even greater. Volume 74 of Li Dongyang's "Huailu Hall Collection" "Book of Huadu Temple Calligraphy": "When I was a child, I urgently heard that the Lord of Xian'an Mansion called: Huadu Temple Calligraphy, and it came out to the right of Jiucheng Palace, but I didn't see it. The number of crosses on your post has been obliterated, and I feel resentful every time. The old post from the present collection of Master Zhang Gongjian of England is a property of the consort Li Qi's family, with a brief description. The blank space on the paper is marked with a seal, just like the cover used by scribes. Sealers. The empress Zhao Zhao Songxue (Mengfu), Cao Manshuo (Xisi), and the princes of Xizishan all have inscriptions and recognitions. But those who are called "Zang Feng" by Xie Duan and "deep in spirit" by Wang Yi are the best." . [43] Volume 17 of Wang Zhi's "Yi'an Ji" "Preface to the calligraphy of former sages": "First of all, I will examine the best calligraphy of the Duke of Qiongzhou, and I will especially love the calligraphy of the former sages. In Yuan Dynasty, I got five pieces of Zhao Songxue's slips, Kang Lizi The two sheets of paper on the mountain were kept among the treasures, and those who met them would go out to play. Later, they were lost for many reasons. The only ones left today are one paper each for Songxue and Zishan. Yongle Bingshen, the late Duke returned to Beijing due to internal difficulties. , every time I talk about it, I always sigh that I can never get it back." [44]


   There is no doubt that Xisi's calligraphy has been highly praised by his contemporaries and future generations. Volume 7 of Tao Zongyi's "Shu Shi Hui Yao": "Xi Si, whose courtesy name is Zishan, whose names are Zhengzhai and Shusou, was born in Kangli. He was a scholar in the Hanlin Academy and inherited the imperial edict. He is elegant and elegant, knows the general outlines of the classics and states, is knowledgeable in classics and history, and is deliberate Calligraphy and calligraphy. The calligrapher Yu Yongxing (Shi Nan), the calligrapher Zhong Taifu (Yao), and Wang Youjun (Xizhi). The strokes are charming, round and vigorous, and they are famous for a while. Commentators say that the country is famous for its books since Zhao Wei Gong (Meng Fu) After that, he will be the Duke." [45] Volume 9 of Ni Zan's "Qing Zhen Pavilion Manuscript" "Inscribed on Xuan Bo Jiong's Script": "The calligraphy of this dynasty is as wonderful as the seal script, official script, running script and cursive script of Zhao Ronglu (Mengfu) and Yu Kuizhang (Collection), which are all as good as expected. ; Fan Qingjiang (梈) and Zhang Zhenju (Yu)'s regular calligraphy is fresh and powerful but unconventional; it is rarer than the grass of Fengchang (Shu) and Xixiangguo, with a holy round and lively appearance, charming Yuan Rong; Zhou Zuocheng (Boqi)'s seal script, How can the ancient elegance be inferior to that of the predecessors?" [46] Volume 18 of Fang Xiaoru's "Xunzhizhai Collection" "Inscribed on the Thousand-Character Essay in Cursive Script by Song Rungmen": "The person who can write in cursive script in modern times is Wuxing Zhao Gongzi Pang (Meng Fu). The person who is respected by the public is rarer than Gongboji (Shu). ). The person who later got the name is Kangli Gongzishan (厎). I have commented: Zhao Gong’s cursive writing is like a Cheng who does not know the generals. His orders are strict and he does not let his hair go outside the law, so there is nothing missing in his movements. He is as rare as fishing. Yang Jianhuan, full of majesty in posture and body, but less rhyme; Kangli Gong is like a luan chick emerging from the nest, with a cute look, but not yet mature. Although they both have the same name, Zhao Gong is the tallest. The author after Sangong, Zhongheng of the Song Dynasty in Jinhua wrote cursive scripts. Just like Tianji travels across the Central Plains, traveling thousands of miles in a day, crossing rivulets and crossing dangers, without moving his strength, even if he loses his trace and gallops forward, he will be able to reach Xianyu and Kangli. If Zhao Gong sees it, he will surely sigh. ". [47]

   In terms of calligraphy, Xisi has many students: Wang Yuqing, Jin Hala, Chen Da, Wang Gui, Zhan Xiyuan, etc. "Shu Shi Hui Yao" Volume 7, Volume Supplement: "Wang Yuqing, courtesy name Shushan, was born in Siming. He went to Xingtai, Jiangnan to supervise the censor. The cursive script is very similar to that of Zhengzhai." "[Jin] Hara, the word element, also can warm people. He was promoted to the rank of Jinshi, and was promoted to the envoy of the Central Political Yuan. He was good at writing, and his books were written by Zongzhi." [48] ​​Su Boheng's "Su Pingzhong Ji" Volume 13 "Chen Da's Tomb Table": "In the fifteenth year of the Duke (Chen Da), he was recruited into Suwei. At the age of twenty, he studied in Kangli, Pingzhang, and waited for Du Zhi. Gongben, studied poetry under Zhang Zhenju Tianyu and Professor Ma Bocheng. At thirty, the title of the book is about the same as that of Kang Ligong." [49] Volume 14 of "Shi Feng Manu" (titled after the three characters "Xiandu Sheng" in Kangli Gong's book): "The person who was born in Xiandu was Wang Guizhi, a native of Kuo. At first, he studied in the mountains of Xiandu, and later traveled to Qiandu to study. In the Tang Dynasty, Duke Xian of Huiwen (厷厎) came out as Pingzhang of Zhejiang Province, and he was admitted to his sect. He loved his alertness, so the calligraphers all wrote three characters as a gift to him. At that time, he got a piece of paper with the character "Gong". The treasure is no more than an arched jade, but I am determined to learn from it, and I am very good at it. Wei Neihan (Su) of Linchuan wrote afterwards: There is a single peak in Xiandu Mountain. When Zhu Wengong went to the east of Zhejiang, he made some remarks. , does not keep up with the times, because he lives in silence. The public title of Zhixue is born in the immortal capital, and it is not unintentional. I want to study Jingxing Xianzhe. This Zhixue Jingming practice is county literature, and it is effective in teaching people. There is nothing to be ashamed of.” [50] Volume 8 of Xie Jin's "Jie Wenyi Collection" "Send Liu Xiaozhang back to Luling Preface": "Zhan Jun Meng Ju (Xi Yuan), in the Yuan Dynasty, he was at the gate of Zishan Xigong, and he listened to the teachings in danger (Su) The two Dukes of Zhou (Boqi) were of the same family as the previous gentleman." [51]

   In the continuation of the art of calligraphy, Xixi's role as a link between the past and the future is particularly significant. Volume 15 of "Jie Wenyi Collection" "Details on the Origin of Calligraphy": "Kangli Xiping Zhangzishan got its majesty, Pucheng Yang Hanlin Zhonghong (Zai) got its elegance and health, Qingjiang Fan Wenbai Gong (梈) got its sprinkling. Zhongmu (Zhao Yi) made him pure and harmonious. Among his disciples, only Tongjiang Yu and Zizhong were famous for their books. At the beginning of Hongwu, the latecomers still saw it. When Zishan was in Nantai, Linchuan was too simple (plain) , Rao Jiezhi (Jie) was taught by him, and Taipu taught Song Zhongheng, Du Huanshuxun, Zhan Xiyuan and Meng Ju. Meng Ju's young relatives accepted Yezishan's gate, and Jie taught him Song Ke Zhongwen, and in Zhizheng At the beginning, Jiewen An Gong (Xisi) also got his name from Kaifa, and passed it on to his son Fa and his grandson Shu. In Hongwu, he served as an official in Zhongshushe, and his reputation was similar to that of Zhongheng and Shuxun." [52] Volume 18 of "Xunzhizhai Collection" "A self-composed poem in cursive script by Zhongheng of Song Dynasty": "The authors of particularly good calligraphy in modern times are called Zhao Wenmin Gong (Mengfu) of Wuxing and Kangli Zishan (厎). Literary sensitivity is in his work, Yiyi had the popularity of Jin people, but what he lacked was that he could not show his strength. Zishan was good at walking on grass with his arms hanging, and his gracefulness was pleasing to the eye. What was lacking was lack of composure. Zhongheng, the king of Jinhua and Song Dynasties, got the beauty of both men, and added it with grace and freedom, like a galloping horse in the sky. , does not tiptoe, but has a leisurely and beautiful spirit, with the potential to tread on ordinary horses, and is currently ranked as the number one." [53] Volume 21 of Yang Shiqi's "Dongli Collection" "Zhan Meng Ju Shu": "Zhan Sheren (Xiyuan Dynasty) is the first in the great books of the country, and his small characters are also exquisite. But there are not many in the world, and I have been in the secret house many times. I saw it. Zhan Chu got calligraphy from Jishizi Mountain, which is composed of the styles of Yu (Shi Nan), Ou (Yang Xun), Yan (Zhen Qing), and Liu (Gong Quan), and he is also a person who has the style of wearing a crown and wearing jade." . [54]

   In addition to pursuing "elegance", Xixi's calligraphy attainments[55] come from his hard work and humble attitude. Volume 4 of Yang Yu's "Shan Ju Xin Hua": "Xixi Pingzhang, courtesy name Zishan, also known as Zhengzhai Shusou, also known as Pengleisou, was born in Kangli. One day, I discussed calligraphy with Yu, and I talked about how many people can do it in one day. How many words can you write? Yu said: I heard Songxue Gong said: I write ten thousand words in one day. Xi said: I wrote thirty thousand words in one day, and never stopped writing. I admire him. Anyone who learns a skill can pass it on if he is not determined to work hard. Far"? [56] Volume 10 of "Shiqu Baoji": "Kangli came to Wang Xizhi's cursive script and said: I came to Shangdu last year, but I couldn't get a single ear of it." [57] Especially those who can be commended are those who promote the underachievers and are open-minded. Volume 90 of Lu Shen's "Collection of Yanshan" (Book Collection and Postscript): "Only Zishan, a scholar of Xixi, can be said to have the dignity of a minister to Zhou Boqi. In the past, Kuizhang Pavilion was renamed Xuanwen Pavilion. At that time, Zishan ordered Bo Qi to write dozens of seals every day to announce the pavilion list, but Bo Qi did not realize it. One day, there was an order to order Zishan to write the xuanwen pavilion list. Zishan said: "The true calligraphy of Chen Neng is not ancient. It is ancient." There is nothing better than seal script. It is better to use seal script in Xuanwen Pavilion of the imperial court. Boqi’s seal script is unrivaled in this world. As Emperor Shun said, he summoned Boqi to write the letter and wrote the purpose. From this, Boqi saw the use of it. The ancients noticed the slightest thing. , the results achieved through hardship are generally like this. Generally speaking, a gentleman has a far-reaching vision, a benevolent heart, and understands that the world is so big that it cannot be prepared by one person. Therefore, small kindnesses must be tolerated. Isn't it merciful to see this as a way of helping others? You know that the success of the utensil industry cannot be achieved without specialization. Therefore, a small skill will remain unchanged for a lifetime, and it will be passed down to the world after death. Is this not the case? Is it merciful? I am successful in learning calligraphy, and I occasionally feel it because I know it." [58]


   Volume 5 of Hu Xingjian's "Cai Yin Collection" "Preface to Fang Hu Poems": "The sea and the sky are mixed, the voices are unified, the aura of the light and the mountains blend into the majestic, and the talents are born. The northwest aristocrats are very beautiful, reciting poems and reading, Admire benevolence and righteousness. When you enter, you will make plans, and when you go out, you will deal with Wei Bu, and they will hone each other, and they will learn hard and become the light of the country. During the Yuan Dynasty and Dade, great scholars and great ministers looked at each other from front to back. Since then In modern times: the beauty of calligraphy is like that of Kangli's Zishan and Zhaer'er's Weizhong; the poetry and prose are majestic and elegant, such as Ma Gong Boyong, Tai Gong Jianshan, and Yu Gong Tingxin, all of which are outstanding and unique in their own way. The rest of the ministers and officials are known for their talents. It is famous in time and cannot be counted repeatedly." [59] Mr. Chen Yuan's "An Examination of Chinese Culture in the Western Regions of the Yuan Dynasty" Volume 5 "Art Chapter" also said: "The Yuan people ruled China for less than a hundred years, and the Semu people were obsessed with Chinese culture. They were in contact with Chinese characters every day, and they were influenced by the names of the books. There is no shortage of people." [60] As a Northwest tribesman with a bold nature, Xisi will develop new connotations and characteristics once he enters the "traditional" art of the Central Plains such as calligraphy, and thus becomes one of the brightest stars in the night sky related to the history of the Yuan and Ming dynasties. Wang Bomin's "General History of Chinese Art" Part 7, "Yuan Dynasty Art", Chapter 3, "Calligraphy and Seal Engraving": "His (厷厷) calligraphy is majestic and majestic, which is very different from the gentle and mellow calligraphy style. It embodies the wild and resolute spirit of the northern nation. character". [61] In addition to calligraphy, Xisi is also a good painter in the field of "art". "Peiwenzhai Calligraphy and Painting Book" Volume 98 "Huabu'an Family View": "The scroll of portraits of great masters painted in Shizi Mountain, followed by "Calligraphy of the Heart Sutra" and "Records of Three Niches and Images" by Chu Henan (Suiliang). Not very skilled. , but the mood is extraordinary and exquisite." [62]

   Dai Liang's "Preface to the Collected Poems of Ding Henian" in the first volume of "Ding Henian Collection": "When he became famous for his poems, he was Guan Gong Yunshi, Magong Boyong (zu Chang), Sa Gong Tianxi (Du La), Yu Gong Tingxin (Que) He is also a person. Commentators say that Ma Gong's poems are like [Li] Shang Yin, Guan Gong and Sa Gong's poems are like Changji (Li He), and Yu Gong's poems are on par with Yin Keng and He Xun. Along with him. He is like Gao Gong Yan Jing (Ke Gong), Gong Gong Zi Shan, Da Gong Jian Shan (Pu Hua), Ya Gong Qing (Hu), Nie Gong Gu Bai, O Gong Ke Zhuang, Lu Gong Zhidao, and Wang Gong Tinggui. , they are all fresh and handsome and become one family." [63] Unfortunately, too many of Xisi’s poems and articles have been lost, and it is impossible to get a full picture of them. Even if there are a large number of inscriptions and postscripts on "cultural relics" that have never been recorded,[64] they will be lost and cannot be appreciated. Zhu Yunming's "Huaixingtang Collection" Volume 25 "Postscript of Hua Guanglu's Collection of Ink from the Song Dynasty": "There are three people out of ten who have ink from the Song Dynasty, Yuan Shizishan, Ke Jingzhong (Jiusi), Su Changling (Dannian), and Ni Yuanzhen (Zan) The title and title are all attached, and it runs through eighteen pages. The details of Li Buzheng and Changqi of the country are at the end of the volume, which is now in the collection of Guanglu Hua Gong Rude." [65] Needless to say, calligraphy works, Volume 6 of "Dongshan Manuscript" by Zhao Wei, "Yu Ji Xing Zhi": "Gong (Yu Ji) then took charge of his affairs. When he was two years old, the book ("Jingshi Dadian") began to be completed, which was Eight hundred volumes have been prepared. On that day, I had a banquet in the Xing Temple, received the book, and was very happy to read it. I ordered the minister of the Ministry of Rites, Xi Gongzishan, to make a small square book for the convenience of inspection. If I am lucky, I will drive forward with two camels." . [66] Volume 12 of Wang Shizhen's "Chibei Occasion", "Remembering the Calligraphy and Paintings of Muzhong (Luo) of the Song Dynasty", "In the third year of Shunzhi, one of the hundred scrolls of paintings in the imperial collection was given to the cabinet ministers. Authentic works of famous people in the Song and Yuan Dynasties: Mi Fu , Li Zhiyi, Chen Shengzhi's various posts, Kangli Zishan's seventeen posts, and Anonymous's seventeen posts." [67]

   As a member of the Yuan Dynasty scholars, Xixi's friendships can be said to be "extensive"; this can be known from the people who "sing" with him. Among them are the poets Ma Zuchang and Yang Zai. Volume 4 of "Shitian Collection" "With the Langzhong Langzhong": "At that time, I prayed for rain in the Changchun Palace. The Zhonglangzhai worshiped the star officials, and the wind and horse clouds drove down the stone altar. Late at night, the empty words were louder, to wet the spring rain and dry it. ". [68] Volume 12 of "West Lake Tour Chronicles" records Yang Zai's "Poem of Night View of Wushan Mountain in Tongping Zhang": "The mountains and peppers are surrounded by four hanging edges, and the Prime Minister's banners are all around. The rivers and lakes are nearby and the sky is vast. Even the starry world is cold. The Dragon Palace is forever locked, and the letters are locked, and the Fengling Mountains are heavy and the trees in the garden are broken. At this time, there is no cloud to cover the sun, so it is appropriate to look up at Chang'an." [69] Volume 6 of "Collection of Yang Zhonghong" "Send to Minister Kangli of the Ministry of Households (厎)" and "Send to Kangli Gong (厎)": "Economic talents bear great reputation, and they have long been weighed by Lan Province. In the Tang Dynasty, except for the prime minister, he was of the same third rank. In the Han Dynasty, the Han Dynasty paid homage to Sinong and became the nine ministers. The rites and music were being promoted and beautified, and the awl-knife priority was taken seriously. Public affairs were gathered together, so that the people of Sri Lanka could hope for peace." "I have traveled across the country many times with books in my handbag, but I have been alone in Diaoqiu for a long time. I suddenly learned about Han Yu from Lu Zhi, and I waited until Chang He recommended Ma Zhou. I was lonely in the dust when traveling to the north, and I stayed there in the bitter months when I traveled to the south. I still have a low qualifications, but I can't. "Isn't it possible to make a brocade by wandering around"? "I have been traveling around the temple for the sake of government, and I sincerely praise Dayou. Five latitudes are connected around the North Pole, and thousands of directions are on the same track to meet in Zhongzhou. Clothes are solemn and solemn, and the bells and drums are late reporting to the Jade Tower. The talented people who govern the world are now gathering, and I hope that the drought will last forever. "Lu Songzong Zhou". "Sigh that the passing years are passing by, don't waste your achievements. Great talents have been encountered less in the past, and public opinions and responsibilities are more expected today. Liang Dongqi is full of energy, and the taste of salt and plum must be reconciled. Who is the Lu State with mediocre achievements? When will the history of Qing Dynasty be destroyed? grind"? [70]

   There are also literary scholars Xu Youren, Huang Shu, Hu Zhu and Gong Shitai. Volume 9 of "Zhizhengji" "Xie Xisizishan Scholar Hui Tenghua": "There is a virtuous man who lives in Daxiang City, and the founding prime minister left this house. The prime minister's deeds shine throughout the world, and I wish you the best in the area. No money is needed to inherit the family. It is full of poems and books besides arboriculture. Spring flowers have not yet bloomed but they have grown again in autumn. I sit and watch the world prosper and wither. The east wind stirs the fragrance overnight, and the old vines are full of green leaves. Nowadays, the purple calyx suddenly rots, and I pick it up in the basket. Cook. Take pity on my heart, which is disgusted with dust. I share the sweetness with the Chinese paper. I am not a tiger-headed carnivorous person, and the pieces of gizzard are enough to touch the skin. The eyes are clear and clear. I laugh in my belly and repay it, but I feel ashamed that I don’t have Qiongju.” [71] "Collection of Documents" Volume 2 "After the Poem Inscribed on Pingzhang Kangli Gong (厎) on a Spring Day in the Apricot Garden West": "The sound of clanging gold and jade sounds ancient, and the stone rushes to the spring with majestic momentum. The eyes are broken by the clouds and the carriage is on the road to the sky. Forever, the spring rain and apricot blossom wind in the small building." [72] Volume 10 of "Chunbaizhai Manuscript" "Send off Sizishan Pingzhang to Hangzhou": "The minister went to the east gate at the ancestral table, and the flowers and willows began to bloom. He stopped attending the Sutra banquet and resigned from the ban office, and held the Junzhu Town. A powerful vassal. The lakes and mountains are quiet and the residents are happy. The rivers and seas are deep in spring and the goods are abundant. Pi Zhenru promoted Confucianism, his wind and talent governed Taoism, and he eliminated Xiao Ai and gave birth to Lan Sun." "The virtuous man is known on the grand slip, and the ice is clear and jade reflects on the yellow leaf. The poems written in the forest are really without anger, and the industry is passed down to the family more brilliantly. The tide is flowing in the wild, and the sand is soft and the jingle is flying in the new embankment. The elders in the southeast are diligently looking at each other, please pray for me. "Fatigue drying machine". [73] Volume 4 of "Wan Zhai Ji" "Shou Kuku (厷巎) Zishan Bachelor": "The forest is full of green trees in spring, and foreign incense is newly issued in the other hall. Dragons and tigers control the wind and clouds according to the sun, and bullfighting rivers and Han are listed in the heavenly seal. Ying The imperial edict of Zhou granted him a gold medal, and the bachelor's name was high in the White Jade Hall. Thousands of years of peace are here now, and the cultural prosperity reflects the purple gleam." [74]