The Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties were another turbulent period in the history of our country after the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, but the achievements in calligraphy were extremely high, and many calligraphers emerged. Moreover, during this period, while calligraphy was valued by the society, it began to spread overseas. "Southern History. Qi Gaodi Zhuzi 1" said: "The calligrapher Xiao Ziyun came out as the prefect of Dongyang, and Baekje sent people to Jianye to ask for books. Looking at the boat for about thirty steps, I went to worship before I went. Ziyun asked him, and he replied: "The beauty of the servants' rulers and slips is far away overseas. What I want today is only in the famous traces." Ziyun stopped the boat for three days, and the book three With ten pieces of paper, you can get millions of gold goods." It can be seen how much calligraphy as an art was valued by people at this time. From people's comprehension of the beauty of calligraphy in the Warring States period, to Cai Yong and Shi Yiguan's calligraphy in the Han Dynasty, there were a lot of viewers and imitators, and then Xiao Ziyun's book name spread far and wide in the Southern Dynasty. This amazing change is indeed exciting. The art of spelling can indeed give people great spiritual comfort, making it one of the indispensable mainstream arts. The reason why their works have been handed down as classics for all ages is because their art expresses people's spiritual feelings. And this feeling becomes a sign of "beauty". Calligraphy art can become more and more day by day, because it can overflow "beauty", it can cross national borders and transcend nationalities, and the reason is also here.
The Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties are a long historical period of more than 300 years. There are many calligraphers, too numerous to enumerate, but Zhong Yao, the first master of modern regular script who left his handwriting, is the first to be recommended. He lived from 151 to 230, and his character is Chang. He was born in Yingchuan Changshe (now Changge, Henan). Emperor Ming of Wei became the Taifu when he was an official, and he is known as Zhong Taifu in the world. Zhong Yao has made comprehensive achievements in calligraphy, and he is proficient in all kinds of official script, regular script, running script and cursive script, but regular script is the best. According to records, he learned from Cao Xi, Cai Yong, Liu Desheng and others and made his own achievements. His regular script is natural and simple, and his writing is stable every time he seeks strange dangers. Although it is the current regular script, it has the meaning of ancient and clumsy in the Han Dynasty. It can be said that those who learn regular script in the later Ming Dynasty must learn the method from Zhong Yao's book, and Wang Xizhi is also very suitable. Zhong Yao's learning process was quite painstaking. It is said that he studied in Baodu Mountain for three years, and tried to ask Cai Yong to teach Wei Dan, and he did not vomit blood in his chest. Cao Cao rescued him with Wuling Pill have to live. After Wei Dan died, Zhong Yao stole his tomb and obtained Cai Yong's brushwork, so he studied hard day and night. Yu Jianwu's "Shu Pin" praised Zhong Yao as "nature is the first, and work is second". Emperor Liang Wu's "Book Review" stated: "Zhong Yao's book sends out clouds and cranes travel to the sky, and the crowd plays in the sea." They all praised one of the key points of Zhong Shu's simplicity and nature. Zhongshu can now be seen in works such as "Declaration Table", "Ji Ji Zhi Biao" and "Bing She Tie".
In addition to Zhong Yao, famous calligraphers in the Three Kingdoms period included Wei Dan from Wei State, Handan Chun, the Wei family, Hu Zhao, Huang Xiang from Yu Song, and Su Jian from Wu State. He Shao and others. Only the calligraphers of the Shu Kingdom have not yet seen the description. Outstanding calligraphers in the Western Jin Dynasty include Suo Jing, Cheng Gongsui, Du Yu, etc., and Suo Jing is the representative.
In the short hundred years of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, it was able to write a lot in the history of calligraphy. First, it was because of the wonderful scene of many family groups (mostly dignitaries in the court) monopolizing the calligraphy world at this time, and second, because of the Wang family. This led to the emergence of Wang Xizhi, the figure who set the standard for the development of Chinese calligraphy, that is, Wang Xizhi.
There are many families: Siyu, Liuxi, Sanxie, Bawang and so on.
Four Yu: Yu Liang, Yu Yi, Yu Yi, Yu Zhun. Liang is the elder brother of Yi and Yi; Zhun is the grandson of Liang. All three generations were good at calligraphy, and Yu Yi (character Zhizhi Gong, General Cheqi) was the most outstanding. When Yi was young, he was as famous as Xizhi. "Book of Jin. Biography of Wang Xizhi" said: "Xi's book was incomparable to Yu Yi and Xi Min at the beginning, and Fang Miao in his later years. He tried to answer Yu Liang with chapters and grass, but Yi was deeply impressed, because he and Xizhi's book said: "I used to have an uncle. The ten papers of Yingzhang’s grass were lost when they crossed the river, and then they were lost. They often lamented that the wonderful traces would never be lost. Xizhi. When Yi was in Jingzhou, his children all learned Wang Xizhi's style, and Yi was displeased. He once wrote a letter to Du: "The younger generation is a lowly family chicken, who loves wild animals. They all learn from Yi Shao (Xizhi's) books, and I have to return them. When scolded. "
Six Xi: Xi Jian, Xi Yin, Xi Tan. Xi Jian, Xi Hui. Min and Tan are the sons of Jian, Chao is the son of Min, and Jian and Hui are the sons of Tan. Xi Jian, the official to Taifu, is the father-in-law of Wang Xizhi. Among the six Xi, Xi Yin is the most famous, with two styles of Gongkai and Cao, which are juxtaposed with Yu Yi.
Three thanks: Xie Shang, Xie Yi, and Xie An. Shang is the eldest brother, Yi and An are younger brothers. Xie An's calligraphy is particularly outstanding. Xie An's name is Anshi, and his official name is Taifu. Anchu was not an official, but he lived in seclusion in Dongshan, Kuaiji, and often traveled with Xizhi. Xie An was good at chidots and looked down on Wang Xianzhi (Xi's son). Xianzhi had written a book with An, thinking that he would be cherished by An, but Xie An replied after he wrote the letter. However, Xie Anke is listed with Xi Min and Yu Yi, and it is really not as good as offering them.
Eight Kings: Wang Dao, Wang Shao, Wang Min, Wang Xizhi, Wang Xianzhi, Wang Xun, Wang Meng, and Wang Shu. Among the calligraphy families of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the Wang family is the most famous, not only the "two kings" (Wang Xizhi and Wang Xianzhi) known to everyone, but also Wang Dao and Wang Xun are quite outstanding. Wang Xun's "Boyuan Tie", together with Wang Xizhi's "Quick Snow and Sunny Tie" and Wang Xianzhi's "Mid-Autumn Tie", are collectively called "Three Xi". Emperor Gaozong of the Qing Dynasty once hid these three posts in the Yangyu Hall of the Palace Museum in Beijing today. He regarded them as rare treasures and named the hall "Three Rare".
There are three cases in the Wang family. One case belongs to Langya Linyi, after Wang Xiang. Wang Dao (Prime Minister of Emperor Yuan Dynasty) is the grandson of Wang Xiang. Wang Shao (General Cheqi) is the son of Wang Dao. The son of Wang Dao's third son, Wang Qia (Shao's brother), is Wang Min (after offering it as Zhongshuling, Xianzhi is called Daling in the world, Xianzhi, Xizhi's uncle Wang Zhen. And Wang Zhen is Wang Dao's grandson. Another One belongs to Taiyuan, after Wei Sikong Wang Chang, the great-grandson of Wang Chang is Wang Shu (Shang Shuling, granted the title of Marquis of Lantian). Wang Meng also belongs to this family, and he was granted the title of Doctor Jinzi Guanglu.
The "two kings" father and son are outstanding representatives of the Wang family and even the entire Eastern Jin Dynasty calligraphers.
Wang Xizhi (303-361), courtesy name Yishao, was born in Langyayi. He was born in a noble family, from official to general right, and internal historian of Kuaiji, known as Wang Youjun. He resigned because of a disagreement with Wang Shu and settled in Shanyin, Kuaiji (now Shaoxing, Zhejiang). Yu Zhuan, Li, Kai, Xing and cursive are all excellent. In his early years, he learned calligraphy from Mrs. Wei, and later traveled north of the Yangtze River. He saw the calligraphy of Li Si, Cao Xi and others. family law. Changing the simple style since the Han and Wei dynasties, a new calligraphy style of Yanmei Liubian was formed. Wang Shu has always been valued by the world. Although it has something to do with Tang Taizong's strong recommendation, but more importantly, calligraphy has reached a near-perfect state in the era of Wang Xizhi. Although the calligraphy style is mainly beautiful, it rejects the mundane spirit. When writing, it is gentle and tough, and the pen is unpredictable, which is very intriguing. Although the original works of Wang Xizhi no longer exist, a considerable number of shuanggou copies or engravings have been handed down since the Tang and Song Dynasties, and the beauty of Wang Xizhi's calligraphy can still be seen. Especially in the late spring of the ninth year of Yonghe (353), when Xizhi and 41 fellows met at Lanting in Shanyin, while drinking and composing poems, they wrote the preface of running script "Preface to Lanting" (existing in Tang Dynasty) with cocoon paper and mouse whiskers. Generation copy), especially the style of Wang Shu, the so-called running script is the best in the world, and it is a must-learn model for future generations of students.
Wang Xizhi studied calligraphy very hard. Zeng Gong's "Mochi Ji" said that "Xi Zhi admired Zhang Zhi, came to the pool to learn books, and the water in the pool was exhausted". . Indeed, Wang Xizhi's calligraphy reached its peak in his later years, and it took him a lifetime to earn it, which made him a master of calligraphy in history.
Wang Xianzhi (344~386), styled Zijing. Xizhi has seven sons in total, and five of them are good at calligraphy. He is dedicated as the seventh son, who has the best calligraphy and is called "two kings" together with his father. When Xianzhi was seven or eight years old, he had already learned calligraphy. Xi Zhimi knew that he could not write from behind Xianzhi, and sighed: "This child should have a great name."
Later, whenever he wanted to compete with his father, Xie An once asked him: "How is the emperor's book like the emperor's respect?" Then you will learn respect." However, from a historical perspective, Xianzhi is still difficult to rank above Xizhi.
The achievements of the "two kings" are comprehensive, but in terms of their influence on later generations, they are more about the writing of running and cursive script, or the essence of "two kings" calligraphy, especially in running and cursive. Liang Xian, a calligrapher in the Qing Dynasty, said when talking about the overall style of calligraphy in the post-Jin Dynasties: "Jin Shangyun, Tang Shangfa, Song Shangyi, Yuan and Ming Shangtai". ("Ping Shu Tie") The word "Shang Yun" just points out the characteristics and subtleties of the "Er Wang" calligraphy style that represents the achievements of the Jin people, and these characteristics and subtleties are expressed in the "Er Wang" cursive script is particularly typical. [Note: Jin Xuezhi, in his book "Chinese Calligraphy Aesthetics", supplemented the ages that have not been mentioned in Liang Xian's point of view, based on other related theories of the predecessors, namely, Shangxiang Shangxiang in the Qin and Han Dynasties, and Shangyun in the Jin Dynasty , Northern and Southern Dynasties Shangshen, Tang Dynasty Shangfa, Song Dynasty Shangyi, Yuan Ming Shangtai, Qing Dynasty Shangzhi. Views are also very insightful, not without reference. Shangxiang in the Shang and Zhou Dynasties refers to the shape of calligraphy characters in the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, which can take meaning from images and has primitive traces; Shangshi in the Qin and Han Dynasties mainly refers to the fact that the official script (including Zhangcao) in the Han Dynasty has taken off the pictographic shell and began to form a pure Line structure symbols, and special emphasis on the intentional exaggeration and combination of line structure and style when writing; the Jin Dynasty favored rhyme, which means that because the calligraphy style got rid of the affectation of official script (including Zhangcao), the pen also followed this advocacy. Natural flow, all in plainness to seek the truth. The overall calligraphy style of the remaining generations will be explained later in the narration of book history. ]
After the Jin Dynasty, the confrontation between the Northern and Southern Dynasties lasted for nearly two hundred years in our country. Calligraphy shows two different tendencies. The Southern Dynasties mainly inherited the calligraphy of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, while the Northern Dynasties inherited the Daxing stele inscriptions made in the Han Dynasty, which developed the famous Beibei calligraphy style.
In the four dynasties of Song, Qi, Liang, and Chen in the Southern Dynasties, there were many calligraphers, but the overall theory is not the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Calligraphers in the Song Dynasty mainly included Yang Xin (good at regular script), Kong Lin (good at cursive script), Xiao Sihua (good at running script), Fan Ye (good at seal script) and the poet Xie Lingyun.
Among the calligraphers of Qi Dynasty, Wang Sengqian, the fourth grandson of Wang Xizhi, is the most outstanding. He inherited the family law and also learned from Zhong Yao, especially in regular script and running script. According to legend, Emperor Gao of Qi was also good at books, and he tried to gamble with books with monks. Shubi Gaodi asked: "Who is the first?" He replied: "The minister is the first, and your majesty is also the first; the minister is the first, and your majesty is the first among the emperor." Gaodi laughed and said: "You can be said to be good at doing things yourself plan." In addition to Wang Sengyu, his son Wang Ci and his younger brother Wang Jian are also famous calligraphers in the history of calligraphy.
For calligraphy in the Liang Dynasty, Xiao Ziyun is the first to be promoted, that is, the calligrapher mentioned in this section who easily obtained millions of gold goods with thirty-nine papers. He is the grandson of Emperor Qi Gao, Shancao Li.
Seng Zhiyong, a calligrapher in the Chen Dynasty, may be the most outstanding member of the entire Southern Dynasty. He became a monk in Yongxin Temple in Wuxing, known as Yongchan Master, named Faji, and his common surname is Wang. He is the seventh grandson of Xizhi. Everyone in the early Tang Dynasty was motivated by his own law and had a huge influence. It is said that Zhiyong lived upstairs to study calligraphy, and he was willing to come down until he was successful. The real grass is excellent (true, that is, regular script), and he is considered to be the first person to obtain the right military law since the Jin Dynasty. So diligent in studying, there is a bald pen that can be buried in ten urns. The works handed down now mainly include "Thousand Characters" and so on.
I remember that in the Qin Dynasty, the stone carvings used for the emperor's Jigong promoted the development of calligraphy and produced a generation of calligraphers like Li Si. The Han Dynasty continued the tradition of stele inscriptions, and made the handwriting of many calligraphers spread. During the Wei and Jin dynasties, the state banned the erection of steles, which cut off the relationship between inscriptions and calligraphy, and the number of inscriptions dropped sharply. Only a few inscriptions such as the "Cuan Baozi" stele survived because they were located in remote areas of Yunnan. Therefore, the handwriting of most calligraphers (such as "Er Wang", etc.) during this period was mostly developed from writing as a way of preservation. At the same time, the mass use of paper also promoted this development (the prevalence of writing books). The chaos at the end of the Han Dynasty caused the loss of a large number of classics, and the rise of Buddhism also led to the emergence of many scripture students who copied and wrote scriptures as a profession. The writing on the stele needs to be carved, mainly in the structure and the emphasis on the pen, while the writing on the paper silk is written directly without any processing and conversion, so the pursuit of the beauty of calligraphy is not limited to the structure The emphasis on using pens and inks has also been raised. This is a great improvement in calligraphy.
The Northern Dynasty moved away from the rule of the Eastern Jin Dynasty in advance, so it would not have such a profound influence on the Eastern Jin Dynasty as the Southern Dynasty. The Northern Dynasties inherited the Han system, and there was a great trend of erecting steles, and many calligraphy changes were directly taken from the Han Li. Because it was mainly used for stele inscriptions, and because of the direct adoption of Han Li, the Northern Dynasty not only flourished in regular script, but also had a style far from that of "Wang Shu", which formed the distinctive features of the Northern Dynasties inscriptions, among which Wei steles were the most important. typical. The so-called "sacred gods in the Southern and Northern Dynasties" is mainly represented by Wei Bei.
There are many famous calligraphy products in the Northern Dynasties, but the names of the calligraphers are inauspicious. Due to historical reasons, many calligraphers will be missed in each generation, and they may even be great calligraphers. In the early Wei Dynasty of the Northern Dynasties, there were mainly Cui and Lu clans. The Cui family includes Cui Yue, Cui Qian, Cui Hong and Cui Hao. Cui Hong is the best writer, good at cursive official script and running script (running script). According to legend, Cui Hong was the official imperial edict at that time, and the four parties called for letters, so he did not contaminate Han. The Lu clan included Lu Chen, Lu Yan, Lu Miao, Lu Yuan, and others, among whom Lu Yuan was the most famous. At that time, most of the palace plaques in Beijing were inscribed by him. In addition to the Cui and Lu clans, there are Kou Qianzhi and others in the book "Zhongyue Songgao Luoling Temple Stele".
Later Wei had Zheng Daozhao, styled Xibo, from Kaifeng. The famous "Zheng Wengong Up and Down the Monument" came out.
There was Zhang Jingren in the Northern Qi Dynasty, who became an official because of his ability to write for a while. Zheng Shuzu left his name with the book "Jun Xiu Luo Stele".
In the Northern Zhou Dynasty, there were Zhao Wenyuan (Zeng Shu "Xiyue Huatong Stele") and Wang Bao, who was as famous as Xiao Ziyun in the Southern Dynasty and then entered the Northern Dynasty.
It is a pity that the authors of some famous works such as "Twenty Classes of the Dragon Gate", "Diao Juezun's Epitaph", "Zhang Menglong Stele" and "Zhang Hei Nu Epitaph" failed to leave their names. The special status of the Northern and Southern Dynasties in the history of calligraphy lies in the connection between the past and the future in the art of regular script. The regular script of the Wei and Jin Dynasties is not only full of official flavor, but also more of the small script. The inscriptions of the Southern and Northern Dynasties have carried out in-depth exploration and experimentation on both the Chinese script and the big script, making full preparations for the legislation of the regular script in the Tang Dynasty. Regular script got rid of the "pretentiousness" of official script and moved towards "naturalness", but regular script should also have its own rules and norms. The Southern and Northern Dynasties were just in the process of exploring the rules. Quality is second" (Wang Sengyu's "Bi Yi Zan"), which shows that when moving from official script to more "natural" regular script, the foothold of calligraphers is to focus on the spirit of the first word, that is, to emphasize that the word should be full of vitality. Dynamic. Therefore, comparing the calligraphy of the Six Dynasties with the later Tang Kai, it is obviously more "kai style". This state of calligraphy in the Southern and Northern Dynasties is the meaning of the so-called "Shangshen in the Northern and Southern Dynasties".